Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 421
C Committee, Panel, and Staff Biographical Information COMMITTEE ON DECADAL SURVEY ON BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES IN SPACE ELIZABETH R. CANTWELL, Co-Chair, is the director for mission development in the Engineering Directorate at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Until August 2010, she was the deputy associate laboratory director in the National Security Directorate of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Prior to joining ORNL, she was the deputy division leader for science and technology in the International Space and Response (ISR) Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As division leader for ISR, she was responsible for the execution of projects from small, principal investigator (PI)-driven basic science projects through the delivery of large satel - lites and instruments into the space environment or other field deployments. Until June 2005, she served as the section leader for the Micro and Nanotechnology Center at Lawrence Livermore’s Engineering Research Center for fabricating small sensors and devices. She began her career building life support systems for human spaceflight missions with NASA and later went on to serve as a program manager in the Life Sciences Division at NASA Headquarters. Dr. Cantwell earned her Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the University of California, Berke - ley. Her National Research Council (NRC) experience includes past membership on the Committee on NASA’s Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap, the Space Station Panel of the Review of NASA Strategic Roadmaps, the Committee on Technology for Human/Robotic Exploration and Development of Space, and the Committee on Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space. WENDY M. KOHRT, Co-Chair, is a professor of medicine in the Division of Geriatric Medicine at the Univer- sity of Colorado, Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, and an adjunct professor of integrative physiology at the University of Colorado, Boulder. Her research interests are aging, exercise, regional adiposity, energy metabolism, and the effects of changes in the endocrine system on human physiology. She has written articles on increasing bone mineral density through exercise and hormone therapy, the preservation of bone health through physical activity, lower-body adiposity and metabolic protection in postmenopausal women, and protection of bone mass by estrogens and raloxifene during exercise-induced weight loss. She is currently a consultant to NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC) for the Exercise Countermeasures Program Investigator Team working on optimization of the exercise prescription for the preservation of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health on the International Space Station (ISS). She is the PI of a clinical trial, COX Inhibition and Musculoskeletal Responses to Exercise, funded by the National Institute on Aging. Another focus of Dr. Kohrt’s research is bone health in aging and the extent to which lifestyle behaviors can protect against bone loss. She is a member of the American College of Sports 421
OCR for page 422
422 RECAPTURING A FUTURE FOR SPACE EXPLORATION Medicine (ACSM), the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, and the Endocrine Society, among other professional societies. Dr. Kohrt received her B.S. in physical education and mathematics from the Univer- sity of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, and her M.S. and Ph.D. in exercise science from Arizona State University; she completed postdoctoral research training in applied physiology and gerontology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. She has extensive advisory committee experience as both member and chair, including service on NASA program reviews and such high-profile committees as the U.S. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. LARS BERGLUND is a professor of medicine, the associate dean for research, and the director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Clinical and Translational Science Center (CTSC) at the University of California, Davis (UC Davis); he also serves as a physician at the Sacramento VA [Department of Veterans Affairs] Medical Center. He received his Ph.D. in 1977 and his M.D. in 1981, both from Uppsala University, Sweden. His internship and residency in internal medicine and clinical chemistry were completed at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden, where he served as a faculty member in the Department of Clinical Chemistry (1986-1993). Dr. Berglund was recruited to Columbia University as a Florence Irving Associate Professor of Medicine in 1993 and became professor of medicine in 2000. He served as the associate director for the Columbia University General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) from 1997. In 2002, he was recruited to UC Davis, and in 2004 he became the first program director of the UC Davis GCRC. Dr. Berglund became the first assistant dean of clinical research at UC Davis in 2004 and the associate dean of clinical and translational research in 2006. Also in 2006 he became the first director of the NIH-funded UC Davis CTSC. In 2009, Dr. Berglund assumed the position of associate dean for research in the UC Davis School of Medicine. As CTSC director, Dr. Berglund ensures that administrative, patient care, and research reporting procedures are carried out in conformity with NIH, UC Davis, and VA policies. In addition, he sets goals and standards for the CTSC, encourages investigators to utilize the CTSC, and fosters collaborations between clinical and basic science investigators. He serves on several Clinical and Translational Sci- ence Awards (CTSA) consortium committees and was a co-chair for the CTSA Consortium Oversight Committee (2006-2008). Dr. Berglund’s research focus is in the area of lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease, and his research is funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. He has published more than 190 peer- reviewed papers and is a member of the editorial board of seven journals, including Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, and Clinical and Translational Science. He serves on numerous advisory boards and is a member of the American Heart Association Peer Review Committee and of the Clinical Guidelines subcommittee of the Endocrine Society, and he serves as chair of the NIH AIDS, Clinical Research and Epidemiology Study Section. NICHOLAS P. BIGELOW is the Lee A. DuBridge Professor of Physics and Optics, the chair of the Department of Physics and Astronomy, and a senior scientist at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Roches - ter. Dr. Bigelow’s research interests are in the areas of quantum optics and quantum physics. His recent work has focused on the creation and study of ultracold quantum gases, the manipulation and control of atomic motion using light pressure forces, the laser cooling and trapping of atoms and molecules, Bose-Einstein condensation, and the basic quantum nature of the atom-photon interaction. Prior to joining the faculty at the University of Rochester, Dr. Bigelow was a member of the technical staff at AT&T Bell Laboratories. He then went to the Ecole Normale Superieure in Paris, France, where he worked in the Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel. In addition to receiving numer- ous awards, including a Young Investigator Award from the National Science Foundation (NSF) and a Packard Foundation Fellowship, Dr. Bigelow was the chair of the Fundamental Physics Discipline Working Group in the NASA Microgravity Physics Program. He received his B.S. in engineering physics and in electrical engineering from Lehigh University, and his M.S. and Ph.D. in physics from Cornell University. Dr. Bigelow has served on numerous advisory committees for organizations including the National Research Council, NASA, NSF, and the Department of Energy (DOE). LEONARD H. CAVENY is an aerospace consultant and former director of science and technology for the Bal - listic Missile Defense Organization. His previous experience also includes service as the deputy director of inno -
OCR for page 423
423 APPENDIX C vative science and technology for the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, staff specialist for the Office of the Deputy Undersecretary for Research and Advanced Technology for the Department of Defense (DOD), and program manager for energy conversion for the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). From 1969 to 1980, as a senior professional staff of Princeton University’s Aerospace and Mechanical Sciences Department, he guided graduate student research and served as principal investigator. Dr. Caveny’s expertise includes solid rocket propulsion, aerothermochemistry flight experiments, electric propulsion, space solar power, diagnostics of reacting flows, combustion, propellants, refractory materials, and aeroacoustics. He earned his B.S. and M.S. in mechanical engineering from the Georgia Institute of Technology and his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the University of Alabama. He is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). He served on the NRC’s Committee for the Review of NASA’s Pioneering Revolutionary Technology Program and as chair of the NRC Panel to Review Air Force Office of Scientific Research Proposals in Propulsion. VIJAY K. DHIR is a professor and the dean of the Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He was previously the chair of the UCLA Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. His research focuses on two-phase heat transfer, boiling and condensation, thermal and hydrodynamic stability, thermal hydraulics of nuclear reactors, microgravity heat transfer, and soil remediation. In addition to his work at UCLA, for the past 30 years Dr. Dhir has been a consultant for numerous organizations, including General Electric Corporation, Rockwell International, the Nuclear Regulatory Commis - sion, LANL, and the Brookhaven National Laboratory. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) for his work on boiling heat transfer and nuclear reactor thermal hydraulics and safety. Dr. Dhir is also a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and the American Nuclear Society, a recipient of ASME’s Heat Transfer Memorial Award, and the senior technical editor of ASME’s Journal of Heat Transfer. Since 1999, a team of researchers led by Dr. Dhir has been taking part in a NASA research program to examine the effects of boiling in space. He received his B.S. in mechanical engineering from Punjab University in India, his M.Tech. in mechanical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, and his Ph.D. in mechanical engi - neering from the University of Kentucky. JOEL E. DIMSDALE is a distinguished professor emeritus and research professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), School of Medicine. Dr. Dimsdale’s major research interests include sympathetic nervous system physiology as it relates to stress, blood pressure, and sleep; cultural factors in illness; and quality of life; his clinical subspecialty is consultation psychiatry. He is an active investigator, a former career awardee of the American Heart Association, and a past president of the Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research, the American Psychosomatic Society, and the Society of Behavioral Medicine. Dr. Dimsdale serves on numerous editorial boards and is editor-in-chief emeritus of Psychosomatic Medicine, a previous guest editor of Circulation, and former chair of the Sleep Research Society’s Committee on Research. He has been a consultant to the President’s Commission on Mental Health and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and is a long-time reviewer for NIH. Dr. Dimsdale is the former chair of the UCSD Academic Senate. He heads the Translational Research Scholars Program for UCSD’s Clinical and Translational Research Institute. Dr. Dimsdale received his B.A. in biology from Carleton College and his M.A. in sociology and M.D. from Stanford University. In 1980 he served on the advisory committee and was vice chair of the clinical panel for the IOM Conference on Bio-behavioral Approaches to Sudden Death. NIKOLAOS A. GATSONIS is a professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department and the director of the Aero - space Engineering Program at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI). From 1991 to 1993 he was a postdoctoral fellow at the Space Department of the Johns Hopkins University (JHU) Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). His research interests include simulation methods and modeling of macro- to nanoscale fluid and plasma transport processes and development of plasma diagnostics. Dr. Gatsonis’s research in spacecraft/environment interactions, spacecraft electric propulsion, and micropropulsion involved participation in several spaceflight and ground-based experiments. His research has been supported by AFOSR, JHU APL, NASA, and NSF and through industrial col - laborations. In addition to receiving numerous teaching awards, Dr. Gatsonis received the WPI Trustees Award for Outstanding Research and Creative Scholarship (2004) and the George I. Alden Chair in Engineering (2007-2010).
OCR for page 424
424 RECAPTURING A FUTURE FOR SPACE EXPLORATION He was an associate editor of the AIAA Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets (2003-2006), a member of the AIAA Electric Propulsion Technical Committee (1998-2003), and a member of the AIAA Space Science Technical Com - mittee (1992-1996). He received his undergraduate degree in physics from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece, an M.S. in atmospheric science from the University of Michigan, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). SIMON GILROY is a professor of botany in the Botany Department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Gilroy’s research utilizes a multidisciplinary approach to study the interaction of environmental sensing and development in plants. One area of focus in his work is on understanding the molecules involved in the signals that allow plants to monitor and adapt to their environment—specifically, how these signals are perceived and translated to the development and control of a plant’s growth. Dr. Gilroy and his team have investigated the cellular basis for gravity and mechano-signaling in the growing root and, in one approach, have mapped the sensory cells in the root using laser ablation and investigated the signaling events in these cells in response to gravity and touch stimulation. Another major project is focused on defining the signaling pathways responsible for plant hormone action. Among his recent publications in this field is Plant Tropisms (edited with P.H. Masson), a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge on the molecular and cell biological processes that govern plant tropisms. Dr. Gilroy received his Ph.D. in botany from the University of Edinburgh. He served as a board member of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology (ASGSB). BENJAMIN D. LEVINE is a professor of medicine and cardiology and holds a distinguished professorship in exercise science at the University of Texas Southwestern (UT Southwestern) Medical Center at Dallas. He is the director for the Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine (IEEM) at Texas Health Presbyterian Dallas where he also holds the S. Finley Ewing Jr. Chair for Wellness and the Harry S. Moss Heart Chair for Cardiovas - cular Research. Dr. Levine founded the IEEM in 1992; it has become one of the premier laboratories in the world for the study of human integrative physiology. His global research interests center on the adaptive capacity of the circulation in response to exercise training, deconditioning, aging, and environmental stimuli such as spaceflight and high altitude. He is a fellow of the American College of Cardiology and of the American College of Sports Medicine and is on the board of trustees/board of directors of the ACSM (for which he is currently vice presi - dent), the American Autonomic Society, and the International Hypoxia Symposium. A Henry Luce Foundation and Fulbright Scholar, he received the Peter van Handel Award from the United States Olympic Committee (for outstanding research), the Research Award from the Wilderness Medical Society, the Honor Award from the Texas Chapter of ACSM, and the Citation Award from the National ACSM. He was elected to the Association of Univer- sity Cardiologists, received the Michael J. Joyner International Teaching Award from the Danish Cardiovascular Research Academy, and has been selected as one of the “Best Doctors” for cardiovascular medicine in Dallas and America by his peers. Dr. Levine has an extensive background in space medicine, serving as a co-investigator on four Spacelab missions (Spacelab Life Sciences [SLS]-1, SLS-2, D-2, and Neurolab) and the MIR space station; he is currently the PI of a large, cardiovascular experiment on the ISS called the ICV, or Integrated Cardiovascular experiment. He has completed multiple bed-rest studies with a long, sustained track record of funding by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), for which he became team leader of the Cardiovascular Section in 2007. His many other leadership roles for NASA and NSBRI have included serving on the first Board of Scientific Counselors for NSBRI, directing the Cardiovascular Unit of the UT Southwestern NASA SCORT in integrative physiology, and advising NASA’s flight surgeons on cardiovascular medical issues. Dr. Levine earned his B.A. magna cum laude in human biology from Brown University and his M.D. from Harvard Medical School. He completed his internship and residency in internal medicine at Stanford University Medical Center, followed by a cardiology fellowship at UT Southwestern where he trained under the renowned gravitational physiologist C. Gunnar Blomqivst.
OCR for page 425
425 APPENDIX C RODOLFO R. LLINAS* is the Thomas and Suzanne Murphy Professor of Neuroscience and chair of the Depart - ment of Physiology and Neuroscience at New York University Medical Center. His research pertains mostly to neuroscience from the molecular to the cognitive level. Dr. Llinas focuses on the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of mammalian neurons in vitro. In particular, he studies the ionic channels that generate some of the sodium and calcium currents responsible for the electrophysiological properties of neurons and their distribution in different cell types. Dr. Llinas also looks at the role of calcium conductance in synaptic transmissions and at the concept of calcium microdomains; examines the cerebellar control of movement and thalamocortical connectiv - ity; and is mapping the human brain using noninvasive magnetoencephalography. He received his M.D. from the Universidad Javeriana in Bogotá, Colombia, and his Ph.D. in neuroscience from the Australian National University in Canberra. Dr. Llinas is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). He served on the NRC’s U.S. National Committee for the International Brain Research Organization and on the steering group for a Workshop on Bionics and Space Exploration. KATHRYN V. LOGAN is the director of the Center for Multifunctional Aerospace Materials and the Samuel P. Langley Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Her research interests are advanced synthesis and processing, design of materials, high- temperature solid-state diffusion, refractory material development, analytical materials characterization, and mechanical properties of materials. At the Center, Dr. Logan is responsible for high-performance, multifunction aerospace materials research and has overseen the development of a variety of new materials and structures. She is interested in creating unique materials that help in the human exploration of space. In addition to her materials work, she and her students are building a large radio-frequency induction press that will be capable of forming large-surface-area materials for space exploration programs. Once complete, this apparatus will be able to form unique components and structures not yet possible using standard techniques. Dr. Logan is a fellow and past president of the American Ceramic Society and the National Institute of Ceramic Engineers and is on the external advisory board for Clemson University’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering. She has served on the NRC’s Board on Army Science and Technology. PHILIPPA MARRACK† is an investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, a senior faculty member in the Integrated Department of Immunology at National Jewish Health, and a professor in the Department of Bio - chemistry and Molecular Biology and the Department of Immunology and Medicine at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver. Dr. Marrack’s research interests include the creation, specificity, survival, and activation of T cells; cellular and molecular immunology; microbial pathogenesis; mammalian development; cell biology; and pathogenicity. She did much of the pioneering research on T cells, including the discovery that T cells have receptors to distinguish between dangerous microbes and a molecule called MHC. Dr. Marrack’s current research focuses on how the body realizes that it has been injected with alum, a precipitate of aluminum salts. Her work is partially supported by funds from NIH and by fellowships from the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. Dr. Marrack earned her B.A. in biochemistry and her Ph.D. in biological sciences from Cambridge University. In addition her membership in the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine, she is a member of the Royal Society of the United Kingdom, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association of Immunology, and the British Society for Immunology. GABOR A. SOMORJAI is a professor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, and a faculty senior scientist in the Materials Sciences Division and a group leader of the Surface Science and Catalysis Program at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Dr. Somorjai’s research interests are in the field of surface science. His group is studying the structure, bonding, and reactivity at solid surfaces on the molecu - lar scale; this knowledge then contributes to the understanding of macroscopic surface phenomena, adsorption, heterogeneous catalysis, and biocompatibility on the molecular level. To this end, he also develops instruments * Rodolfo R. Llinas was a member of the committee through mid-December 2009. † Philippa Marrack was a member of the committee through mid-May 2010.
OCR for page 426
426 RECAPTURING A FUTURE FOR SPACE EXPLORATION for nanoscale characterization of surfaces, including sum frequency generation surface vibrational spectroscopy, high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy, and high-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Dr. Somorjai received his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. CHARLES M. TIPTON is professor emeritus of physiology at the University of Arizona. He retired after 35 years of directing an exercise physiology laboratory that employed animal models to investigate mechanisms associated with acute and chronic exercise; the laboratory was continuously supported by federal, state, and private funds, including support from NIH and NASA. During his career, Dr. Tipton held appointments or joint appointments with departments of physical education, physiology and biophysics, biomedical engineering, orthopaedic surgery, and surgery, as well as exercise and sport sciences. In addition, he was a visiting senior scientist at the NASA Ames Research Center. Dr. Tipton is a former president of the American College of Sports Medicine, editor of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, associate editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology, and Councilor of the American Physiological Society (APS); he received honor awards for research both from the American College of Sports Medicine and from the Environmental and Exercise Section of APS, and he received the Founders Award from the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology. Besides being chair of the NIH Applied Physiology and Bioengineering Study Section, he has served on numerous space-related panels, including the NASA Review Panel on Space Medicine and Countermeasures, the NASA-IDI Cardiopulmonary Physiology Review Panel, and AIBS panels for microgravity research, and on the NASA-Bion Biospecimen Peer Review Panel. Currently, he is a member of External Advisory Committee to the National Space Biomedical Research Institute. After receiving his B.S. in physical education from Springfield College and an M.S. in physical education from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, he taught science, biology, and physical education in select high schools in Illinois. Later, he returned to the University of Illinois and received his Ph.D. in physiology with minors in biochemistry and anatomy. JOSE L. TORERO is the Building Research Establishment (BRE)/Royal Academy of Engineering Professor of Fire Safety Engineering, the director of the BRE Centre for Fire Safety Engineering, and the head of the Institute for Infrastructure and Environment at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Prior to taking the helm at the Centre, Dr. Torero was an associate professor in the Department of Fire Protection Engineering and an affiliate associate professor in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland. He is a fellow of the U.K. Royal Academy of Engineering and Royal Society of Edinburgh. His research is primarily in the areas of fire dynamics, smoke detection and management, protection and suppression systems, fire-induced skin burns, and the behavior of structures in the event of a fire—in particular, fire behavior in complex environments like spacecraft. Dr. Torero is a member of numerous organizations, including the International Association for Fire Safety Science for which he serves as vice chair and the Fire Safety Committee of the International Council for Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat for which he serves as chair. He also served on the AIAA Microgravity and Space Processes Technical Committee, the ASME K-11 Fire and Combustion Committee, and NASA’s Mars or Bust and Fire Safety Committee. He is the editor-in-chief of Fire Safety Journal, associate editor of Combustion Science and Technol- ogy, and a member of the editorial boards of Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, Fire Technology, and Fire Science and Technology. His academic distinctions include the Society of Fire Protection Engineers’ Arthur B. Guise Medal for eminent contributions to fire science and the Tam Dalyell Medal for excellence in engaging the public with science. He received his B.Sc. from the Catholic University of Peru and his M.Sc. and Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley. ROBERT WEGENG is a chief engineer in the Energy and Efficiency Division at Battelle’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. During his more than two decades of employment with Battelle, Mr. Wegeng has contributed as an engineer and project manager to projects supported by the federal government—for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DOD, DOE, and NASA—and by commercial organizations in the energy, aerospace, and chemical process industries. He was vice chair of the 2nd and 4th International Conferences on Microreac - tion Technology, a conference held jointly by Battelle, the Institute of Microtechnology, the German Society
OCR for page 427
427 APPENDIX C for Chemical Apparatus, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, and the American Institute for Chemical Engineers. Mr. Wegeng has been involved in numerous projects dealing with alternative energy and with human exploration architecture, including in situ resource utilization (ISRU). He has written in the latter area, outlining microchemical and thermal systems for ISRU, and on a microchannel in situ propellant system as an enabling technology for Mars architecture concepts. Mr. Wegeng’s experience in solar thermochemical fuel production demonstrates a strong foundation in chemistry, which he applies to his technical papers on ISRU. In collaboration with researchers at NASA, he has developed a means to keep robotic systems warm enough to operate in harsh extraterrestrial environments. Mr. Wegeng is the co-recipient of two R&D 100 Awards and he has registered 88 patents (U.S. and foreign). GAYLE E. WOLOSCHAK is a professor of radiation oncology and of radiology and cell and molecular biology at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. Her research is focused on nanocomposites and molecu- lar consequences of radiation exposure. Dr. Woloschak’s work is oriented toward function use of nanocomposites for intracellular manipulation, imaging, and gene silencing. Her work on motor neuron disease is designed to lead to an understanding of the molecular basis for the combined abnormalities from a molecular-cellular perspective. She received her Ph.D. in medical sciences (microbiology) from the Medical College of Ohio. Dr. Woloschak served on the NRC Committee on Evaluation of Radiation Shielding for Space Exploration and the Committee to Assess Potential Health Effects from Exposures to PAVE PAWS Low-Level Phased-Array Radiofrequency Energy. She has served on review panels for NIH, NASA, DOE, DOD, and other organizations and has chaired several international workshops on biological and medical applications of microprobes. ANIMAL AND HUMAN BIOLOGY PANEL KENNETH M. BALDWIN, Chair, is a professor of physiology and biophysics at the University of California, Irvine, and School of Medicine. Dr. Baldwin’s laboratory research focuses on the impact of activity patterns or exercise regimens on the biochemical and physiologic properties of cardiac and skeletal muscle in mammals. His research has demonstrated that muscle systems are in a dynamic state of biological adaptation, referred to as plasticity. Various subcellular components and proteins can be changed both qualitatively and quantitatively in accordance with how the muscle system is continually stressed (or unstressed) by activities such as chronic locomotion, muscle loading, and muscle unloading such as during chronic bed rest. Of primary interest is how the effects of these various activities are translated into biochemical events that lead to alterations in protein expression in muscle. Because the role of myosin is that of both a structural and regulatory protein involved in muscle contraction, work in Dr. Baldwin’s laboratory focuses on factors that influence the expression of different isoforms of myosin in both cardiac and skeletal muscle. As a corollary to these experiments, Dr. Baldwin’s group, in conjunction with NASA, recently sent rats on several space shuttle missions to study the effects of weightless - ness on skeletal muscle. Dr. Baldwin was appointed chair of the NASA Life and Microgravity Sciences Advisory Committee in 1998 and was appointed to the NASA Advisory Council in 1999. His academic distinctions include the 1998 APS Edward Adolph Award, the 1998 ACSM Southwest Chapter Achievement Award, and the 1999 NASA Public Service Award. Recently, he received the ACSM prestigious Honor Award for his research in muscle plasticity. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Iowa. FRANÇOIS M. ABBOUD is the Edith King Pearson Chair in Cardiovascular Research, a professor of medicine and molecular physiology and biophysics, the director of the Cardiovascular Research Center, and the associate vice president for research at the University of Iowa. He was chair of the Department of Internal Medicine from 1976 through 2002. His NIH Program Project Grant on Integrative Neurobiology of Cardiovascular Regulation has been supported since 1971. His human studies have focused on the integrated control of sympathetic activity in physiological and pathological states (e.g., sleep apnea and hypertension). Dr. Abboud has received a number of awards, including the ASPET (American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics) Award for Experimental Therapeutics; the Wiggers Award, the Ludwig Award, and the Walter B. Cannon Award Lectureship of the American Physiological Society; the Research Achievement Award, the Gold Heart Award, and the Distin -
OCR for page 428
428 RECAPTURING A FUTURE FOR SPACE EXPLORATION guished Scientist Award of the American Heart Association; and the CIBA Award and Medal for Hypertension Research of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research. Most recently Dr. Abboud received the Kober Medal of the Association of American Physicians. He was the editor-in-chief of Circulation Research and co-editor of the Handbook of Physiology on Peripheral Circulation and Organ Blood Flow. He served on the Advisory Council of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and is on the Editorial Advisory Board of Clinical Autonomic Research and on the NRC’s Sleep Medicine and Research Committee. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. PETER R. CAVANAGH is a professor and the endowed chair in Women’s Sports Medicine and Lifetime Fitness at the University of Washington School of Medicine, where he is building a research and education program on the bone and joint health of active women. His other research interests include lower-extremity biomechanics, athletic footwear, bone loss during long-duration spaceflight, bone health in women on Earth, and the foot complications of diabetes. Dr. Cavanagh is the principal investigator of an experiment that was recently completed onboard the ISS. His latest book, Bone Loss During Spaceflight, was published in 2007. He has authored, co-authored, or edited more than 400 papers, abstracts, chapters, and books and has mentored more than 70 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows. He is a member of the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Diabetes Association, the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society, the American Society of Biomechanics, and the International Society of Biomechanics. His more recent honors include the 2007 Laurence R. Young Space Biomedical Research Award from NASA/NSBRI and the 2009 Edward James Olmos Award for Advocacy in Amputation Prevention. After completing undergraduate studies at Loughborough College at the University of Nottingham, United Kingdom, Dr. Cavanagh received his Ph.D. in anatomy and human biomechanics at the Royal Free Medical School at the University of London. He also received a D.Sc. degree from the Faculty of Medicine at the University of London. V. REGGIE EDGERTON is a professor of physiological science in the Department of Physiological Sciences at the University of California, Los Angeles. Previously he served as the director of the Brain Research Institute. His research interests include neural control of movement and neuromuscular plasticity. Dr. Edgerton’s laboratory focuses on two main research questions: how and to what extent the nervous system controls protein expression in skeletal muscle fibers, and how the neural networks in the lumbar spinal cord of mammals, including humans, control stepping, including the question of how this stepping pattern becomes modified by chronically imposing specific motor tasks on the limbs after complete spinal cord injury. He is also studying how to develop robotic devices that can help laboratory animals and humans with neuromuscular deficits to walk. Such a device is being developed for use by crew members in maintaining a critical level of control of locomotion in variable gravitational environments. Dr. Edgerton is a member of the American Physiological Society. He received his Ph.D. in exercise physiology from Michigan State University. DONNA MURASKO is the dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and a professor of biology and a professor of microbiology and immunology in the College of Medicine at Drexel University. She also served as vice provost and chair of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at Drexel. Although Dr. Murasko’s initial training was in tumor immunology, the focus of her research for more than 20 years has been the changes that occur in immune response with increasing age. Utilizing both mouse models and human samples, she has focused on the immune response to viruses. She is a member of numerous professional societies and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). She received her B.A. in bacteriology from the Douglass College of Rutgers and her Ph.D. in microbiology from the M.S. Hershey Medical Center at Pennsylvania State University. JOHN T. POTTS, JR., is the Jackson Distinguished Professor of Clinical Medicine at Harvard Medical School. He served as the director of research and physician-in-chief emeritus at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). He completed his internship and residency at MGH from 1957 to 1959 before moving on to NIH. Dr. Potts remained at NIH from 1959 to 1968, when he returned to MGH as the chief of endocrinology. He also served as the chair of the Department of Medicine and physician-in-chief. In his role as director of research, Dr. Potts was responsible for developing policies and strategies for preserving and strengthening the extensive scientific research effort at
OCR for page 429
429 APPENDIX C MGH. Dr. Potts is a director of ReceptorBase, Inc., and Zeltiq Aesthetics; a founder of Radius Health, Inc.; and a member of the scientific advisory boards of MPMP Capital and HealthCare Ventures, as well as the medical advi - sory board of Cell Genesys. Dr. Potts received his B.A. from LaSalle College and his M.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is the author or co-author of more than 500 scientific publications. Dr. Potts has served as a member of the NRC Committee on Non-heart-Beating Organ Transplantation II: The Scientific and Ethical Basis for Practice and Protocols, the Project on Medical and Ethical Issues in Maintaining the Viability of Organs for Transplantation (for which he was the principal investigator), and the Board on Health Sciences Policy. APRIL E. RONCA is a professor of obstetrics and gynecology and (jointly) neurobiology and anatomy and molecu- lar medicine/translational science at Wake Forest University School of Medicine. She is also the director of the Women’s Health Center of Excellence Research Program. Dr. Ronca previously spent 6 years as the director of the Developmental Neurobiology and Behavior Laboratory at the NASA Ames Research Center. The main focus of Dr. Ronca’s research is mammalian pregnancy, birth, and the transition from prenatal to postnatal life, with an emphasis on sensory development and neurodevelopmental disorders. She was an investigator on two NASA space shuttle experiments examining gravitational influences on pregnancy and prenatal development. Dr. Ronca has received numerous research awards from NIH and NASA and has published more than 60 papers and book chapters. She is the 2004 recipient of the NASA Exceptional Achievement Medal and the Thora Halstead Young Investigator’s Award from the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology (ASGSB). Dr. Ronca serves on the ASGSB board of directors, the editorial boards for ASGSB and Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology and is a member of the NIH Biobehavioral Regulation Learning and Ethology Study Section. She has served on numerous NASA advisory and review panels. Dr. Ronca received her B.S. in psychology and her Ph.D. in neuro - science from the Ohio State University as a presidential fellow. CHARLES M. TIPTON. See the committee listing above. CHARLES H. TURNER‡ was the Chancellor’s Professor of Biomedical Engineering and Orthopedic Surgery at Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis (IUPUI). Dr. Turner was also the director of orthopedic research in the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and the associate chair for biomedical engineering at IUPUI. Prior to join- ing the faculty at Indiana University in 1991, he spent 4 years with the Osteoporosis Research Center at Creighton University. The main focus of Dr. Turner’s research was treatments for the bone disease osteoporosis. His recent research focused on molecular genetics using transgenic and congenic mice to identify new ways to make bone stronger. He won numerous awards for his research in musculoskeletal biomechanics and bone biology, including grants from NIH, the Fuller Albright Award from the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, and the Outstanding Young Investigator Awards from the Whitaker Foundation and the Health Future Foundation. In 2002, Dr. Turner was a fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineers. He served as a consultant in biomechanics and orthopedic science for NIH, NSF, NASA, the Food and Drug Administration, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the Austrian Science Fund, the Israel Sci - ence Foundation, and the Wellcome Trust (England). He published more than 400 scientific papers and abstracts on topics in biomechanics, bone biology, and orthopedic science, and he has given more than 100 invited presen - tations on research topics in musculoskeletal biomechanics worldwide. Dr. Turner received a B.S. in mechanical engineering from Texas Tech University and his Ph.D. in biomedical engineering from Tulane University. JOHN B. WEST is a distinguished professor of medicine and physiology in the School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego. Dr. West’s research interests are in respiratory physiology, including environmental and exercise physiology. He has had a long association with NASA, spending a sabbatical year at the NASA Ames Research Center in 1967-1968 and subsequently being a principal investigator of a large project to measure pulmo - nary function in astronauts during spaceflight. A number of his experiments were carried out on SpaceLab in the ‡ Deceased July 2010.
OCR for page 430
430 RECAPTURING A FUTURE FOR SPACE EXPLORATION 1990s. Dr. West has long had an interest in high-altitude physiology and led the 1981 American Medical Research Expedition to Everest, during which the first measurements of human physiology were obtained on the summit. He is the author or editor of 22 books and more than 400 publications. Dr. West received his M.D. from Adelaide University, Australia, in 1958 and his Ph.D. from London University, United Kingdom, in 1960. Dr. West was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 2004. He has served on numerous NRC or IOM committees, including the Committee on Advanced Space Technology and the Committee on Space Biology and Medicine. He is currently a member of the NRC Committee on Aerospace Medicine and the Medicine of Extreme Environments. APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES PANEL PETER W. VOORHEES, Chair, is the Frank C. Engelhart Professor and chair of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Northwestern University. He was a member of the Metallurgy Division at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) until joining the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Northwestern University in 1988. He has published more than 160 papers in the area of the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformations. He has flown experiments investigating the dynamics of coarsening processes on the space shuttle and, more recently, on the ISS. Professor Voorhees’s research interests include the dynamics of coarsening processes, nanowire growth, solid-oxide fuel cells, and the three-dimensional morphology of interfaces in materials. He received both his B.S. and his Ph.D. in materials engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). Dr. Voorhees last served as the chair of the NRC Committee on Microgravity Research (2000-2003), and he was a member of the Space Studies Board (1998-2003). NIKOLAOS A. GATSONIS. See the committee listing above. RICHARD T. LAHEY, JR., is the Edward E. Hood Professor Emeritus of Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and a founding director of PJM, LLC, the largest supplier and market operator of wholesale electricity in the United States. He was formerly the director of the Center for Multiphase Research and the dean of engineer- ing at RPI. He also served as chair of the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Science and the faculty senate at RPI. Prior to joining Rensselaer’s faculty in 1975, he held several technical and managerial positions with the General Electric Company, including overall responsibility for all domestic and foreign research and development programs associated with boiling water nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulic and safety technology. His research has focused on multiphase flow and heat transfer technology. He has received numerous honors and awards, includ - ing the E.O. Lawrence Memorial Award of the Department of Energy, the ANS Seaborg Medal, the AIChE Kern Award, and the Glenn Murphy Award of the American Society of Engineering Education. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering for contributions to the field of multiphase flow and heat transfer and nuclear reactor safety technology. He received his B.S. in marine engineering from the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy, his M.S. in mechanical engineering from RPI, his M.E. in engineering mechanics from Columbia University, and his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Stanford University. Dr. Lahey served as a member of the NRC Com - mittee on Microgravity Research (1997-2000), the Electric Power/Energy Systems Engineering Peer Committee (1999-2002), and the Committee on Safety and Security of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage (2004-2005). RICHARD M. LUEPTOW is a professor of mechanical engineering, the senior associate dean of the McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, co-director of the Master of Product Development Program, and formerly Charles Deering McCormick Professor of Teaching Excellence at Northwestern University. Prior to joining the Northwestern faculty, he was a senior research engineer at the Haemonetics Corporation in Braintree, Massachusetts. Dr. Lueptow’s research interests and expertise range from fundamental flow physics, to water purification on manned spacecraft, to planetary acoustics. He has studied rotating filtration, dry granular flows and granular slurries, the fundamental physics of circular Couette flow, filtration systems, fire suppression sprays, and acoustic gas composition sensors. Dr. Lueptow has received numerous awards, including the NIH National Research Service Award (1978-1980), the American Society for Engineering Education Dow Outstanding Young Faculty Award (1993), the William M. Carey Award from the National Fire Protection Research Foundation (2002,
OCR for page 431
431 APPENDIX C 2003), and the Space Act Award from the NASA Inventions and Contributions Board for Rotating Reverse Osmosis (2004). Dr. Lueptow received his B.S. in engineering from Michigan Technological University and his Sc.D. in mechanical engineering from MIT. He has frequent visiting appointments at the University of Marseille and is a fellow of the American Physical Society. JOHN J. MOORE is a materials scientist who holds the position of Trustees’ Professor and head of the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM). Dr. Moore is also the direc - tor of the interdisciplinary graduate program in materials science and the director of the Advanced Coatings and Surface Engineering Laboratory/Advanced Combustion Synthesis and Engineering Laboratory (ACSEL) at CSM. ACSEL is a national and international leader in research on advanced coatings, surface engineering, and advanced materials synthesis and processing. Prior appointments held by Dr. Moore include those as head of the Depart - ment of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering at CSM; professor and head of the Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering at the University of Auckland, New Zealand; professor of metallurgical engineering at the University of Minnesota; and manager of industrial engineering and production control at Birmingham Aluminium Castings in the United Kingdom. Dr. Moore’s research interests fall into two main areas: advanced coatings and surface engineering and self-propagating high-temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS) of advanced materials. Both of these research areas are operated through ACSEL. The main objective of ACSEL is to perform fundamental research in advanced physical vapor deposition and chemical vapor deposition systems that will aid the thin films, coatings, and surface engineering industry, and the application of SHS in the development of new processes for net shaped metal matrix, ceramic matrix, and inetermetallic matrix composite materials. Dr. Moore has published more than 600 papers in international journals on materials processing and has been awarded 14 patents. He was awarded a B.Sc. in materials science and engineering from the University of Surrey, United Kingdom, and a Ph.D. and a D.Eng. in industrial metallurgy from the University of Birmingham, U.K. Dr. Moore is the chair of the Scientific Advisory Board of XsunX, a start-up photovoltaics company in Oregon; a member of the board of directors of Hazen Research, Inc., Golden, Colorado; and the chief scientific officer and company secretary of Advanced Materials Solutions, Inc., a high-tech materials company based in Golden, Colorado. ELAINE S. ORAN is the senior scientist for reactive flow physics at the Naval Research Laboratory; an adjunct professor in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; and a visiting professor at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom. Dr. Oran designs numerical methods for simulating com - plex fluid dynamic processes and then uses these methods to solve a wide variety of scientific and engineering problems. Her recent research interests include combustion and propulsion, rarefied gases and microfluidics, fluid turbulence, materials engineering, high-performance computing and parallel architectures, computational science and numerical analysis, biophysical fluid dynamics, wave equations, and astrophysical phenomena such as supernova explosions. Dr. Oran is a member of the National Academy of Engineering; a fellow of the AIAA, the American Physical Society, and the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics; and a member of the Combustion Institute, the American Society of Mechanical Engineering, and the Society of Women Engineers. Her numerous awards include the Presidential Rank Award of Distinguished Senior Professional, the degree of Docteur Honoris Causa from Ecole Centrale de Lyon, and the Zeldovich Gold Medal from the Combustion Institute. Dr. Oran received her B.A. in chemistry and physics from Bryn Mawr College and her M.Ph. in physics and Ph.D. in engineering and applied sciences from Yale University. She is currently a member of the NRC’s Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board and has served on many NAE committees, including the Aerospace Engineering Peer Committee, the Audit Committee (2005-2008), and the Bernard M. Gordon Prize Committee (2004-2006). AMY L. RECHENMACHER is an assistant professor in the Sonny Astani Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Southern California (USC). Prior to joining the faculty of USC, she was an assis - tant professor at the Johns Hopkins University, where she taught soil mechanics and digital imaging geotechnical engineering courses and methods. She also worked briefly as a soil specialist on an archaeological excavation of the ancient Mut Temple ruins in Egypt. Dr. Rechenmacher studies the mechanics of dense granular flows, in particular the behavior of local flows, and micro- and mesoscale and thermodynamic aspects of granular material
OCR for page 434
434 RECAPTURING A FUTURE FOR SPACE EXPLORATION ogy. Dr. Lineberger has served on numerous NRC committees, and he is currently an active member of the NRC Report Review Committee. RONALD WALSWORTH is a senior lecturer in the Department of Physics at Harvard University and a senior physicist at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. His research group pursues a wide range of experimental investigations, including the development of atomic clocks; precise tests of physical laws and symmetries; laser frequency combs as improved optical wavelength calibrators for astrophysical spectroscopy, with applications to exoplanet searches; sensitive magnetometry with nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond; and the develop- ment of new bioimaging tools, with a focus on pulmonary physiology and brain science. Dr. Walsworth has received numerous awards, including the Francis M. Pipkin Award on precision measurements from the American Physical Society (2005). He received his B.S. in physics from Duke University and his Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University. Dr. Walsworth currently serves on the NRC’s Committee on Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Sciences. HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND MENTAL HEALTH PANEL THOMAS J. BALKIN, Chair, is the chief of the Department of Behavioral Biology at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research where he has served since 1985. Dr. Balkin first worked as a research psychologist in the Human Psychopharmacology Branch of the Department of Behavioral Biology and has been in his current position since 1995. He is also a co-director of the Sleep Disorders Center at Howard County (Maryland) General Hospital. He is the author of numerous articles and studies on sleep issues, including those involving alertness, fatigue, and performance. He has been affiliated with several sleep disorders centers and sleep centers since 1981 and has served on boards and committees focused on issues of sleep and performance for organizations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NIH, and other government agencies. Dr. Balkin received his B.S. from Syracuse University; his M.S. in experimental psychology from the State University of New York, College at Cortland; and his Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Bowling Green State University. JOEL E. DIMSDALE. See the committee listing above. NICK KANAS is a professor of psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco. Dr. Kanas’s research interests include the psychological interactions of people under stress and ways that they can cope better with stressors in their environment. For more than 16 years, he has studied astronauts living and working in space. He has been the PI of two large NASA-funded international studies involving the Mir space station and the ISS, and he is currently the PI of a NASA-funded study aimed at examining the effects of increased crew anatomy in space. In 1999, Dr. Kanas received the Aerospace Medical Association Raymond F. Longacre Award for Outstanding Accomplishment in the Psychological and Psychiatric Aspects of Aerospace Medicine, and in 2008 he received the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Life Sciences Award. In 2003 he received the J. Elliott Royer Award for excellence in academic psychiatry. Dr. Kanas is the co-author of the book Space Psychology and Psy- chiatry, which was the recipient of the 2004 IAA Life Sciences Book Award. He served as a member of the NRC Committee on Space Biology and Medicine Panel on Human Behavior. GLORIA R. LEON, Professor Emerita of Psychology at the University of Minnesota, received her Ph.D. in mental health psychology from the University of Maryland. Her first academic appointment was in the Department of Psychology at Rutgers University, and in 1974 she was appointed assistant professor in the Department of Psychol - ogy at the University of Minnesota. At Minnesota, she was a member of both the clinical and personality doctoral programs, serving for 10 years as the director of the clinical psychology graduate program. She has conducted extensive research on the assessment of personality and behavioral functioning after traumatic situations including the Holocaust, Vietnam combat, disasters, and living in the Chernobyl area. She has studied polar expeditions with teams composed of single-gender, mixed-gender, and cross-national members and continues research in this area as an analog for space exploration. Dr. Leon was co-principal investigator on a NASA-funded program of research focused on developing more effective protective clothing for astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA) using
OCR for page 435
435 APPENDIX C principles of physiological design, and technologies for more accurately monitoring the thermal status of astro - nauts during extended EVA. She has been a member of a number of NASA committees and workshops focused on behavioral health and human performance in space, NASA peer-review panels, the International Astronautics Association psychosocial committee, and program committees for various space-related congresses. She was a member of the external advisory committee of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Neurobehavioral and Psychosocial team (2004-2007). Dr. Leon is currently a member of the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Medicine in Extreme Environments and of the NASA Human Research Program’s Behavioral Health and Perfor- mance Standing Review Panel. LAWRENCE A. PALINKAS is the Albert G. and Frances Lomas Feldman Professor of Social Policy and Health at the University of Southern California and an adjunct professor of medicine and family and preventive medicine at the University of California, San Diego. A medical anthropologist, his primary areas of expertise lie in preventive medicine, cross-cultural medicine, and health services research. He has conducted extensive research on human adaptation to isolated, confined, and extreme environments, most notably in Antarctica and the high Arctic. Among his scholarly achievements are receiving the Antarctic Service Medal awarded by the National Science Founda - tion and the U.S. Navy in 1989, serving as the deputy chief officer of the Life Sciences Standing Committee on Antarctic Research in 2002, and serving as the chair of the NSBRI External Advisory Council, 2003-2005. He is an elected fellow of the American Anthropological Association and of the Society for Applied Anthropology and the author of more than 250 publications. Dr. Palinkas received his B.A. from the University of Chicago and both his M.A. and Ph.D. from UCSD. He served as a member of the NRC Committee on Space Biology and Medicine, as chair of the Panel on Human Behavior, and as a member of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research and the Committee on NASA’s Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap. MRIGANKA SUR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.§ INTEGRATIVE AND TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH FOR THE HUMAN SYSTEMS PANEL JAMES A. PAWELCZYK, Chair, is an associate professor of physiology and kinesiology at Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Pawelczyk served as a payload specialist on STS-90 Neurolab. During the 16-day Spacelab flight, the seven-person crew aboard NASA space shuttle Columbia served as both experiment subjects and operators for 26 individual life sciences experiments focusing on the effects of microgravity on the brain and nervous system. Dr. Pawelczyk’s primary research interests include the neural control of circulation, particularly skeletal muscle blood flow, as it is affected by exercise or spaceflight. Dr. Pawelczyk is a member of the American Heart Association, the American Physiological Society, the American College of Sports Medicine, and the Society for Neuroscience. He has won numerous awards, including the Young Investigator Award from the Life Sciences Project Division of the NASA Office of Life and Microgravity Science Applications (1994) and the NASA Space Flight Medal (1998). He earned two B.A. degrees, in biology and psychology, from the University of Rochester in 1982, an M.S. in physiology from Pennsylvania State University in 1985, and a Ph.D. in biology (physiology) from the Univer- sity of North Texas in 1982. Dr. Pawelczyk has previously served as a member of the NRC’s Review of NASA Strategic Roadmaps: Space Station Panel (2005), Committee on NASA’s Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap (2004-2006), Committee to Review NASA’s Space Flight Standards (2006-2007), Planning Committee for the Issues in Space Science and Technology Workshop Series (2007-2008), and Committee on NASA’s Research on Human Health Risks (2007-2008). He currently serves as a member of the NRC Committee on Aerospace Medicine and Medicine of Extreme Environments (2006-2009) and as a member of the Space Studies Board (2006-2010). ALAN R. HARGENS is a professor in and the director of the Clinical Physiology Laboratory at the University of California, San Diego. He previously served as the chief of the Space Physiology Branch, a senior research physiologist and space station project scientist at the NASA Ames Research Center, and a consulting professor § Mriganka Sur was a member of the panel through mid-December 2009.
OCR for page 436
436 RECAPTURING A FUTURE FOR SPACE EXPLORATION of human biology at Stanford University. Dr. Hargens’s laboratory at UCSD focuses on orthopaedic and clinical physiology, with recent research concerning gravity effects on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems of humans and animals. Dr. Hargens also investigates countermeasures to challenge the cardiovascular and muscu - loskeletal systems and to provide artificial gravity for spaceflight and Moon/Mars habitation. This research also is translated to aid in the postsurgical treatment and rehabilitation of orthopaedic patients and to improve the performance of athletes. In addition to his research on gravitational stress, Dr. Hargens studies tissue fluid and osmotic pressures, including those in giraffes to understand how they prevent dependent edema, those in skeletal muscle to diagnose compartment syndromes, and those in intervertebral discs to help understand low-back pain. Dr. Hargens’s laboratory has performed numerous bed rest studies, ranging from 1 to 60 days in length, and has investigated spinal adaptations to microgravity in rats (Cosmos 1887), mice (STS-131 and STS-133), and astro - nauts (IML-2 and ISS). He served as chair of NASA’s Science Working Group for the Space Station Centrifuge Facility, as a member of the NASA Cardiopulmonary Discipline Working Group, as chair of the NASA Panel for Human Health from Earth to Space, as a member of NASA Committee on Development of Countermeasures for Long Duration Space Flight, as a member of the International Multidisciplinary Artificial Gravity Project Review, as a co-chair of the NASA Human Health Countermeasure Element Standing Review Panel, and as a member of the NASA Human Research Program Cardiovascular Risks Panel. Dr. Hargens is a fellow of the American Col - lege of Sports Medicine and a fellow of the Aerospace Medical Association. He is associate editor of the Journal of Gravitational Physiology. He is the recipient of an NIH Research Career Development Award, the Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award, the American Physiology Society Recognition Award, and two NASA honor awards. He is a past president of the International Society of Adaptive Medicine. He received his Ph.D. in marine biology from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at UCSD in 1971. ROBERT L. HELMREICH is a retired professor of psychology, having taught at the University of Texas, Austin, from 1966 to 2006. He was PI of the University of Texas Human Factors Research Project, which studied individual and team performance, human error, and the influence of culture on behavior in aviation and medicine. He was a member of the Space Life Sciences Committee for NASA’s University Space Research Association, and he is a fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society and the American Psychological Association. Dr. Helmreich received the Flight Safety Foundation Distinguished Service Award for his contributions to aviation safety through the study and development of team training techniques (Crew Resource Management) for flight crews. He was also awarded Laurels from Aviation Week and Space Technology for his research related to human factors in aviation. He received the Distinguished Service Award of the Flight Safety Foundation and the Human Factors Award of Airbus Industrie in 2004. Dr. Helmreich is the 2005 recipient of the Public Service Award of the American Asso - ciation of Anesthesia Nurses and of the University of Texas College of Liberal Arts Pro Bene Meritis Award, and he received the David S. Sheridan Award from Albany Medical College in 1997. He has written more than 200 papers, chapters, and scientific reports, and he is the author (with Ashleigh Merritt) of the 1998 book Culture at Work in Aviation and Medicine: National, Organizational, and Professional Influences . Dr. Helmreich received his B.S. and Ph.D. from Yale University in 1959 and 1966, respectively. He served on the NRC Panel on Human Behavior, the Panel on Workload Transition, the Committee on Space Biology and Medicine, the Committee on Human-Systems Integration, the Committee on Human Factors, and the Panel on Human Factors in Air Traffic Control Automation. JOANNE R. LUPTON is a Distinguished Professor, Regent’s Professor, and University Faculty Fellow at Texas A&M University, College Station, and holder of the William W. Allen Endowed Chair in Human Nutrition. Dr. Lupton’s research is on the effects of diet on colon physiology and colon cancer, with a particular focus on dietary fiber and n-3 fatty acids. She translates basic research on diet and colon physiology to science-based public policy and has consulted with individuals in Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, and elsewhere on the definition of dietary fiber and on establishing dietary guidance systems in those countries. She is the PI on a training grant to train Ph.D. students in space life sciences and is the former team leader for nutrition and physical fitness for the NSBRI. Her research is supported by grants from the NIH/National Cancer Institute, NASA, and NSBRI. Dr. Lupton chaired the Macronutrients Panel for Dietary Reference Intakes for the Food and Nutrition Board of the
OCR for page 437
437 APPENDIX C NRC, which determined the intake values for protein, carbohydrates, fats, fiber, and energy. She also chaired the NRC panel to determine the definition of dietary fiber. She was a member of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Commit - tee. Dr. Lupton spent 1 year at the Food and Drug Administration helping to develop levels of scientific evidence required for health claims. She is a past president of the American Society for Nutrition (ASN) and a member of the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Lupton has mentored more than 50 M.S. and Ph.D. students while at Texas A&M and received the Dannon/ASN mentoring award in 2004. In 2007 she received the Texas A&M Distinguished Achievement Award for Research. Her undergraduate degree is from Mount Holyoke College, and her Ph.D. in nutrition is from the University of California, Davis. CHARLES M. OMAN is a senior research engineer, senior lecturer, and director of the Man-Vehicle Laboratory in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Oman’s group studies the physiological and cognitive limitations of humans in aircraft and spacecraft and tries to develop new ways of improving human-vehicle effectiveness and safety. The laboratory takes an interdisciplinary approach, utilizing techniques from manual and supervisory control theory, estimation, signal processing, biomechanics, cog - nitive, computational and physiological neuroscience, sensory-motor physiology, human factors, and biostatistics. Dr. Oman flew experiments on visual and vestibular function in spatial orientation on nine space shuttle missions, including six Spacelab flights. Since 1997 he has led the Sensorimotor Adaptation Research Team of the NSBRI. Dr. Oman served on the NASA Advisory Council’s Biological and Physical Research Advisory Committee and the NRC Panel on Robotic Access and Human Planetary Landing Systems. He chaired the NASA Space Station Utilization Advisory Subcommittee (2004-2005). He is a member of the International Academy of Astronautics. Dr. Oman received his B.S.E. from Princeton University and his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. DAVID ROBERTSON is the Elton Yates Professor of Medicine, Pharmacology, and Neurology at Vanderbilt University. He directs the Clinical and Translational Research Center of the Vanderbilt CTSA and the Vanderbilt Center for Space Physiology and Medicine. He established the Vanderbilt Autonomic Dysfunction Center in 1978 as the first international facility for research, education, and patient care of autonomic nervous system diseases. Dr. Robertson was founding president of the American Autonomic Society in 1990 and was founding president of the Association for Patient Oriented Research in 1998. He directed the Vanderbilt Medical Scientist Training Program for 10 years and the Division of Movement Disorders in the Department of Neurology for 8 years. Dr. Robertson is PI for the NIH Autonomic Rare Diseases Clinical Research Consortium, which coordinates national clinical trials and natural history studies in multiple system atrophy and other autonomic diseases. He served as a PI on the NASA Neurolab Mission aboard the space shuttle Columbia in 1998. He is the editor of the Primer on the Autonomic Nervous System and Clinical and Translational Science: Introduction to Human Research, the first textbook of the new discipline of clinical and translational research. In 2003, he received the inaugural Distinguished Educator Award of the Association for Clinical Research Training. Dr. Robertson received his B.A. in 1969 and his M.D. in 1973 from Vanderbilt University and received postdoctoral medical training at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. SUZANNE M. SCHNEIDER is an associate professor in the Department of Health, Exercise and Sports Sciences at the University of New Mexico. Prior to joining the UNM faculty in 2002, Dr. Schneider was a research physi - ologist at NASA’s Johnson Space Center (1989-2001) and a project scientist at the Human Research Facility of the ISS (1994-2001). Her research focuses on thermal physiology and microgravity, including the thermal responses of females to microgravity. Dr. Schneider is on the editorial board of the American Journal of Physiology and Aviation and Space and Environmental Medicine, and she has presented at meetings of the Federation of American Scientists for Experimental Biology, the American College of Sports Medicine, and the Aerospace Medical Asso - ciation (ASMA). She received her B.A. in biology from the University of Missouri and her Ph.D. in physiology from St. Louis University. She completed her postdoctoral fellowship at the John B. Pierce Foundation, with an appointment with the Department of Epidemiology at Yale University. GAYLE E. WOLOSCHAK. See the committee listing above.
OCR for page 438
438 RECAPTURING A FUTURE FOR SPACE EXPLORATION PLANT AND MICROBIAL BIOLOGY PANEL TERRI L. LOMAX, Chair, is the vice chancellor for research and graduate studies and a professor of plant biol - ogy at North Carolina State University. She previously served as dean of the university’s graduate school, where she led the development and implementation of a strategic plan for graduate education. Prior to joining the faculty at North Carolina, Dr. Lomax served at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., first as the division director of the fundamental space biology program and later as the acting deputy associate administrator for research for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. She was also a professor of botany and plant pathology at Oregon State University, where she directed the program for the analysis of biotechnology issues. Dr. Lomax’s research is focused on plant development biology, specifically on how multiple hormones interact to regulate plant growth and responses to the environment. Dr. Lomax was a foundation board member and treasurer for the American Society for Plant Biologists (ASPB; 1997-2000) and a member of the executive committee of ASPB for 8 years. She served as a member of the board of governors of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology (1995-1998) and has been on the editorial advisory board of The Plant Journal since 1994. Her numerous awards include a Fulbright Fellowship, the Savery Award for Outstanding Young Faculty at the Oregon State University College of Agricultural Sciences, and the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts Fellow. Dr. Lomax received her B.S. in botany from the University of Washington, her M.S. in botany/biology from San Diego State University, and her Ph.D. in biological sciences from Stanford University. PAUL BLOUNT is an associate professor of physiology in the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Prior to joining the faculty at UT Southwestern, Dr. Blount was a fellow at Washington University in St. Louis, studying G-protein coupled receptors in the Neurosci - ence Department and at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, studying bacterial mechanosensitive channels in biophysics. At UT Southwestern, Dr. Blount performs research that is aimed at determining how organisms detect mechanical force. This ability is required for the senses of touch, hearing, and balance, as well as for the determina - tion of arterial pressures and osmotic gradients across cellular envelopes. Dr. Blount’s laboratory utilizes microbes and microbial sensors to explore the general functional principles of biological mechanosensors. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of this basic research, the interests of Dr. Blount and the members of his laboratory range from microbial homeostasis to understanding the molecular mechanisms of ion channel gating. He is a member of the American Society for Microbiology and a member of the Biophysical Society. Dr. Blount received his B.A. in microbiology from the University of California, San Diego, and his Ph.D. in biological sciences (neurosciences) from the Washington University School of Medicine. ROBERT J. FERL is a professor at and the director of the Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research at the University of Florida (UF). Dr. Ferl’s research agenda includes analysis of the fundamental biological processes involved in plant adaptations to environments, with an emphasis on the particular environments and opportunities presented by the space exploration life sciences. He is an expert in the area of plant gene responses and adaptations to environmental stresses and the signal transduction processes that control environmental responses. The funda - mental issues driving his research program include the recognition of environmental stress, the signal-transduction mechanisms that convert the recognition of stress into biochemical activity, and the gene activation that ultimately leads to response and adaptation to environmental stress. Most recently these studies have led to the examina - tion of protein interactions as fundamental mechanisms for metabolic regulation of plant biochemistry. Dr. Ferl has been funded continuously for more than 25 years, most recently with grants from NASA, NSF, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). He has frequently been asked to serve as a scientific adviser and reviewer for national agencies including NASA, NSF, and USDA. Recent articles that he has written have been chosen as cover articles for the journals Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology of the Cell. His application of basic science to the questions of advanced life support for NASA’s exploration initiative has captured great interest in his research. Dr. Ferl has recently served as the developer and director of the virtual center for Exploration Life Sciences, a joint academic research and education venture between UF/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), and the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In that role he has been responsible for research and academic program
OCR for page 439
439 APPENDIX C development at KSC, and he has facilitated the recruitment of faculty and research programs from UF/IFAS to be located at KSC. Many articles, news spots, and online stories have covered Dr. Ferl’s research on plant adapta - tions to spaceflight and extraterrestrial environments. He has been asked to serve on the Science Council of the Universities Space Research Association, and he was appointed by NASA as the only plant molecular biologist to be a member of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group, which will outline scientific research priorities for the return of humans to the Moon. SIMON GILROY. See the committee listing above. E. PETER GREENBERG is a professor of microbiology at the University of Washington School of Medicine. After completing a postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard University, Dr. Greenberg was on the faculty at Cornell University and then the University of Iowa College of Medicine before moving to the University of Washington in 2005. The research in Dr. Greenberg’s laboratory is focused on the emerging field of sociomicrobiology, and he is widely credited as a founder of the quorum sensing field. He has concentrated much of his effort on Pseudomo- nas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium that can cause both acute and persistent biofilm infection. Quorum sensing allows certain bacterial species to monitor their own population density and respond by activat - ing transcription of specific sets of genes. Dr. Greenberg is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, AAAS, and the American Academy of Microbiology. He holds a B.A. in biology from Western Washington University, an M.S. in microbiology from the University of Iowa, and a Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Massachusetts. Dr. Greenberg is a member of the editorial board of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. He was also a member of the NRC 2007 Selman A. Waksman Award in Microbiology Selection Committee. TRANSLATION TO SPACE EXPLORATION SYSTEMS PANEL JAMES P. BAGIAN, Chair, is the director of the Center for Health Engineering and Patient Safety and a professor in the Medical School and the College of Engineering at the University of Michigan. Previously, he served as the first director of the VA National Center for Patient Safety (NCPS) and the first chief patient safety officer for the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1999 to 2010. There he developed numerous patient safety-related tools and programs that have been adopted nationally and internationally. Dr. Bagian served as a NASA astronaut; he is a veteran of two space shuttle missions, which included his service as the lead mission specialist for the first dedi - cated Life Sciences Spacelab mission. Currently his primary interest and expertise involve the development and implementation of multidisciplinary programs and projects that involve the integration of engineering, medical/life sciences, and human factor disciplines. At present he is applying the majority of his attention to the application of systems engineering approaches to the analysis of medical adverse events and the development and implementation of suitable corrective actions that will enhance patient safety, primarily through preventive means. He received his B.S. in mechanical engineering from Drexel University and his M.D. from Jefferson Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University. Dr. Bagian is a member of both the National Academy of Engineering and the Institute of Medicine. He has served on numerous NRC committees, including the Task Group on Research on the Interna - tional Space Station (2001-2003), the Committee on Space Biology and Medicine (2000-2003), the Review of NASA Strategic Roadmaps: Space Station Panel (2005), the Committee on NASA’s Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap (2004-2006), and the Committee on Optimizing Graduate Medical Trainee (Resident) Hours and Work Schedules to Improve Patient Safety (2007-2009). FREDERICK R. BEST is an associate professor in the Nuclear Engineering Department at Texas A&M University, College Station, and the director of the Space Engineering Research Center and the Interphase Transport Phe - nomena Laboratory. Prior to joining Texas A&M in 1983, Dr. Best was a visiting professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a technical coordinator in the nuclear area of the MIT Electric Utility Research Pro - gram. His research is focused on zero gravity two-phase flow, reactor thermal hydraulics, and interphase transport phenomena. He earned his B.S. in mechanical engineering in 1968 from Manhattan College in New York City, and
OCR for page 440
440 RECAPTURING A FUTURE FOR SPACE EXPLORATION he received his M.S. in nuclear engineering in 1969 and his Ph.D. in nuclear engineering in 1980, both from MIT. Dr. Best has served on the NASA BIO-PLEX Review Panel (2000-2001); the NASA Peer Review Panel (chair, 2000-2001); the NASA Advanced Life Support, Science, and Technology Working Group (1999-2001); and the Air Force Science Advisory Board (1995-1996). He is currently serving on the NASA/JPL Technology Review Board for the New Millennium Program ST-8. DAVID C. BYERS, Independent consultant, Torrance, California.¶ LEONARD H. CAVENY. See the committee listing above. MICHAEL B. DUKE is a planetary geologist who recently retired as the director of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM). His principal research focuses on the general area of study that relates to the use of in situ resources to support human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. His planetary science interests relate to the mineralogy and petrology of meteorites and lunar materials. Dr. Duke worked at the NASA Johnson Space Center for 25 years prior to accepting the position at CSM in 1998. He has also been a research scientist at the U.S. Geological Survey (1963-1970) and the curator of NASA’s lunar sample collection (1970-1977). Dr. Duke received the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Award and the AIAA’s Space Science Medal, and he was a distinguished federal executive. Dr. Duke received his B.S. and Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology. He served on the NRC’s Committee on the Scientific Context for the Exploration of the Moon and the Panel on Solar System Exploration. JOHN P. KIZITO is an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University (A&T). Prior to joining the faculty of A&T, Dr. Kizito was a research assistant, research scientist, and adjunct assistant professor at Case Western Reserve University from 1988 to 2007 and a staff scientist at the National Center for Space Exploration Research at the NASA Glenn Research Center from 1999 to 2007. His research focuses on developing thermal management methods, high heat flux control, energy storage (phase-change materials), water management in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, innovative computational fluid dynam - ics techniques, gravity-driven transport phenomena, medical devices and instrumentation, microgravity research, in situ resource utilization, and lunar and Mars exploration equipment. He is a member of ASME, AIAA, and ASGSB. Dr. Kizito was awarded a 1988 Fulbright Award, a 1988 Rice-Cullimore Award, and five NASA Team Achievement Awards between the years of 2001 and 2003. He received his B.S. in mechanical engineering from Makere University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Case Western Reserve University. DAVID Y. KUSNIERKIEWICZ is the chief engineer of the Space Department of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, where he has worked since 1983. He has an extensive background in designing, inte - grating, and testing power system electronics for spacecraft. Mr. Kusnierkiewicz was the mission system engineer for the NASA New Horizons Pluto-Kuiper-Belt Mission, and he is the mission and spacecraft system engineer for the NASA Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) program, which launched in December 2001. He has served on numerous review boards for NASA missions, including Lunar Reconnais - sance Orbiter and Lunar Robotic Explorer, as well as for the missions Dawn, Juno, Radiation Belt Storm Probes, and ST-8 (part of the New Millennium Program). He has received three NASA Group Achievement Awards. Mr. Kusnierkiewicz received his B.S. and M.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He has also served on the Mitigation Panel of the NRC Committee to Review Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard Mitigation Strategies (2009-2010) and is a Corresponding Member of the International Academy of Astronautics. E. THOMAS MAHEFKEY, JR., is a consultant with Heat Transfer Technology Consultants, serving several firms in the areas of heat transfer and energy conversion. He retired from the Air Force Wright Laboratory in 1995 after 33 years as an engineer, scientist, and research manager. Before retiring, he was the deputy division chief for technol - ¶ David C. Byers was a member of the panel through mid-December 2009.
OCR for page 441
441 APPENDIX C ogy in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Aerospace Power Division. Dr. Mahefkey was instrumental in establishing the Thermal Energy/Heat Pipe and the Thermionics Laboratories in the Air Force Wright Laboratory. He is also an experienced educator, having held the rank of adjunct professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Dayton, Wright State University, the University of Kentucky, Ohio State University, and the Air Force Institute of Technology. Dr. Mahefkey’s areas of expertise include thermionics, energy conversion, and heat transfer, and he has published extensively in these areas. He received his B.S. in aerospace engineering from St. Louis University and his M.S. in physics and his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from the University of Dayton. He previously served as chair of the NRC Committee on Thermionic Research and Technology. DAVA J. NEWMAN is a professor of aeronautics and astronautics and engineering systems, the director of the Technology and Policy Program, MacVicar Faculty Fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology Program affiliate faculty. She leads the MIT-Portugal Program’s Bioengineering Systems effort. Dr. Newman’s research focuses on the mechanics and energetic requirements of human performance across the continuum of gravity—from microgravity to lunar and martian gravity levels to hypergravity—research combining aerospace bioengineering, human-in-the-loop dynamics and control modeling, biomechanics, human-robotic cooperation, and bioastronautics. She was PI for the space shuttle Dynamic Load Sensors (DLS) experiment that measured astronaut-induced disturbances of the microgravity environment on mis - sion STS-62. An advanced system, the Enhanced DLS experiment, flew onboard the Russian Mir space station (1996-1998). Dr. Newman was a co-investigator on the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment that flew on STS-42 to measure astronaut mental workload and fine motor control in microgravity. She is the author of more than 150 publications. She received her B.S. in aerospace engineering from the University of Notre Dame and an S.M. in aeronautics and astronautics, an S.M. in technology and policy, and her Ph.D. in aerospace biomedical engineering from MIT. Dr. Newman previously served as a member of the NRC Committee on Advanced Technol - ogy for Human Support in Space, the Committee on Engineering Challenges to the Long-Term Operation of the International Space Station, the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, the Steering Committee for Workshops on Issues of Technology Development for Human and Robotic Exploration and Development of Space, and the Committee on Full System Testing and Evaluation of Personal Protection Equipment Ensembles in Simulated Chemical and Biological Warfare Environments. RICHARD J. ROBY is the president and technical director of Combustion Science and Engineering, Inc. (CSE). In addition to his role at CSE, he is an adjunct professor in the Department of Fire Protection Engineering at the University of Maryland, College Park, and served as an assistant and associate professor in the Mechanical Engi - neering Department of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (1986-1992). Dr. Roby also serves as the chief executive officer/manager of LPP Combustion, LLC, a clean technology start-up company that specializes in clean combustion of conventional and renewable liquid fuels, and as chair of SafeAwake LLC, a fire safety company that produces secondary alert systems for those who are deaf or hard of hearing. He has more than 30 years of professional experience and has skills in chemical, mechanical, and fire protection engineering. Prior to joining CSE, Dr. Roby served as the director of combustion research at Hughes Associates, Inc. (1992-1998) and as a research assistant and research engineer at Stanford University (1983-1986), the Ford Motor Company Scientific Research Laboratories (1979-1983), and Cornell University (1977-1979). Dr. Roby serves as project manager for a variety of experimental and analytical combustion and fire science research and development proj - ects, which include modeling of blow-off and flashback in gas turbine combustors, determining the effects of fuel constituents on combustor performance, developing and incorporating reduced kinetics mechanisms in computa - tional fluid dynamics codes, creating innovative fire detection devices, and developing new fire models. He is a fellow of the Society of Fire Protection Engineers and a member of several other professional societies, including the Combustion Institute, the Society of Automotive Engineers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and the International Association for Fire Safety Science. He won the Outstanding Faculty Award from the Society of Automotive Engineers (1999), the National Fire Protection Research Foundation’s Harry Bigglestone Award for Excellence in Communication of Fire Protection Concepts (1999, 2005, 2006, and 2007), and the William M. Carey Award at the 5th Fire and Detection Research
OCR for page 442
442 RECAPTURING A FUTURE FOR SPACE EXPLORATION Application Symposium (2001). Dr. Roby holds more than 10 patents related to fire safety and combustion system design. He received his A.B. in chemistry and B.S. in chemical engineering in 1977 from Cornell University, his M.S. in mechanical engineering in 1980 from Cornell University, and his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Stanford University in 1988. GUILLERMO TROTTI is currently the president of Trotti and Associates, Inc. (TAI), a firm that he founded in 1993 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He is an internationally recognized architect and industrial designer with more than 30 years of experience designing space habitats and structures, architectural projects for the hospital - ity, entertainment, and education sectors. Previously, he was the president of Bell and Trotti, Inc. (BTI), a design and fabrication studio that specialized in high-technology architecture, exhibit design, industrial design, and space architecture. From its inception, BTI had a key role in designing diverse elements of the ISS for NASA and lead - ing aerospace companies. TAI has worked with NASA’s Institute of Advanced Concepts on revolutionary mission architecture concepts for exploring the Moon with habitable rovers. The Extreme Expeditionary Architecture: Mobile, Adaptable Systems for Space and Earth Exploration project proposes a revolutionary way for humans and machines to explore the Moon. TAI is also working with MIT on the Biosuit project, an advanced mechanical counterpressure spacesuit for lunar and Mars surface exploration. Mr. Trotti also has more than 25 years’ experience teaching design in architecture and industrial design at the University of Houston and at the Rhode Island School of Design, respectively. He received his M.A. in architecture from Rice University in 1976. Mr. Trotti served on the NRC Committee to Review NASA’s Exploration Technology Development Programs. ALAN WILHITE is the Langley Distinguished Professor in the School of Aerospace Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology, and he also serves as the co-director of the Georgia Institute of Technology Center for Aerospace Systems Engineering. He currently resides at the National Institute of Aerospace teaching graduate classes and conducting research at the NASA Langley Research Center. He teaches and supervises research in systems engineering and aerospace systems design. He has numerous published articles and several book chapters in these areas. Dr. Wilhite has served as a researcher, systems program manager, and senior executive involved in the design and development of NASA space and aeronautic systems. He is an AIAA associate fellow and has served on several AIAA technical committees, such as space systems, space transportation, and computer-aided design. He is a member of the International Astronautical Federation and a member of its Systems Engineering Committee. He conducts research in system-of-systems architecture design, robust design, aerodynamics, propul - sion, MDO, operations, cost, systems engineering, and risk. He has served as NASA’s external chair for systems engineering, and he conducts research supporting NASA’s vision in space exploration. Dr. Wilhite received his B.S. in aerospace engineering from North Carolina State University, his M.S. in flight systems from George Washington University, and his Ph.D. in aerospace engineering from North Carolina State University. STAFF SANDRA J. GRAHAM, Study Director, has been a senior program officer at the National Research Council’s Space Studies Board (SSB) since 1994. During that time Dr. Graham has directed a large number of major studies, many of them focused on space research in biological and physical sciences and technology. More recent studies include an assessment of servicing options for the Hubble Space Telescope, a study of the societal impacts of severe space weather, and a review of NASA’s Space Communications Program while on loan to the NRC’s Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board (ASEB). Prior to joining the SSB, Dr. Graham held the position of senior scientist at the Bionetics Corporation, where she provided technical and science management support for NASA’s Microgravity Science and Applications Division. She received her Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from Duke University, where her research focused primarily on topics in bioinorganic chemistry, such as rate modeling and reaction chemistry of biological metal complexes and their analogs. ALAN C. ANGLEMAN has been a senior program officer for the ASEB since 1993, directing studies on a wide variety of aerospace issues. Previously, Mr. Angleman worked for consulting firms in the Washington, D.C., area,
OCR for page 443
443 APPENDIX C providing engineering support services to the Department of Defense and NASA Headquarters. His professional career began with the U.S. Navy, where he served for 9 years as a nuclear-trained submarine officer. He has a B.S. in engineering physics from the U.S. Naval Academy and an M.S. in applied physics from the Johns Hopkins University. IAN W. PRYKE retired from the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2003. He is currently a senior program officer (part time) with the SSB and a senior fellow and assistant professor at the Center for Aerospace Policy Research in the School of Public Policy of George Mason University; he also operates as an independent consultant. Mr. Pryke joined the European Space Research Organisation (later ESA) in 1969, working in the areas of data processing and satellite communications. In 1976 he transferred to ESA’s Earth Observation Programme Office, where he was involved in the formulation of the Remote Sensing Programme. In 1979 he moved to the ESA Washington Office, where he was engaged in liaison work with both government and industry in the United States and Canada, becoming the head of the office in 1983. He holds a B.Sc. in physics from the University of London and an M.Sc. in space electronics and communications from the University of Kent. ROBERT L. RIEMER joined the staff of the NRC in 1985. He served as senior program officer for the two most recent decadal surveys of astronomy and astrophysics and has worked on studies in many areas of physics and astronomy for the Board on Physics and Astronomy (for which he served as associate director, 1988-2000) and the SSB. Prior to joining the NRC, Dr. Riemer was a senior project geophysicist with Chevron Corporation. He received his Ph.D. in experimental high-energy physics from the University of Kansas-Lawrence and his B.S. in physics and astrophysics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. MAUREEN MELLODY has been a program officer with the ASEB since 2002, where she has worked on stud - ies related to NASA’s aeronautics research and development program, servicing options for the Hubble Space Telescope, and many other projects in space and aeronautics. Previously, she served as the 2001-2002 AIP Con - gressional Science Fellow in the office of Congressman Howard L. Berman (D-Calif.), focusing on intellectual property and technology transfer. Dr. Mellody also worked as a postdoctoral research scientist at the University of Michigan in 2001. Dr. Mellody received her Ph.D. in applied physics from the University of Michigan, her M.S. in applied physics from the University of Michigan, and her B.S. in physics from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. REGINA NORTH, consultant, has specialized throughout her research career in the area of human behavior in isolated and confined environments, including Arctic and Antarctic stations, offshore oil platforms, and the Mir space station and the International Space Station, and she has conducted field research in these environments. At the NASA Johnson Space Center, Ms. North worked as a senior research scientist and research program analyst for the ISS chief scientist, the chief of advanced programs, and the director of biological sciences and applications managing the ISS multidisciplinary research portfolio onboard the ISS. Previously, for the JSC Mission Operations Directorate, she was a certified instructor training astronaut crews to perform science and technology multidisci - plinary experiments on the ISS. Ms. North has also worked as a researcher for the Man-Vehicle Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Arctic Research Institute of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), in Paris, France. She attended the graduate program in social sciences at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil; the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences) at CNRS; and the International Space University at MIT. She served as president of the International Space University Alumni Association from 2003 to 2006. Ms. North is fluent in Portuguese, English, French, Spanish, and Italian and has a working knowledge of Russian. CATHERINE A. GRUBER, editor, joined the Space Studies Board as a senior program assistant in 1995. Ms. Gruber first came to the NRC in 1988 as a senior secretary for the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board and also worked as an outreach assistant for the National Science Resources Center. She was a research
OCR for page 444
444 RECAPTURING A FUTURE FOR SPACE EXPLORATION assistant (chemist) in the National Institute of Mental Health’s Laboratory of Cell Biology for 2 years. She has a B.A. in natural science from St. Mary’s College of Maryland. LEWIS GROSWALD, a research associate, joined the Space Studies Board as the Autumn 2008 Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern. Mr. Groswald is a graduate of George Washington University, where he received a master’s degree in international science and technology policy and a bachelor’s degree in international affairs, with a double concentration in conflict and security and Europe and Eurasia. Following his work with the National Space Society during his senior year as an undergraduate, Mr. Groswald decided to pursue a career in space policy, with a focus on educating the public on space issues and formulating policy. DANIELLE JOHNSON-BLAND joined the Division on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education as a senior program assistant in 2008. She was first assigned to the Center for Economic Governance, and International Stud - ies, but shortly thereafter received additional assignments with the Committee on Law and Justice, the Committee on Population, and the Space Studies Board. Mrs. Johnson-Bland’s interests include youth rehabilitation, criminal justice management, and juvenile justice reform. She holds a B.S. in social science from University of Maryland, University College. LAURA TOTH is a senior program assistant for the National Materials Advisory Board, the Board on Manufactur- ing and Engineering Design, and the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment. She has been with the NRC since 2002 and has also worked with the Transportation Research Board and the Space Studies Board. Before joining the NRC, Ms. Toth worked in retail management for 15 years. LINDA M. WALKER, a senior project assistant, has been with the NRC since 2007. Before her assignment with the Space Studies Board, she was on assignment with the National Academies Press. Prior to working at the NRC, she was with the Association for Healthcare Philanthropy in Falls Church, Virginia. Ms. Walker has 28 years of administrative experience. ERIC WHITAKER is a senior program assistant at the NRC’s Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB). Prior to joining the CSTB, he was a realtor with Long and Foster Real Estate, Inc., in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. Before that, he spent several years with the Public Broadcasting Service in Alexandria, Virginia, as an associate in the Corporate Support Department. He has a B.A. in communication and theater arts from Hampton University. MICHAEL H. MOLONEY is the director of the SSB and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board at the NRC. Since joining the NRC in 2001, Dr. Moloney has served as a study director at the National Materials Advi - sory Board, the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA), the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, and the Center for Economic, Governance, and International Studies. Before joining the SSB and ASEB in April 2010, he was associate director of the BPA and study director for the Astro2010 decadal survey for astronomy and astrophysics. In addition to his professional experience at the NRC, Dr. Moloney has more than 7 years’ experi - ence as a foreign-service officer for the Irish government and served in that capacity at the Embassy of Ireland in Washington, D.C., the Mission of Ireland to the United Nations in New York, and the Department of Foreign Affairs in Dublin, Ireland. A physicist, Dr. Moloney did his graduate Ph.D. work at Trinity College Dublin in Ireland. He received his undergraduate degree in experimental physics at University College Dublin, where he was awarded the Nevin Medal for Physics.