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E
Literature Search Strategy

In order to review the most relevant scientific literature available, the committee and staff regularly conducted thorough searches of several online bibliographic data bases, including Medline, Science Direct, and WorldCat/First Search. General searches on vitamin D, calcium, and health outcomes were first conducted to identify primary literature. Using the results of the primary search, key search terms were developed and secondary searches were then conducted. Search terms were also chosen based on relevance to the report outline and topics included in the previous IOM report (IOM, 1997). Although initial searches were general, subsequent searches focused on retrieving studies that were not covered by the evidence-based reviews conducted by AHRQ-Ottawa (Cranney et al., 2007) and AHRQ-Tufts (Chung et al., 2009). Similar to the methodology used by the AHRQ reports searches were limited to English. As the study progressed, focused searches were conducted as needed and general searches were carried out to identify newly published articles. See Box E-1 for an example of how searches were conducted.



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E Literature Search Strategy In order to review the most relevant scientific literature available, the committee and staff regularly conducted thorough searches of sev- eral online bibliographic data bases, including Medline, Science Direct, and WorldCat/First Search. General searches on vitamin D, calcium, and health outcomes were first conducted to identify primary literature. Using the results of the primary search, key search terms were developed and secondary searches were then conducted. Search terms were also chosen based on relevance to the report outline and topics included in the previ- ous IOM report (IOM, 1997). Although initial searches were general, sub- sequent searches focused on retrieving studies that were not covered by the evidence-based reviews conducted by AHRQ-Ottawa (Cranney et al., 2007) and AHRQ-Tufts (Chung et al., 2009). Similar to the methodology used by the AHRQ reports searches were limited to English. As the study pro- gressed, focused searches were conducted as needed and general searches were carried out to identify newly published articles. See Box E-1 for an example of how searches were conducted. 1013

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1014 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D TABLE E-1 Sample Search History for Literature Published After AHRQ-Tufts Number Searches Results 1 exp Vitamin D/ 34296 2 (25-hydroxy vit D or plasma vit D or 25OHD or 25-OHD) 956 3 (25OHD3 or “25(OH)D3” or 25-OHD3 or “25-(OH)D3”).tw. 1205 4 (“25(OH)D” or “25-(OH)D” or “25-OH-D”).tw. 1696 5 25-hydroxycholecalciferol.tw. 877 6 25-hydroxyergocalciferol.tw. 27 7 calcidiol.tw. 227 8 Calcifediol/ 2443 9 (vit adj (d or d2 or d3)).mp. 244 10 Ergocalciferols/ 2050 11 Ergocalciferol$.tw. 322 12 Cholecalciferol/ 4499 13 Cholecalciferol$.tw. 1172 14 calciferol.tw. 363 15 or/1-14 35253 16 exp Calcium/ 218026 17 exp Calcium Carbonate/ or exp Calcium Citrate/ or exp Calcium 24264 Phosphates/ or exp Calcium Malate/ 18 exp Calcium, Dietary/ 8048 Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE(R) (7533) EBM Reviews—Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials <3rd Quarter 2009> (515) Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE(R) (7533) EBM Reviews—Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials <3rd Quarter 2009> (515) 19 calcium.tw. 250569 20 or/16-19 373131 21 15 or 20 392115 22 21 and (200905* or 200906* or 200907* or 200908*).ed. 3840 23 limit 22 to english language [Limit not valid in CCTR; records were 3544 retained] 24 limit 23 to humans [Limit not valid in CCTR; records were retained] 1906

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1015 APPENDIX E TABLE E-1 Continued Number Searches Results 25 limit 24 to (addresses or bibliography or biography or comment 443 or congresses or consensus development conference or consensus development conference, nih or dictionary or directory or duplicate publication or editorial or in vitro or interview or lectures or letter or news or newspaper article or “review”) [Limit not valid in CCTR; records were retained] 26 24 not 25 1463 27 randomized controlled trial.pt. 537352 28 controlled clinical trial.pt. 156124 29 randomized controlled trials/ 62621 30 Random Allocation/ 85834 31 Double-blind Method/ 187602 32 Single-Blind Method/ 21457 33 clinical trial.pt. 729105 34 Clinical Trials.mp. or exp Clinical Trials/ 268451 35 exp Clinical Trial/ 587643 36 (clinic$ adj25 trial$).tw. 218792 37 ((singl$ or doubl$ or trebl$ or tripl$) adj (mask$ or blind$)).tw. 214271 38 Placebos/ 46595 39 placebo$.tw. 225224 40 random$.tw. 736338 41 trial$.tw. 569938 42 (latin adj square).tw. 3500 43 Comparative Study.tw. 55680 44 exp Evaluation studies/ 140739 45 Follow-Up Studies/ 421249 46 Prospective Studies/ 316292 47 (control$ or prospectiv$ or volunteer$).tw. 2441089 48 Cross-Over Studies/ 43351 Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE(R) (24638) EBM Reviews—Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials <3rd Quarter 2009> (18713) Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE(R) (24638) EBM Reviews—Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials <3rd Quarter 2009> (18713) continued

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1016 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D TABLE E-1 Continued Number Searches Results 49 or/27-48 3820192 50 49 and 26 551 51 21 392115 52 limit 51 to english language [Limit not valid in CCTR; records were 351480 retained] 53 limit 52 to yr=“2009—2010” 8174 Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE(R) (8085) EBM Reviews—Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials <3rd Quarter 2009> (89) Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE(R) (8085) EBM Reviews—Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials <3rd Quarter 2009> (89) 54 limit 53 to humans [Limit not valid in CCTR; records were retained] 3045 Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE(R) (2956) EBM Reviews—Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials <3rd Quarter 2009> (89) Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE(R) (2956) EBM Reviews—Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials <3rd Quarter 2009> (89) 55 remove duplicates from 54 2754 Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE(R) (2751) EBM Reviews—Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials <3rd Quarter 2009> (3) Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Ovid MEDLINE(R) (2751) EBM Reviews—Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials <3rd Quarter 2009> (3)

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1017 APPENDIX E REFERENCES Chung M., E. M. Balk, M. Brendel, S. Ip, J. Lau, J. Lee, A. Lichtenstein, K. Patel, G. Raman, A. Tatsioni, T. Terasawa and T. A. Trikalinos. 2009. Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes. Evidence Report No. 183. (Prepared by the Tufts Evidence- based Practice Center under Contract No. HHSA 290-2007-10055-I.) AHRQ Publication No. 09-E015. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Cranney A., T. Horsley, S. O’Donnell, H. A. Weiler, L. Puil, D. S. Ooi, S. A. Atkinson, L. M. Ward, D. Moher, D. A. Hanley, M. Fang, F. Yazdi, C. Garritty, M. Sampson, N. Barrowman, A. Tsertsvadze and V. Mamaladze. 2007. Effectiveness and Safety of Vita- min D in Relation to Bone Health. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 158. (Prepared by the University of Ottawa Evidence-based Practice Center (UO-EPC) under Contract No. 290-02-0021.) AHRQ Publication No. 07-E013. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Mag- nesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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