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Canadian surveys, 461462, 499

estimates from national surveys, 1011, 459460

food sources only, 470, 474, 475, 476

summary, 477478

U.S. estimated, 468473

U.S. surveys, 458461

assumption of adequacy for calcium DRI, 347

asthma, 169170, 181

BMC/BMD and, 95, 175, 271, 274275, 279280, 386387, 392393

cardiovascular disease, 148, 149, 152

Crohn’s disease, 172

diabetes, 155

excess, 8889, 424449, 481, 486, 517518.

See also Adverse effects, vitamin D;

Indicators of adverse outcomes for excess intake

falls and physical performance, 157165, 167, 438

fractures, 390, 438439.

See also Bone, fracture, vitamin D supplementation

indigenous Canadian populations, 498499

intoxication, 6, 10, 8889, 93, 405, 425, 426430, 443, 518

during pregnancy, 169, 182, 279281

rheumatoid arthritis, 175

serum 25OHD. See Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D and;

Sun exposure, relationship between serum 25OHD and vitamin D

from supplements. See Supplements, vitamin D

through the life stages, 810, 9496

tuberculosis, 178, 179, 494

Vitamin D interactions

calcium, 5, 6, 35, 60, 136, 358, 360, 369, 388, 405, 484, 517

prescription drugs, 11, 87, 504, 505

Vitamin D receptor (VDR)

in the brain, 184

cancer, 91, 140, 146, 147

expressed in cells with rheumatoid lesions, 175

expressed in the duodenum, 38

expressed in the fetus, 252253

expressed in the prostate, 146, 147

infants lacking, 254

lactation and, 91

muscle tissue, 157

regulation of expression by calcitriol, 38, 90, 91

rickets due to genetic absence of (VDDR II), 49, 94, 252, 254, 260, 276

use of term, 140n.1

Vitamin D response element (VDRE), 77, 140

Vitamin D2

equivalence issues with vitamin D3, 9293, 97, 519

fortified foods, 80

metabolism, 8687, 9293

overview, 78

serum level as biomarker of total intake, 107, 108

supplementation, 81

toxicity, 93, 426

Vitamin D3

deprivation, and autism, 182

equivalence issues with vitamin D2, 9293, 97, 519

fortified foods, 80

metabolism, 8687, 9293

overview, 78

serum level, not used to estimate synthesis in the skin, 104

serum level as biomarker of total intake, 107, 108

storage, 105

supplementation, 81, 107

synthesis in the skin. See Vitamin D, synthesis in the skin

toxicity, 93, 426

Vitamin E, 180, 1104, 1106, 1112

Vitamin K, 1106, 1112

Vitamins, 11061107, 11141115

Vomiting (emesis), 407, 409

W

Water, 36, 411, 417, 1110

Weight, 140, 153, 192193, 254, 406, 420, 425.

See also Growth rate

Weight loss or dieting, 39, 106, 172, 518

West Indians, 245

What We Eat in America (WWEIA), 459, 473



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