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Summary Tables
Dietary Reference Intakes

Estimated Average Requirements

Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Vitamins

Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Elements

Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Total Water and Macronutrients

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges

Additional Macronutrient Recommendations

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Vitamins

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Elements



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Summary Tables Dietary Reference Intakes Estimated Average Requirements Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Vitamins Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Elements Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Total Water and Macronutrients Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges Additional Macronutrient Recommendations Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Vitamins Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Elements 1103

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1104 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Estimated Average Requirements Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Riboflavin (g/kg/d) Thiamin (mg/d)b (mg/d)c Calcium (mg/d)a (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) Protein (mg/d) Niacin (g/d) CHO Vit D Vit C Vit A Life Stage Vit E Group Infants 0–6 mo 6–12 mo 1.0 Children 1–3 y 500 100 0.87 210 13 10 5 0.4 0.4 5 4–8 y 800 100 0.76 275 22 10 6 0.5 0.5 6 Males 9–13 y 1,100 100 0.76 445 39 10 9 0.7 0.8 9 14–18 y 1,100 100 0.73 630 63 10 12 1.0 1.1 12 19–30 y 800 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12 31–50 y 800 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12 51–70 y 800 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12 > 70 y 1,000 100 0.66 625 75 10 12 1.0 1.1 12 Females 9–13 y 1,100 100 0.76 420 39 10 9 0.7 0.8 9 14–18 y 1,100 100 0.71 485 56 10 12 0.9 0.9 11 19–30 y 800 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11 31–50 y 800 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11 51–70 y 1,000 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11 > 70 y 1,000 100 0.66 500 60 10 12 0.9 0.9 11 Pregnancy 14–18 y 1,000 135 0.88 530 66 10 12 1.2 1.2 14 19–30 y 800 135 0.88 550 70 10 12 1.2 1.2 14 31–50 y 800 135 0.88 550 70 10 12 1.2 1.2 14 Lactation 14–18 y 1,000 160 1.05 885 96 10 16 1.2 1.3 13 19–30 y 800 160 1.05 900 100 10 16 1.2 1.3 13 31–50 y 800 160 1.05 900 100 10 16 1.2 1.3 13 NOTE: An Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a group. EARs have not been established for vitamin K, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, chromium, fluoride, manganese, or other nutrients not yet evaluated via the DRI process. aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 mg retinol, 12 mg β-carotene, 24 mg α- carotene, or 24 mg β-cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is two-fold greater than retinol equivalents (RE), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE. bAs α-tocopherol. α-tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not in- clude the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements.

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1105 SUMMARY TABLES Molybdenum Phosphorus Magnesium Selenium (mg/d)d (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) Copper (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) Vit B12 Iodine Folate Vit B6 Zinc Iron 6.9 2.5 0.4 120 0.7 260 65 3.0 65 13 380 17 2.5 0.5 160 1.0 340 65 4.1 110 17 405 23 4.0 0.8 250 1.5 540 73 5.9 200 26 1,055 35 7.0 1.1 330 2.0 685 95 7.7 340 33 1,055 45 8.5 1.1 320 2.0 700 95 6 330 34 580 45 9.4 1.1 320 2.0 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4 1.4 320 2.0 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4 1.4 320 2.0 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4 0.8 250 1.5 540 73 5.7 200 26 1,055 35 7.0 1.0 330 2.0 685 95 7.9 300 33 1,055 45 7.3 1.1 320 2.0 700 95 8.1 255 34 580 45 6.8 1.1 320 2.0 700 95 8.1 265 34 580 45 6.8 1.3 320 2.0 700 95 5 265 34 580 45 6.8 1.3 320 2.0 700 95 5 265 34 580 45 6.8 1.6 520 2.2 785 160 23 335 40 1,055 49 10.5 1.6 520 2.2 800 160 22 290 40 580 49 9.5 1.6 520 2.2 800 160 22 300 40 580 49 9.5 1.7 450 2.4 985 209 7 300 35 1,055 59 10.9 1.7 450 2.4 1,000 209 6.5 255 36 580 59 10.4 1.7 450 2.4 1,000 209 6.5 265 36 580 59 10.4 cAs niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan. dAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 µg food folate = 0.6 µg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 µg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Bo- ron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

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1106 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Vitamins Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Life Stage A C D E K Thiamin (µg/d)b,c (µg/d)a (mg/d)d Group (mg/d) (µg/d) (mg/d) Infants 0–6 mo 400* 40* 10* 4* 2.0* 0.2* 6–12 mo 500* 50* 10* 5* 2.5* 0.3* Children 1–3 y 30* 300 15 15 6 0.5 4–8 y 55* 400 25 15 7 0.6 Males 9–13 y 60* 600 45 15 11 0.9 14–18 y 75* 900 75 15 15 1.2 19–30 y 120* 900 90 15 15 1.2 31–50 y 120* 900 90 15 15 1.2 51–70 y 120* 900 90 15 15 1.2 > 70 y 120* 900 90 20 15 1.2 Females 9–13 y 60* 600 45 15 11 0.9 14–18 y 75* 700 65 15 15 1.0 19–30 y 90* 700 75 15 15 1.1 31–50 y 90* 700 75 15 15 1.1 51–70 y 90* 700 75 15 15 1.1 > 70 y 90* 700 75 20 15 1.1 Pregnancy 14–18 y 75* 750 80 15 15 1.4 19–30 y 90* 770 85 15 15 1.4 31–50 y 90* 770 85 15 15 1.4 Lactation 14–18 y 75* 1,200 115 15 19 1.4 19–30 y 90* 1,300 120 15 19 1.4 31–50 y 90* 1,300 120 15 19 1.4 NOTE: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Al- lowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to establish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breast-fed infants, an AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake. aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 mg retinol, 12 mg β-carotene, 24 mg α-carotene, or 24 mg β-cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is two-fold greater than retinol equivalents (REs), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE. bAs cholecalciferol. 1 µg cholecalciferol = 40 IU vitamin D. cUnder the assumption of minimal sunlight. dAs α-tocopherol. α-tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocoph- erol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements. eAs niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE). fAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 µg food folate = 0.6 µg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 µg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.

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1107 SUMMARY TABLES Vitamin Vitamin Pantothenic Riboflavin Niacin B6 Folate B12 Acid Biotin Choline (mg/d)e (µg/d)f (mg/d)g (mg/d) (mg/d) (µg/d) (mg/d) (µg/d) 0.3* 2* 0.1* 65* 0.4* 1.7* 5* 125* 0.4* 4* 0.3* 80* 0.5* 1.8* 6* 150* 2* 8* 200* 0.5 6 0.5 150 0.9 3* 12* 250* 0.6 8 0.6 200 1.2 4* 20* 375* 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 5* 25* 550* 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 550* 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 5* 30* 550* 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 2.4h 5* 30* 550* 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4h 5* 30* 550* 1.3 16 1.7 400 4* 20* 375* 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 400i 5* 25* 400* 1.0 14 1.2 2.4 400i 5* 30* 425* 1.1 14 1.3 2.4 400i 5* 30* 425* 1.1 14 1.3 2.4 2.4h 5* 30* 425* 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4h 5* 30* 425* 1.1 14 1.5 400 600j 6* 30* 450* 1.4 18 1.9 2.6 600j 6* 30* 450* 1.4 18 1.9 2.6 600j 6* 30* 450* 1.4 18 1.9 2.6 7* 35* 550* 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550* 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 7* 35* 550* 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 gAlthough AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages. hBecause 10 to 30 percent of older people may malabsorb food-bound B , it is advisable for those older 12 than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B12 or a supplement containing B12. iIn view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet. jIt is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 µg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Bio- tin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

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1108 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Elements Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Magnesium Manganese Chromium Fluoride Calcium (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) Copper (µg/d) (µg/d) (µg/d) Iodine Life Stage Iron Group Infants 0–6 mo 200* 0.2* 200* 0.01* 110* 0.27* 30* 0.003* 6–12 mo 260* 5.5* 220* 0.5* 130* 75* 0.6* 11 Children 1–3 y 11* 0.7* 1.2* 700 340 90 7 80 4–8 y 15* 1* 1.5* 1,000 440 90 10 130 Males 9–13 y 25* 2* 1.9* 1,300 700 120 8 240 14–18 y 35* 3* 2.2* 1,300 890 150 11 410 19–30 y 35* 4* 2.3* 1,000 900 150 8 400 31–50 y 35* 4* 2.3* 1,000 900 150 8 420 51–70 y 30* 4* 2.3* 1,000 900 150 8 420 > 70 y 30* 4* 2.3* 1,200 900 150 8 420 Females 9–13 y 21* 2* 1.6* 1,300 700 120 8 240 14–18 y 24* 3* 1.6* 1,300 890 150 15 360 19–30 y 25* 3* 1.8* 1,000 900 150 18 310 31–50 y 25* 3* 1.8* 1,000 900 150 18 320 51–70 y 20* 3* 1.8* 1,200 900 150 8 320 > 70 y 20* 3* 1.8* 1,200 900 150 8 320 Pregnancy 14–18 y 29* 3* 2.0* 1,300 1,000 220 27 400 19–30 y 30* 3* 2.0* 1,000 1,000 220 27 350 31–50 y 30* 3* 2.0* 1,000 1,000 220 27 360 Lactation 14–18 y 44* 3* 2.6* 1,300 1,300 290 10 360 19–30 y 45* 3* 2.6* 1,000 1,300 290 9 310 31–50 y 45* 3* 2.6* 1,000 1,300 290 9 320 NOTE: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type fol- lowed by an asterisk (*). An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to establish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breast-fed infants, an AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

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1109 SUMMARY TABLES Molybdenum Phosphorus Potassium Selenium Chloride (mg/d) (mg/d) Sodium (µg/d) (µg/d) (g/d) (g/d) (g/d) Zinc 2* 100* 15* 2* 0.4* 0.12* 0.18* 3* 275* 20* 0.7* 0.37* 0.57* 3 3.0* 1.0* 1.5* 17 460 20 3 3.8* 1.2* 1.9* 22 500 30 5 4.5* 1.5* 2.3* 34 1,250 40 8 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 43 1,250 55 11 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 45 700 55 11 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 45 700 55 11 4.7* 1.3* 2.0* 45 700 55 11 4.7* 1.2* 1.8* 45 700 55 11 4.5* 1.5* 2.3* 34 1,250 40 8 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 43 1,250 55 9 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 45 700 55 8 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 45 700 55 8 4.7* 1.3* 2.0* 45 700 55 8 4.7* 1.2* 1.8* 45 700 55 8 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 50 1,250 60 12 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 50 700 60 11 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 50 700 60 11 5.1* 1.5* 2.3* 50 1,250 70 13 5.1* 1.5* 2.3* 50 700 70 12 5.1* 1.5* 2.3* 50 700 70 12 SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluo- ride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

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1110 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Total Water and Macronutrients Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies α-Linolenic Total Total Linoleic Watera Proteinb Life Stage Carbohydrate Fiber Fat Acid Acid Group (L/d) (g/d) (g/d) (g/d) (g/d) (g/d) (g/d) Infants 0–6 mo 0.7* 60* ND 31* 4.4* 0.5* 9.1* 6–12 mo 0.8* 95* ND 30* 4.6* 0.5* 11.0 Children NDc 1–3 y 1.3* 19* 7* 0.7* 130 13 4–8 y 1.7* 25* ND 10* 0.9* 130 19 Males 9–13 y 2.4* 31* ND 12* 1.2* 130 34 14–18 y 3.3* 38* ND 16* 1.6* 130 52 19–30 y 3.7* 38* ND 17* 1.6* 130 56 31–50 y 3.7* 38* ND 17* 1.6* 130 56 51–70 y 3.7* 30* ND 14* 1.6* 130 56 > 70 y 3.7* 30* ND 14* 1.6* 130 56 Females 9–13 y 2.1* 26* ND 10* 1.0* 130 34 14–18 y 2.3* 26* ND 11* 1.1* 130 46 19–30 y 2.7* 25* ND 12* 1.1* 130 46 31–50 y 2.7* 25* ND 12* 1.1* 130 46 51–70 y 2.7* 21* ND 11* 1.1* 130 46 > 70 y 2.7* 21* ND 11* 1.1* 130 46 Pregnancy 14–18 y 3.0* 28* ND 13* 1.4* 175 71 19–30 y 3.0* 28* ND 13* 1.4* 175 71 31–50 y 3.0* 28* ND 13* 1.4* 175 71 Lactation 14–18 3.8* 29* ND 13* 1.3* 210 71 19–30 y 3.8* 29* ND 13* 1.3* 210 71 31–50 y 3.8* 29* ND 13* 1.3* 210 71 NOTE: This table (take from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AI) in ordinary type fol- lowed by an asterisk (*). An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to establish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breast-fed infants, an AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake. aTotal water includes all water contained in food, beverages, and drinking water. bBased on g protein per kg of body weight for the reference body weight, e.g., for adults 0.8 g/kg body weight for the reference body weight. cNot determined. SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005) and Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005). The report may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

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1111 SUMMARY TABLES Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Range (percent of energy) Macronutrient Children, 1–3 y Children, 4–18 y Adults Fat 30–40 25–35 20–35 n-6 polyunsaturated fatty 5–10 5–10 5–10 acidsa (linoleic acid) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty 0.6–1.2 0.6–1.2 0.6–1.2 acidsa (α-linolenic acid) Carbohydrate 45–65 45–65 45–65 Protein 5–20 10–30 10–35 aApproximately 10 percent of the total can come from longer-chain n-3 or n-6 fatty acids. SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Pro- tein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005). The report may be accessed via www.nap.edu. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Additional Macronutrient Recommendations Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Macronutrient Recommendation Dietary cholesterol As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet Trans fatty acids As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet Saturated fatty acids As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet Added sugarsa Limit to no more than 25% of total energy aNot a recommended intake. A daily intake of added sugars that individuals should aim for to achieve a healthful diet was not set. SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Pro- tein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005). The report may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

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1112 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Vitamins Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Vitamin Life Stage A C D E Vitamin (mg/d) (mg/d)b,c (µg/d)a Group (mg/d) K Thiamin Riboflavin Infants NDe 0–6 mo 600 25 ND ND ND ND 6–12 mo 600 ND 38 ND ND ND ND Children 1−3 y 600 400 63 200 ND ND ND 4−8 y 900 650 75 300 ND ND ND Males 9−13 y 1,700 1,200 100 600 ND ND ND 14−18 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND 19−30 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 31−50 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 51−70 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND > 70 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND Females 9−13 y 1,700 1,200 100 600 ND ND ND 14−18 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND 19−30 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 31−50 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 51−70 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND > 70 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND Pregnancy 14−18 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND 19−30 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 31−50 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND Lactation 14−18 y 2,800 1,800 100 800 ND ND ND 19−30 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND 31−50 y 3,000 2,000 100 1,000 ND ND ND NOTE: A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to a lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thia- min, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and carotenoids. In the absence of a UL, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. Members of the general population should be advised not to routinely exceed the UL. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are treated with the nutrient under medical supervision or to individuals with predisposing conditions that modify their sensitivity to the nutrient. aAs preformed vitamin A only. bAs α-tocopherol; applies to any form of supplemental α-tocopherol. cThe ULs for vitamin E, niacin, and folate apply to synthetic forms obtained from supple- ments, fortified foods, or a combination of the two.

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1113 SUMMARY TABLES Vitamin Niacin B6 Folate Vitamin Pantothenic Choline (mg/d)c (mg/d)c Carotenoidsd (mg/d) B12 Acid Biotin (g/d) ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 10 30 300 ND ND ND 1.0 ND 15 40 400 ND ND ND 1.0 ND 20 60 600 ND ND ND 2.0 ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND 20 60 600 ND ND ND 2.0 ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND dβ-Carotene supplements are advised only to serve as a provitamin A source for individuals at risk of vitamin A deficiency. eND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamine E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Bo- ron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

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1114 DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES FOR CALCIUM AND VITAMIN D Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Elements Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Iron (mg/d) Chromium Fluoride Calcium Arsenica (mg/d) (mg/d) (mg/d) Copper (µg/d) (µg/d) Iodine Boron Life Stage Group Infants NDe 0–6 mo ND 1,000 ND ND 0.7 ND 40 6–12 mo ND ND 1,500 ND ND 0.9 ND 40 Children 1−3 y ND 3 2,500 ND 1,000 1.3 200 40 4−8 y ND 6 2,500 ND 3,000 2.2 300 40 Males 9−13 y ND 11 3,000 ND 5,000 10 600 40 14−18 y ND 17 3,000 ND 8,000 10 900 45 19−30 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 31−50 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 51−70 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 > 70 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 Females 9−13 y ND 11 3,000 ND 5,000 10 600 40 14−18 y ND 17 3,000 ND 8,000 10 900 45 19−30 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 31−50 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 51−70 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 > 70 y ND 20 2,000 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 Pregnancy 14−18 y ND 17 3,000 ND 8,000 10 900 45 19−30 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 61−50 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 Lactation 14−18 y ND 17 3,000 ND 8,000 10 900 45 19−30 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 31−50 y ND 20 2,500 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 NOTE: A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to a lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thia- min, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and carotenoids. In the absence of a UL, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. Members of the general population should be advised not to routinely exceed the UL. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are treated with the nutrient under medical supervision or to individuals with predisposing conditions that modify their sensitivity to the nutrient. aAlthough the UL was not determined for arsenic, there is no justification for adding arse- nic to food or supplements. bThe ULs for magnesium represent intake from a pharmacological agent only and do not include intake from food and water. cAlthough silicon has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justi- fication for adding silicon to supplements.

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1115 SUMMARY TABLES Molybdenum Zinc (mg/d) Phosphorus Magnesium Manganese Vanadium Selenium Chloride (mg/d)d (mg/d)b (mg/d) (mg/d) Sodium Siliconc (µg/d) (µg/d) Nickel (g/d) (g/d) (g/d) ND ND ND ND ND 45 ND ND 4 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 60 ND ND 5 ND ND 65 2 300 0.2 3 90 ND ND 7 1.5 2.3 110 3 600 0.3 3 150 ND ND 12 1.9 2.9 350 6 1,100 0.6 4 280 ND ND 23 2.2 3.4 350 9 1,700 1.0 4 400 ND ND 34 2.3 3.6 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 400 ND 1.8 40 2.3 3.6 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 400 ND 1.8 40 2.3 3.6 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 400 ND 1.8 40 2.3 3.6 350 11 2,000 1.0 3 400 ND 1.8 40 2.3 3.6 350 6 1,100 0.6 4 280 ND ND 23 2.2 3.4 350 9 1,700 1.0 4 400 ND ND 34 2.3 3.6 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 400 ND 1.8 40 2.3 3.6 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 400 ND 1.8 40 2.3 3.6 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 400 ND 1.8 40 2.3 3.6 350 11 2,000 1.0 3 400 ND 1.8 40 2.3 3.6 350 9 1,700 1.0 3.5 400 ND ND 34 2.3 3.6 350 11 2,000 1.0 3.5 400 ND ND 40 2.3 3.6 350 11 2,000 1.0 3.5 400 ND ND 40 2.3 3.6 350 9 1,700 1.0 4 400 ND ND 34 2.3 3.6 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 400 ND ND 40 2.3 3.6 350 11 2,000 1.0 4 400 ND ND 40 2.3 3.6 dAlthough vanadium in food has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding vanadium to food, and vanadium supplements should be used with caution. The UL is based on adverse effects in laboratory animals, and this data could be used to set a UL for adults but not children and adolescents. eND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluo- ride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D (2011). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

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