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Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Dietary Allowances and Adequate Intakes, Vitamins

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Life Stage Group

Vitamin A (μg/d)a

Vitamin C (mg/d)

Vitamin D (μg/d)b,c

Vitamin E (mg/d)d

Vitamin K (μg/d)

Thiamin (mg/d)

Infants

 

 

 

 

 

 

0–6 mo

400*

40*

10*

4*

2.0*

0.2*

6–12 mo

500*

50*

10*

5*

2.5*

0.3*

Children

 

 

 

 

 

 

1–3 y

300

15

15

6

30*

0.5

4–8 y

400

25

15

7

55*

0.6

Males

 

 

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

600

45

15

11

60*

0.9

14–18 y

900

75

15

15

75*

1.2

19–30 y

900

90

15

15

120*

1.2

31–50 y

900

90

15

15

120*

1.2

51–70 y

900

90

15

15

120*

1.2

> 70 y

900

90

20

15

120*

1.2

Females

 

 

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

600

45

15

11

60*

0.9

14–18 y

700

65

15

15

75*

1.0

19–30 y

700

75

15

15

90*

1.1

31–50 y

700

75

15

15

90*

1.1

51–70 y

700

75

15

15

90*

1.1

> 70 y

700

75

20

15

90*

1.1

Pregnancy

 

 

 

 

 

 

14–18 y

750

80

15

15

75*

1.4

19–30 y

770

85

15

15

90*

1.4

31–50 y

770

85

15

15

90*

1.4

Lactation

 

 

 

 

 

 

14–18 y

1,200

115

15

19

75*

1.4

19–30 y

1,300

120

15

19

90*

1.4

31–50 y

1,300

120

15

19

90*

1.4

NOTE: This table (taken from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu) presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). An RDA is the average daily dietary intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97–98 percent) healthy individuals in a group. It is calculated from an Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). If sufficient scientific evidence is not available to establish an EAR, and thus calculate an RDA, an AI is usually developed. For healthy breast-fed infants, an AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all healthy individuals in the groups, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 μg retinol, 12 μg β-carotene, 24 μg α-carotene, or 24 μg β-cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is two-fold greater than retinol equivalents (REs), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE.

bAs cholecalciferol. 1 μg cholecalciferol = 40 IU vitamin D.

cUnder the assumption of minimal sunlight.

dAs α-tocopherol. α-tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements.

eAs niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0–6 months = preformed niacin (not NE).

fAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 μg food folate = 0.6 μg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 μg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.



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