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Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Elements

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies

Life Stage Group

Arsenica

Boron (mg/d)

Calcium (mg/d)

Chromium

Copper (μg/d)

Fluoride (mg/d)

Iodine (μg/d)

Iron (mg/d)

Infants

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

0–6 mo

NDe

ND

1,000

ND

ND

0.7

ND

40

6–12 mo

ND

ND

1,500

ND

ND

0.9

ND

40

Children

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1-3 y

ND

3

2,500

ND

1,000

1.3

200

40

4-8 y

ND

6

2,500

ND

3,000

2.2

300

40

Males

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9-13 y

ND

11

3,000

ND

5,000

10

600

40

14-18 y

ND

17

3,000

ND

8,000

10

900

45

19-30 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

31-50 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

51-70 y

ND

20

2,000

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

> 70 y

ND

20

2,000

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

Females

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9-13 y

ND

11

3,000

ND

5,000

10

600

40

14-18 y

ND

17

3,000

ND

8,000

10

900

45

19-30 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

31-50 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

51-70 y

ND

20

2,000

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

> 70 y

ND

20

2,000

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

Pregnancy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14-18 y

ND

17

3,000

ND

8,000

10

900

45

19-30 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

61-50 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

Lactation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14-18 y

ND

17

3,000

ND

8,000

10

900

45

19-30 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

31-50 y

ND

20

2,500

ND

10,000

10

1,100

45

NOTE: A Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to a lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and carotenoids. In the absence of a UL, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. Members of the general population should be advised not to routinely exceed the UL. The UL is not meant to apply to individuals who are treated with the nutrient under medical supervision or to individuals with predisposing conditions that modify their sensitivity to the nutrient.

aAlthough the UL was not determined for arsenic, there is no justification for adding arsenic to food or supplements.

bThe ULs for magnesium represent intake from a pharmacological agent only and do not include intake from food and water.

cAlthough silicon has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding silicon to supplements.



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