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and performance on a task of learning and memory. Within the elderly population group, those in the highest quintile for serum 25OHD level were also the most impaired; thus, the results fail to confirm the hypothesis that serum 25OHD level enhances performance in learning and memory (McGrath et al., 2007).

There are few observational studies on calcium and cognitive function. In a cross–sectional study on Korean adults 60 years of age and older, a positive association was found between calcium intake and score on the Mini-Mental State Examination for Koreans (MMSE-K) in women but not in men after adjustment for age (Lee et al., 2001). In contrast, another study in Portuguese adults more than 65 years of age found no association between calcium intake and MMSE score after 8.5 months of follow-up (Velho et al., 2008). Using a cross–sectional analysis, Wilkins et al. (2009) found, as expected, lower serum 25OHD levels among the African American population compared with the white population, and poorer cognitive performance among African Americans with the lowest 25OHD levels compared with those with higher levels. Similarly, in a cross–sectional analysis in a British population of adults ages 65 years or older with serum 25OHD levels reported in quartiles, Llewellyn et al. (2009) found a greater risk for impaired cognitive performance among persons in the lowest (8 to 30 nmol/L) compared with the highest quartile (66 to 170 nmol/L). Even though the committee identified a large number of observational studies that evaluated associations between vitamin D and calcium and cognitive function, these were predominantly lower quality cross–sectional studies or small cohort studies, and their results were mixed. No causal evidence was found to support experimental evidence for biological plausibility and the relatively weak observational evidence. The committee took into account the generally lower quality of the study designs in its interpretation of the findings and in drawing conclusions about outcomes associated with this indicator.


Depression is a disease with characteristic signs and symptoms that interfere with the ability to work, sleep, eat, and enjoy once-pleasurable activities. These signs and symptoms include loss of interest in activities; a persistently sad or anxious mood; feelings of hopelessness, pessimism, guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness; social withdrawal; fatigue; sleep disturbances; difficulty in concentrating or making decisions; unusual restlessness or irritability; persistent physical problems that do not respond to treatment; and thoughts of death or suicide or suicide attempts. Depressive disorders include major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, psychotic depression, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder, with

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