. "4 Review of Potential Indicators of Adequacy and Selection of Indicators: Calcium and Vitamin D." Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2011.
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DRI Dietary Reference Intakes Calcium Vitamin D
Park et al., 1998
Healthy full-term infants born in winter (some exclusively breast-fed [n = 18] or formula-fed with 400 IU vit D [n = 17])
LS BMC and BMD (DXA)
Serum 25OHD, mean (SD) (nmol/L):
Mean was lower in breast-fed vs. formula-fed infants, p = 0.001
Breast-fed: 39.9 (28.2)
Formula-fed: 72.5 (22.2)
% with 25OHD < 28 nmol/L
Breast-fed: 8/18 (44%)
Formula-fed: 1/17 (6%), p = 0.01
LS BMD no difference between breast-fed (n = 14/18) and formula-fed infants (n = 14/17) (data NR)
n = 35
Breast-fed 28% female
Formula-fed 47% female
LS BMC, mean (SD) (g/cm)
No difference between groups
Breast-fed: 0.62 (0.2)
Formula-fed: 0.65 (0.2)
25OHD did not correlate with BMC (r = 0.173, p = 0.39, n = 28)
*SEM provided in graph but not estimable;
**1/80 infants did not clearly fit into any category and had findings suggestive of transient congenital hypoparathyroidism; BMC = bone mineral content; BMD = bone mineral density; CG = control group; d = day; DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; IG = intervention group; iPTH = intact parathyroid hormone; IU = International Units; L = Left; LS = lumbar spine; LSM = least squares mean; mo = month(s); NA = not applicable; NR = not reported; NS = not significant; RCT = randomized controlled trial; RIA = radioimmunoassay; SD = standard deviation; SEM = standard error of the mean; SPA = single-photon absorptiometry; UK = United Kingdom; vit = vitamin; wk = week(s); y = year(s).
aThis table has been truncated for the purposes of this chapter, but it can be found in its entirety in Appendix C.
bJadad score is based on a scale of 1 to 5. See Box 4-1 for details on the scoring system.