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Case–control studies

Marwaha et al., 2005

Healthy school children


BMD (distal forearmand calcaneum) using DXA

Serum 25OHD, mean (SD) (nmol/L): 29.5 (18.0)

LSES: 26 (1); USES: 34 (1)

25OHD < 22.5 nmol/L: 35.7%; LSES 42.3% vs. USES 27%, p < 0.01


(from LSES and USES); age range 10–18 y






Prevalence of clinical vit D deficiency (defined by genu varum or genu valgum): LSES 11.6% vs. USES 9.7%, p = 0.07


n = 5,137 (3,089 LSES; 2,048 USES)






Forearm mean BMD significantly higher (p < 0.01) in USES group compared with LSES


LSES 65.1% female

USES 52.7% female






BMD adjusted for height and weight




Serum calcium not significantly different between groups, but dietary calcium intake lower in LSES group









No significant correlation between BMD and serum 25OHD in either group

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