Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride
Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc
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DRI Dietary Reference Intakes Calcium Vitamin D
Jadad Score for RCTs
Bone Health Outcomes
Rajakumar et al., 2005
Healthy 6–10 y olds
Tanner stage I/II (81% I)
Skin type III/IV (81% IV); mean age 8.9 (1.2) y (range 6–10 y)
400 IU vit D/d (isoform not specified)
iPTH (Immulite iPTH chemiluminescent assay)
Serum 25OHD, mean (SD) (nmol/L)
Baseline: 60.0 (26.3)
49% < 50
71% < 75
Group 1 = 25OHD < 50 nmol/L at baseline: 38.5 (8.0)
Group 2 = 25OHD > 50 nmol/L at baseline: 80.3 (20.5)
1 mo (total group): 68.8 (18.8)
Group 1: 57.5 (16.0)
Group 2: 79.5 (14.5)
Increase in serum 25OHD was observed only in group 1
7/39 (18%) of group 1 continued to have a level < 50 nmol/L after 1 mo of supplementation
Vit D dietary intake: mean (SD) 277 (146) IU/d 16/41 (39%) dietary intake < 200 IU/d
Negative correlation of 25OHD with body weight (
r = −0.378, p = 0.015) at baseline
n = 42
No significant differences at baseline or 1 mo in markers of bone turnover, 1,25(OH)
2D or PTH between groups with 25OHD < 50 nmol/L or > 50 nmol/L at baseline
NOTE: BMAD = bone mineral apparent density; BMC = bone mineral content; BMD = bone mineral density; CG = control group; DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; FN = femoral neck; IG = intervention group; iPTH = intact parathyroid hormone; IU = International Units; LS = lumbar spine; LSES = lower socioeconomic status; mo = month(s); NA = not applicable; PTH = parathyroid hormone; RCT = randomized controlled trial; SD = standard deviation; SPA = single-photon absorptiometry; UK = United Kingdom; USES = upper socioeconomic status; vit = vitamin; wk = week(s); y = year(s).
This table has been truncated for the purposes of this chapter, but it can be found in its entirety in a Appendix C.
Jadad score is based on a scale of 1 to 5. See b Box 4-1 for details on the scoring system.
SOURCE: Modified from Cranney et al. (2007).