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TABLE 4-9 Combined Vitamin D and Calcium and Bone Mineral Density/Bone Mineral Content: Characteristics of RCTs Published after AHRQ-Ottawa Report: Summary from AHRQ-Tufts Analysesa


Location (Latitude)

Population Description

Background Calcium Intake and Vitamin D Data




Cheng et al., 2005

Health status: Healthy

Mean age (range), y: 11.2 (10–12)

Male (%): 0

Diet vit D: 100 IU/d

200 IU vit D3/d + 1,000 mg Ca carbonate/d vs. placebo

65% completed intervention with > 50% compliance



Ca: 670 mg/d


Jyvaskyla, Finland (62°24′N)


Bolton-Smith et al., 2007

Health status: Healthy (assumed postmenopausal)

Mean age (range), y: 68 (≥ 60)

Male (%): 0

25OHD: 59.4 nmol/L

400 IU vit D3/d + 100 mg elemental Ca/d vs. placebo

Good supplement adherence based on pill count (median, 99; IQE 97.3–99.8%)

Noncompliant women were excluded


Ca: 1,548 mg/d

UK (54°N)

Zhu et al., 2008b

Health status: nd (assumed postmenopausal)

Mean age (SD), y: 74.8 (2.6)

Male (%): 0

25OHD: 68 nmol/L

1,000 IU vit D2/d + 1,200 mg Ca citrate/d vs. placebo

No differences in adherence among groups (81–89% by tablet counting)


Western Australia

Ca: 1,010 mg/d


Moschonis and Manios, 2006

Health status: Postmenopausal

Diet vit D: 23.6 IU/d

300 IU vit D3/d + 1,200 mg Ca/d (from low-fat dairy products) vs. control (usual diet)

Dairy group 93% (assessed via information obtained at the biweekly sessions)

Control group had no intervention (or usual diet), so compliance issue not applicable

Mean age (range), y: 61 (55–65)

Male (%): 0

Ca 680.0 mg/d

Greece (31°N)


NOTE: IU = International Units; nd = not determined; SD = standard deviation; UK = United Kingdom; vit = vitamin; y = year(s).

aThis table has been truncated for the purposes of this chapter, but it can be found in its entirety in Appendix D.

SOURCE: Chung et al. (2009).

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