. "4 Review of Potential Indicators of Adequacy and Selection of Indicators: Calcium and Vitamin D." Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2011.
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DRI Dietary Reference Intakes Calcium Vitamin D
AHRQ Findings by Life Stage for 25OHD and Fractures*
0–6 months: Not reviewed
7 months–2 years: Not reviewed
3–8 years: Not reviewed
9–18 years: Not reviewed
19–50 years: No data
51–70 years: The AHRQ-Ottawa report concluded that the associations between serum 25OHD concentrations and risk of fractures are inconsistent. No new data were identified in the AHRQ-Tufts report.
≥ 71 years: Findings from three new RCTs did not show significant effects of either vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 supplementation (daily doses ranged from 400 to 822 IU) in reducing the risk of total fractures among men and women in this life stage.
Postmenopause: The AHRQ-Ottawa report concluded that the associations between serum 25OHD concentrations and risk of fractures are inconsistent. No new data were identified in the AHRQ-Tufts report.
Pregnant and lactating women: Not reviewed
*Evidence from AHRQ-Ottawa; information from AHRQ-Tufts as noted.
SOURCE: Modified from Chung et al. (2009).
for studies that used vitamin D3 plus or minus calcium versus placebo.
As highlighted above, the benefit in community-dwelling individuals was inconsistent, but benefit was evidenced for institutionalized individuals. As reported by AHRQ-Tufts, findings from three RCTs that postdated AHRQ-Ottawa (Bunout et al., 2006; Burleigh et al., 2007; Lyons et al., 2007) did not show significant effects of either vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 supplementation (daily doses of 400 to 822 IU) in reducing the risk of total fractures (Table 4-12). The findings from AHRQ are summarized by DRI-relevant life stage groups in Box 4-6.
Rickets in children Rickets was explored by AHRQ-Ottawa relative to serum 25OHD measures only. Overall, there was fair evidence for an association between low serum 25OHD concentrations and confirmed rickets, regardless of the types of assays used to measure serum 25OHD concentrations. There is inconsistent evidence to determine whether there is a