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TABLE 5-3 Vitamin D Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Adequacy (amount/day)

Life Stage Group

AI

EAR

RDA

Infants

 

 

 

0 to 6 mo

400 IU (10 µg)

6 to 12 mo

400 IU (10 µg)

Children

 

 

 

1–3 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

4–8 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

Males

 

 

 

9–13 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

14–18 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

19–30 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

31–50 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

51–70 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

> 70 y

400 IU (10 µg)

800 IU (20 µg)

Females

 

 

 

9–13 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

14–18 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

19–30 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

31–50 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

51–70 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

> 70 y

400 IU (10 µg)

800 IU (20 µg)

Pregnancy

 

 

 

14–18 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

19–30 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

31–50 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

Lactation

 

 

 

14–18 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

19–30 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

31–50 y

400 IU (10 µg)

600 IU (15 µg)

NOTE: AI = Adequate Intake; EAR = Estimated Average Requirement; IU = International Unit; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance.

through exposure to sunlight, the estimation of DRIs for vitamin D immediately requires a plethora of related considerations ranging from factors that affect and alter sun exposure and vitamin D synthesis, to public health recommendations regarding the need to limit sun exposure to avoid cancer risk. Just as importantly, the available data have not sufficiently explored the relationship between total intake of vitamin D per se and health outcomes. In short, a dose–response relationship between vitamin D intake and bone health is lacking. Rather, measures of serum 25OHD levels as a biomarker of exposure (i.e., intake) are more prevalent.

After considering the available evidence, including data published



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