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DRI Dietary Reference Intakes Calcium Vitamin D
Among the U.S. population, about 43 percent of all persons—but almost 70 percent of older women—reported calcium intake from supplements, based on a national survey conducted between 2003 and 2006 (Bailey et al., 2010). When calcium from supplement use is taken into account based on these survey data, the average intake increases by about 7 percent for males and 14 percent for females. However, this is not a meaningful snapshot of the effect of supplement use, because non-users of supplements are averaged with users, meaning that the effect is much more skewed than can be reflected by a mean estimate. Similar data are not available for Canada, but the frequency of use data show that 48 to 82 percent of Canadians reported taking a calcium supplement within the previous 30 days (2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, personal communication, D. Brulé, Health Canada, April 29, 2010).
The most common forms of supplemental calcium are calcium carbonate and calcium citrate.2 The bioavailability of the calcium in these forms is discussed below in the section titled “Other Factors Related to Calcium Nutriture.” Generally fewer tablets of calcium carbonate are required to achieve given dose of elemental calcium because calcium carbonate generally provides 40 percent elemental calcium, compared with 21 percent for calcium citrate. Thus, costs tend to be lower with calcium carbonate (Heaney et al., 2001; Keller et al., 2002) than with calcium citrate, and compliance may be higher among patients who do not want to take (or have difficulty swallowing) multiple pills. Chewable calcium carbonate supplements are also available. However, compared with calcium citrate, calcium carbonate is more often associated with gastrointestinal side effects, including constipation, flatulence, and bloating (Straub, 2007). Calcium citrate is less dependent than calcium carbonate on stomach acid for absorption (Hunt and Johnson, 1983; Recker, 1985; Straub, 2007) and thus can be taken without food. It is useful for individuals with achlorhydria, inflammatory bowel disease, or absorption disorders or who are taking histamine-2 receptor blockers or proton pump inhibitors; for residents of long-term care facilities where calcium supplements are not given with meals; and for others whose schedules preclude taking supplements with food (Bo-Linn et al., 1984; Carr and Shangraw, 1987; Straub, 2007). Calcium can compete or interfere with the absorption of iron, zinc, and magnesium. For this reason, persons with known deficiencies of these other minerals who require calcium supplementation usually take calcium supplements between meals (Straub, 2007).
Other forms of calcium dietary supplements include lactate, gluconate, glucoheptonate, and hydroxyapatite; their relevance for life stage groups may vary.