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Potential Indicators of Health Outcomes for Nutrient Adequacy for Calcium and Vitamin D


  • All cancers

  • Breast cancer

  • Colorectal cancer/colon polyps

  • Prostate cancer

Cardiovascular diseases and hypertension

Diabetes (type 2) and metabolic syndrome (obesity)


Immune responses

  • Asthma

  • Autoimmune disease

    • Diabetes (type 1)

    • Inflammatory bowel and Crohn’s disease

    • Multiple sclerosis

    • Rheumatoid arthritis

    • Systemic lupus erythematosus

  • Infectious diseases

    • Tuberculosis

    • Influenza/upper respiratory infections

Neuropsychological functioning

  • Autism

  • Cognitive function

  • Depression

Physical performance*

Preeclampsia of pregnancy and other non-skeletal reproductive outcomes

Skeletal health (commonly bone health)

  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, as intermediate

  • Parathyroid hormone, as intermediate

  • Calcium absorption

  • Calcium balance

  • Bone mineral content/bone mineral density

  • Fracture risk

  • Rickets/osteomalacia


*In the discussions related to review of potential indicators, physical performance is considered together with falls.

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