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The committee found that the greatest information gaps, and thus the most critical research needs, are related to the so-called hazard identification and hazard characterization steps in which the relationship between the nutrient and health outcomes are established. These needs for calcium and vitamin D DRI development relate to further exploring and describing both skeletal as well as non-skeletal health outcomes, long-term adverse effects of high levels of intake, and data to clarify the dose–response to intake. In the case of vitamin D, understanding the impact of sun exposure presents many challenges. Specific to the selected indicator (i.e., bone health), there is a need for more and better data related to the relatively unstudied life stage groups of children and young adults and the differences among racial/ethnic groups. Furthermore, the committee found a pressing public health need for development of consensus, science-based guidelines to establish cut-point levels for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency.


Brannon, P. M., E. A. Yetley, R. L. Bailey and M. F. Picciano. 2008. Summary of roundtable discussion on vitamin D research needs. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 88(2): 587S-92S.

Chung, M., E. M. Balk, S. Ip, J. Lee, T. Terasawa, G. Raman, T. Trikalinos, A. H. Lichtenstein and J. Lau. 2010. Systematic review to support the development of nutrient reference intake values: challenges and solutions. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 92(2): 273-6.

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