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LC Liquid chromatography

LOAEL Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level

LS Lumbar spine

LSM Least squares mean

MAS Milk-alkali syndrome

MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination

mo Month(s)

mRNA Messenger ribonucleic acid

MrOS Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study

MS Mass spectrometry; Multiple sclerosis

MS/MS Tandem mass spectrometry

NA Not applicable

NCa Normocalcemic

NCHS National Center for Health Statistics

NCI National Cancer Institute

ND Not determined

NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NHS Nurses’ Health Study

NIH National Institutes of Health

NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology

NOAEL No-observed-adverse-effect level

NOD Nonobese diabetic

NR Not reported

NS Not significant

OA Osteoarthritis

OC Oral contraceptive

OP Osteoporosis

OR Odds ratio

OV Osteoid volume

PLCO Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

PM Postmenopausal

POMS Profile of Mood States

PTH Parathyroid hormone

PTHrP Parathyroid hormone–related protein

RA Rheumatoid arthritis

RANK Receptor activator for nuclear factor κ B

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