Is there a level of sunlight exposure that is sufficient to maintain adequate vitamin D levels but does not increase the risk of non-melanoma or melanoma skin cancer?
Does intake of vitamin D above current reference intakes lead to toxicities (e.g., hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and calcification of soft tissue or major organs)?
The review focused on electronic searches of the medical literature to identify publications addressing the aforementioned questions. Out of 9,150 citations, 112 RCTs, 19 prospective cohorts, 30 case–control studies, and 6 before-after studies were systematically reviewed, and each was rated on quality and used to assess the strength of evidence for each outcome.
The methods and results chapters of the AHRQ-Ottawa evidence review are reprinted below. The report in its entirety, including appendices and evidence tables, can be accessed and viewed at http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/tp/vitadtp.htm#Report.
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Appendix C: Methods and Results from the AHRQ-Ottawa Evidence-Based Report on Effectiveness and Safety of Vitamin D in Relation to Bone Health ."
Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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As of 2013, the National Science Education Standards have been replaced by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), available as a print book, free PDF download, and online with our OpenBook platform.
The NGSS offer a detailed description of the key scientific ideas and practices that all students should learn by the time they graduate from high school. The standards are based largely on the 2011 National Research Council report A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas.