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TABLE S-2 Vitamin D Dietary Reference Intakes by Life Stage (amount/day)

Life Stage Group

AI

EAR

RDA

UL

Infants

 

 

 

 

0 to 6 mo

400 IU (10 μg)

1,000 IU (25 μg)

6 to 12 mo

400 IU (10 μg)

1,500 IU (38 μg)

Children

 

 

 

 

1–3 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

2,500 IU (63 μg)

4–8 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

3,000 IU (75 μg)

Males

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

14–18 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

19–30 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

31–50 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

51–70 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

> 70 y

400 IU (10 μg)

800 IU (20 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

Females

 

 

 

 

9–13 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

14–18 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

19–30 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

31–50 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

51–70 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

> 70 y

400 IU (10 μg)

800 IU (20 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

Pregnancy

 

 

 

 

14–18 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

19–30 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

31–50 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

Lactation

 

 

 

 

14–18 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

19–30 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

31–50 y

400 IU (10 μg)

600 IU (15 μg)

4,000 IU (100 μg)

NOTE: AI = Adequate Intake; EAR = Estimated Average Requirement; IU = International Units; RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance; UL = Tolerable Upper Intake Level.

distribution suggested no effect due to age. However, there is notable variability around these estimates in the case of bone health for older persons. This suggests that the assumption about the variance associated with coverage for 97.5 percent of the population should be greater for this older group than for the younger group. Therefore, the RDA value for persons older than 70 years of age was increased to a level greater than the two standard deviations used for other groups. In fact, available data provide more information about maximal population coverage than they do about average requirements for these life stage groups. The factors taken into account included changes in bone density and fracture risk. For infants, an AI was established based on evidence that maintaining serum 25OHD levels in the range of 40 to 50 nmol/L (16 to 20 ng/mL) was desirable,



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