4
Infrastructure Needs and Recommendations

The science research questions posed in Chapter 2 and the infrastructure categories described in Chapter 3 lead to a number of major ocean infrastructure needs anticipated for 2030. First, this chapter details overarching infrastructure needs related to a majority of the scientific questions and societal objectives discussed elsewhere in the report. Each societal objective is then examined for needs of special note, followed by a summary of recommendations regarding ocean research infrastructure for national needs. Finally, Table 4.1 summarizes the categories of infrastructure. The table details the essential capabilities each type of asset will need in 2030, as well as capabilities to be advanced or developed. It is worth noting that the complexities of dealing with the harsh ocean environment create special challenges for building and maintaining robust research infrastructure.

OVERARCHING INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS

Ships, satellite remote sensing, arrays of in situ observations, and shore-based laboratories are the foundation for ocean research infrastructure. The most essential infrastructure component will continue to be the ability for scientists to go to sea aboard research vessels, a capability that complements and enables the increasing suite of autonomous technologies and remote sensing data expected to be available in the next two decades. Ships form the backbone for all ocean observations; for example, they serve as platforms for sample collection, for deployment of remotely operated and autonomous vehicles, and as tenders for instrument maintenance. Shore-based laboratory facilities will continue to be required as a natural extension to ship-based sampling, for analytical work, and for coastal observations.

Several space-based observations are key for the ocean sciences, such as vector sea surface winds, all-weather sea surface temperatures, sea ice distribution and thickness, ocean color and ecosystem dynamics, dust transport, sea surface height and topography, and mass balance of ice sheets. Planned missions with sensors that provide global coverage of ocean salinity1 and atmospheric carbon dioxide2 will add to this measurement base.

The global, internationally supported array of 3,000 Argo profiling floats (measuring temperature, salinity, and depth) is another critical component. Expansion of this network, both in terms of numbers and capabilities, will further enable study of the ocean’s physical, biological, and chemical processes while providing essential data for assimilation into global models. Sensor capabilities for profiling floats are expanding (e.g., oxygen [O2], bio-optics, nitrates, rainfall rates, vertical current speeds), with additional sensors for pH, pCO2, and acoustics in development.

Extensive fleets of underwater gliders and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) capable of operating in both expeditionary and long-duration modes, outfitted with a much broader suite of multidisciplinary, biofouling-resistant sensors will also be needed (e.g., physical [conductivity, temperature, and depth; stable salinity], chemical [O2, pH, nitrate], biological [acoustic, genomic], biogeochemical, and imagery [visual, acoustic]). AUVs will be capable of providing increased power and space for advanced sensors and more complex payloads. Moorings and ships with more capable sensors will provide local refinement needed for further quantification of processes measured and offer replenishment to AUVs operating in the vicinity.

The nested observation network together with embedded campaigns described above place a premium on widely shared data; this will achieve greater success if incentives are included for commercial operations in the coastal region to participate in data collection and use. Data management and data repositories are and will become increasingly important given the large data sets being collected for both global and regional studies, including climatological, oceanographic, geological, chemical, and biological data. Many of the science questions and societal objectives will require adaptive sampling as well as event response capabilities (see Box 4.1).



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4 Infrastructure Needs and Recommendations of ocean salinity1 and atmospheric carbon dioxide2 will add The science research questions posed in Chapter 2 and the infrastructure categories described in Chapter 3 lead to a to this measurement base. number of major ocean infrastructure needs anticipated for The global, internationally supported array of 3,000 2030. First, this chapter details overarching infrastructure Argo profiling floats (measuring temperature, salinity, and needs related to a majority of the scientific questions and depth) is another critical component. Expansion of this net- societal objectives discussed elsewhere in the report. Each work, both in terms of numbers and capabilities, will further societal objective is then examined for needs of special enable study of the ocean’s physical, biological, and chemi- note, followed by a summary of recommendations regard - cal processes while providing essential data for assimilation ing ocean research infrastructure for national needs. Fi- into global models. Sensor capabilities for profiling floats nally, Table 4.1 summarizes the categories of infrastructure. are expanding (e.g., oxygen [O2], bio-optics, nitrates, rainfall The table details the essential capabilities each type of asset rates, vertical current speeds), with additional sensors for pH, will need in 2030, as well as capabilities to be advanced pCO2, and acoustics in development. or developed. It is worth noting that the complexities of Extensive fleets of underwater gliders and autonomous dealing with the harsh ocean environment create special underwater vehicles (AUVs) capable of operating in both challenges for building and maintaining robust research expeditionary and long-duration modes, outfitted with a infrastructure. much broader suite of multidisciplinary, biofouling-resistant sensors will also be needed (e.g., physical [conductivity, temperature, and depth; stable salinity], chemical [O2, pH, OVERARCHING INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS nitrate], biological [acoustic, genomic], biogeochemical, Ships, satellite remote sensing, arrays of in situ obser- and imagery [visual, acoustic]). AUVs will be capable of vations, and shore-based laboratories are the foundation for providing increased power and space for advanced sensors ocean research infrastructure. The most essential infrastruc- and more complex payloads. Moorings and ships with more ture component will continue to be the ability for scientists capable sensors will provide local refinement needed for to go to sea aboard research vessels, a capability that comple- further quantification of processes measured and offer re- ments and enables the increasing suite of autonomous tech- plenishment to AUVs operating in the vicinity. nologies and remote sensing data expected to be available in The nested observation network together with embed- the next two decades. Ships form the backbone for all ocean ded campaigns described above place a premium on widely observations; for example, they serve as platforms for sample shared data; this will achieve greater success if incentives are collection, for deployment of remotely operated and autono- included for commercial operations in the coastal region to mous vehicles, and as tenders for instrument maintenance. participate in data collection and use. Data management and Shore-based laboratory facilities will continue to be required data repositories are and will become increasingly important as a natural extension to ship-based sampling, for analytical given the large data sets being collected for both global and work, and for coastal observations. regional studies, including climatological, oceanographic, Several space-based observations are key for the ocean geological, chemical, and biological data. Many of the sci- sciences, such as vector sea surface winds, all-weather sea ence questions and societal objectives will require adaptive surface temperatures, sea ice distribution and thickness, sampling as well as event response capabilities (see Box 4.1). ocean color and ecosystem dynamics, dust transport, sea sur- face height and topography, and mass balance of ice sheets. 1 http://aquarius.nasa.gov/. Planned missions with sensors that provide global coverage 2 http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov/. 41

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42 CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR OCEAN RESEARCH AND SOCIETAL NEEDS IN 2030 BOX 4.1 Ocean Infrastructure Needs: A Case Study from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico provides a example of how infrastructure from a diverse range of academic, federal, and commercial entities was required to respond to the disaster in a timely fashion. A notable feature is that no single sector (government, industry, or aca - demia) had sufficient infrastructure to adequately handle the incident. Instead, assets from many sources and sectors were pooled for the effort. Response was limited to those sectors that had available resources that could be provided in a timely fashion, arguing for some infrastructure redundancy to be built into future inventories. The response to the oil spill was coordinated through the federal government, which reached out to external partners to develop an ocean observing capacity to improve field planning and forecast skill for the trajectory of the oil. The Navy provided ocean current forecasts informed by a variety of data sources. Satellite and high-frequency (HF) CODAR data provided by the federal government and universities were complemented by a wide range of in situ measurements. Ship-based measurements were supplemented by in situ drifters, underwater gliders, and remotely operated vehicles (figure, below). Data and findings were communicated through specialized web portals that were designed to facilitate collaboration between far-flung team members. For example, the glider network deployed to study the circulation represented assets from the U.S. government, industry, nonprofit groups, and universities throughout the country. The availability of web-based social networks allowed this distributed team to work together to define circulation patterns and better understand the potential dispersion of oil throughout the Gulf. Some of the infrastructure deployed during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The color map and vectors represents a Naval Oceanographic Office ocean model simulation, and graphics and tracks represent in situ assets that were deployed in response to the spill. Figure 4-1 R01905 Ocean Research vector editable color in the ocean sciences and is a major impetus for needed Enabling Stewardship of the Environment scaled for landscape above; scaled for portrait belowand sampling capabilities to improvements in both sensor The ability to observe, understand, and predict changes meet needs in 2030. to the environment, such as the climate system, ocean Another component essential for environmental chemistry, ecosystems, and the water cycle, requires a stewardship are accurate measures of sea level, presently comprehensive array of ocean infrastructure. Importantly, accomplished through a network of tide gauges as well these problems demand capacity at both global scales and as observations of precipitation over the open ocean, river regional scales, to examine areas of high stress (e.g., coastal runoff, sea surface height, and surface currents. This soci- zone) or rapid change (e.g., polar regions). Environmental etal need is also driving the development of comprehensive stewardship demands the full array of present capabilities global ocean models at higher spatial and temporal resolu-

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43 INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS tion, with coupled biological and chemical systems, as well Quantifying the role of humans in altering coastal eco- as the need for specific process models and the availability systems will require sustained observations (especially in of additional capabilities (e.g., tide models to reliably pre- urbanized or populated coastal regions), as well as utiliza- dict storm surge associated with sea level rise). Data will tion of new suites of biological and genomic sensors and be assimilated into modeling capabilities that include fully instruments to detect and quantify a variety of pollutants and coupled air-sea-land regional forecast models. emerging contaminants or pathogens. Regional spatial map- In addition, infrastructure assets targeted specifically to ping will need to be coupled to data-assimilative physical observe impacts of geoengineering (e.g., deep ocean obser- and biological models. This will require augmenting marine vations for liquid CO2 sequestration; upper ocean observing stations and coastal networks with mobile platforms capable systems for iron fertilization experiments) will be required as of providing the spatial data in a sustained manner as well the likelihood of such activities increases. Stewardship of the as during events. These coupled networks can be combined environment will also require the capability and flexibility to with marine geospatial planning tools and high-resolution make disparate, distributed infrastructure assets available in regional models nested with forecast models to provide the event of oil spills and industrial accidents (see Box 4.1). forecasts with sufficient accuracy to assist in marine planning to mitigate physical changes (rising sea level, coastal inunda- tion). The development of cheap and fast analysis systems Protecting Life and Property that can be broadly distributed to coastal areas as well as The infrastructure required to address questions developing nations will be important to address ecosystem associated with the protection of life and property can be and human-health issues on local, regional, and global scales. subdivided into areas related to the solid earth, weather and climate, and human health. The hazards associated with each Promoting Sustainable Economic Vitality of these areas can call for very different types of observa- tions in addition to observations of many common processes. The ocean infrastructure needs associated with eco- However, all efforts to protect life and property have three nomic vitality involve two disparate approaches. The first shared attributes. In each case: approach involves the identification of resources, whether food-based, energy, minerals and materials, or aesthetic and • he primary objective is to increase the likelihood of T social (e.g., tourism, recreation). The second approach in- warning populations in advance of destructive events, volves an assessment of the impacts of resource extraction or thereby limiting the magnitude of the impact. utilization, either to minimize environmental degradation or • key observational strategy is to focus on regions A to ensure sustainable use. Observing systems will thus need prone to certain events (e.g., monitoring the Casca- to support improved understanding of the factors that enable dian margin for earthquakes, or urban beaches for efficient and effective resource extraction while increasing pathogens). the understanding of ocean ecosystem health, and provid- • eeting the primary objective—timely warnings— M ing the observational capability that will allow monitoring requires an increase in predictive capability that of commercial activity and its consequences. Examples ingests significant volumes of real-time multidis- include assessment of fisheries stocks, identification of the ciplinary data and information rapidly across vast location and characteristics of potential energy sources from distances. gas hydrates, or identification of the preferred sites of wind farms based on wind intensity, variability, and persistence. For example, tsunami prediction is dependent on a Each has specific observational requirements. For example, very large network of pressure-sensing buoys that moni- a better understanding of the distribution and characteristics tor the ocean for tsunami-generating waves. High-power of methane hydrates requires subsurface remote sensing and and bandwidth cabled seafloor observatories, networks of safe drilling capabilities. In contrast, surface-based radars, seismometers, passive acoustic systems, and a broad suite vector winds from space, and high-resolution models are re- of sensors deployed on autonomous or moored platforms quired for site assessments for wind farms. Placing HF radars beneath, at and above the ocean or ice surface are also on offshore installations for commercial activities such as necessary infrastructure for earthquake and volcano hazard wind farms, aquaculture, or seafloor resource extraction is a assessments. Accurate maps of the seafloor are a necessary desirable expansion of capability. Coastal and marine spatial prerequisite for solid earth hazard assessments, whether to planning will be needed to organize all of the competing uses improve predictions of tsunami travel times or submarine in the ocean (CEQ, 2010). volcanic eruptions. Finally, communications systems that are In contrast, the determination of the environmental independent of local power fluctuations should be installed in effects of industrial activity will involve repeated surveys or threatened communities to provide warnings and educational continuous monitoring to detect changes in ecosystem struc- programs undertaken so that populations understand what to ture as well as process studies designed to understand eco- do when an event occurs. system response to perturbations characteristic of industrial

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44 CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR OCEAN RESEARCH AND SOCIETAL NEEDS IN 2030 activity or commercial fisheries. Thus, infrastructure needs bilities to address specific processes that require high spatial include efficient methods for a full suite of platforms and resolution computations; and seafloor cabled observatories, sensors for mapping the benthic environment, fluid sampling, which provide a continuous high bandwidth and power for measuring ocean properties, assessing ecosystem structure, sampling a full range of geophysical variables, benthic com- and detecting changes that result from geoengineering or in- munities, and the overlying water column. dustrial activity. This argues for a complex and diverse set of infrastructure deployed at sites of major resource extraction. SUMMARY OF OCEAN INFRASTRUCTURE RECOMMENDATIONS Increasing Fundamental Scientific Understanding Recommendation: To ensure that the United States has the capacity in 2030 to undertake and benefit from Infrastructure that can be used to address fundamental knowledge and innovations possible with oceanographic research questions need targeted observation, analysis, and research, the nation should modeling capabilities at specific spatial and temporal scales, • mplement a comprehensive, long-term research I which can be embedded in a larger dynamical context. fleet plan to retain access to the sea. Increases in fundamental understanding are built upon the • ecover U.S. capability to access fully and par- R global and regional infrastructure described in previous sec- tially ice-covered seas. tions, but very often also enable the ability to address societal • xpand abilities for autonomous monitoring at E concerns. Needs highlighted in this section will not only sup- a wide range of spatial and temporal scales with port the fundamental science questions but will also help to greater sensor and platform capabilities. achieve societal objectives discussed elsewhere in the report. • nable sustained, continuous time-series E Sampling needs include novel biogeochemical sensors measurements. that are resistant to biofouling and adaptable for multiple • aintain continuity of satellite remote sens - M platforms (e.g., ships, drifters, floats, AUVs, moorings) ing and communication capabilities for oceano- to study changes in ocean properties (e.g., acidification); graphic data and sustain plans for new satellite advanced biological and genomic sensors to identify and platforms, sensors, and communication systems. quantify organisms from microbes to marine mammals (e.g., • upport continued innovation in ocean infrastruc- S optical and acoustical techniques for zooplankton biomass ture development. Of particular note is the need to and community structure); sensors that can sample the develop in situ sensors, especially biogeochemical deep ocean biosphere to inform origin of life studies and to sensors. understand how life responds to various kinds of stresses; • ngage allied disciplines and diverse fields to E high-resolution analytical tools that enable detailed analysis leverage technological developments outside of carbon components in the ocean; the capability to inves- oceanography. tigate sensory systems and organism communication in the • ncrease the number and capabilities of broadly I ocean with advanced chemical, acoustic, and optical sensors accessible computing and modeling facilities with on scales from microbes to whales; and satellite or airborne exascale or petascale capability that are dedicated capabilities to study ocean-atmosphere fluxes (e.g., heat, to future oceanographic needs. radiative, mass, chemical, biological). • stablish broadly accessible virtual (distributed) E Other infrastructure required for fundamental under- data centers that have seamless integration of fed- standing includes marine geospatial planning tools that are eral, state, and locally held databases, accompany- coupled to assimilative models in order to manage a variety ing metadata compliant with proven standards, of ocean observations; sustained observations of coastal and intuitive archiving and synthesizing tools. seafloor boundary changes and fluxes via mapping, seismic, • xamine and adopt proven data management E geomagnetic, drilling, borehole, and sediment-water inter- practices from allied disciplines. face observation; advanced downhole remote sensing tools • acilitate broad community access to infrastruc- F to understand fluxes, processes, and reservoirs related to ture assets, including mobile and fixed platforms the formation of Earth’s lithosphere; creation of subsurface and costly analytical equipment. acoustic positional networks; development of advanced fore- • xpand interdisciplinary education and promote E casting models with petascale or exascale3 computing capa- a technically skilled workforce. 3 Most current computing is done at the terascale. Petascale, which is currently being developed, is 1,000 times faster than terascale. Exascale is another 1,000 times faster than petascale (NRC, 2008c).

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45 INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS TABLE 4.1 Summary of Shared Infrastructure Assets and Required Capabilities for 2030 Infrastructure Category and Essential Role in 2030 Capability to Be Advanced Capability to Be Developed MOBILE PLATFORMS Research Vessels Provide access to the sea for process study • Fleet planning as part of a national 5 to 10 campaigns, event-driven responses, surveys year infrastructure review process, including and mapping, and routine monitoring. Ship- platform construction, renewal, and onboard based work will be widely augmented with equipment upgrades over-the-side platforms, as well as remote data and modeling results. • Continued availability of special purpose ships that can also be used for general purpose research • Flexibility in fleet scheduling, for efficient • International sharing agreements and possible use, event response, and surge capacity leasing arrangements to meet special needs (demand for a surge, unforeseen events, and special purpose capabilities like icebreaking or scientific ocean drilling) • Ability to meet increased demand for rapid • Simultaneous over-the-side operations (e.g., launch and recovery for diverse arrays of multiple autonomous platforms, towed systems, autonomous platforms and/or submersibles, perhaps involving multiple wires) • Increased use of volunteer observing ships to collect and transmit underway scientific data to national repositories for verification and analysis Submersible Platforms HOVs and ROVs Provide water column and seafloor access • Improved ability to recover water column, • Continued development of advanced ROV for process study campaigns, event-driven seafloor, and subseafloor samples capabilities (e.g., higher power, greater depth responses, surveys and mapping as well as ratings, sampling tools, sensors) routine monitoring, and sampling. • Broader ranges of biological, chemical, and optical sensors • More sophisticated sonar systems for bathymetry and water column uses • Advancements in underwater navigation • Permanent, large-scale subsurface acoustic for more precise and geodetic referenced positional networks (analogous to GPS) for vehicle locations improved undersea navigation • Continued development of hybrid ROVs • Broader use of nuclear submarines and air- independent propulsion submarines for polar research Towed Systems Provide observations and sampling from • Broader ranges of biological, chemical, • Reconnaissance sampling using high-speed data near surface to just above the seafloor, and imaging sensors uplinks that allow for simultaneous video and with use on research vessels or ships of sample recovery opportunity. Continued

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46 CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR OCEAN RESEARCH AND SOCIETAL NEEDS IN 2030 TABLE 4.1 Continued Infrastructure Category and Essential Role in 2030 Capability to Be Advanced Capability to Be Developed Autonomous and Langrangian Systems (e.g., Drifters, Floats, Gliders, AUVs) Provide scalable, adaptable arrays with near • Scalable, multiplatform arrays capable • Equip platforms with broader suites of real time observations for process study of local, regional, and global-scale multidisciplinary in situ sensors (detailed in section campaigns, event-driven responses, surveys observations at broader ranges of spatial and below on in situ sensors) and mapping, routine monitoring, and temporal resolution assimilation into forecast models. • Improved battery power for increased • Autonomous refueling, at-sea energy harvesting, mission duration, expanded range, and or other methods for replenishing or self-generating ability to support more sensors power • Expanded ocean depth capability for a • Full ocean depth capability for a variety of variety of platforms platforms • AUVs with larger payloads, higher endurance, and ability to work in rough conditions (e.g., high currents, sea states, ice coverage) and at all expected working temperatures • Improved under ice capability for all autonomous platforms • Increased deployment options for autonomous platforms such as volunteer ships or aerial vehicles • Advancements in underwater navigation • Permanent, large-scale subsurface acoustic for more precise and geodetic referenced positional networks (analogous to GPS) for vehicle locations improved undersea navigation Developmental Concepts Nuture long-term, high-risk, high-reward • Continued support for unique prototypes • Autonomous refueling, at-sea energy harvesting, infrastructure assets. (e.g., benthic landers, AUV seaplanes) or other methods for self-generating power FIXED PLATFORMS AND SYSTEMS Moorings Provide surface and water column • Continued, sustained support of centers observations with high spatial and temporal for deep ocean mooring design, construction resolution, including persistence at key and deployment locations and groundtruth for remote sensing. Provide full integration with mobile autonomous systems. • Ability for docking mobile autonomous systems (e.g., AUVs, benthic crawlers) Cabled Seafloor Observatories • Provide continuous real-time power and • Ability for docking mobile autonomous communication to coastal, deep ocean, and systems (e.g., AUVs, benthic crawlers) seafloor instruments and networks. Routine interactions with mobile autonomous systems. • Multiple data extraction modes (e.g., long range acoustic communication) • Autonomous or manual release of automatically collected data capsules and samples Borehole Sensor Systems • Provide routine and continuous in situ • Continued developed of long-endurance • Local energy harvesting and data telemetry (e.g., measurements of subseafloor properties sensors (e.g., chemical, physical) and clean acoustic modems, LED offload to nearby transiting (e.g., pressure, hydrology, geology, systems for microbial studies platforms) chemistry, biology).

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47 INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS TABLE 4.1 Continued Infrastructure Category and Essential Role in 2030 Capability to Be Advanced Capability to Be Developed • Networking borehole sensors with cabled seafloor observatories for coupled studies of the subseafloor, the seafloor, and adjacent water column IN SITU SENSORS Provide essential measurements over very • Advances in sensor technologies that • Robust, long-endurance autonomy (e.g., broad spatial and temporal scales. Sensor increase survivability while decreasing communications, power) in all environments suites mounted on multiple platforms power consumption and cost including extremes of temperature, chemistry, and provide continuous observations and pressure sustained ocean presence. • Sensor network capabilities to measure optical, physical, and biogeochemical properties (e.g., salinity, oxygen, pH, carbon export) • Biofouling resistant sensors (especially for salinity), in order to increase longevity and mission duration • Reliable, foul-proof sensors for the upper 5 m of the ocean and in coastal regions • Long endurance sensors for deep ocean surveys • Embedded underwater navigation for more precise and geodetic referenced sensor locations Physical Provide measurements essential to physical • Measurements of the exchange of mass process studies and baseline dynamical (e.g., gases, aerosols, sea spray, water contexts for biogeochemical sensors. vapor), momentum, and energy (including heat) across the air-sea interface in a broad variety of conditions (e.g., high wind conditions, severe storms) • Techniques to infer gas exchange under high wind conditions with chemically active (e.g., DMS) and inert (e.g., CO2, Ar) atmospheric gases • Fully networked and widely accessible • Optical imagery for spatial and temporal data on river outflows, precipitation, and observations of ocean surface, estuarine, and from tide gauges riverine processes Chemical Provide routine time-series measurements • Observations of the carbon dioxide system for major and trace elements, carbon (including pH), major and micronutrients, species, nutrients, and pollutants in a broad and elemental speciation of key range of environments. micronutrients (such as iron) • High-resolution analytical tools that enable detailed analysis of oceanic carbon components • More portable micronutrient analytical systems and speciation analysis for assessing micronutrient speciation and determining its influence on biological activity • Sensor methods for surface micro-layer chemistry • Sensors for identification of chemical • Cheap, easily available sampling systems for pollutants testing for chemical pollutants Continued

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48 CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR OCEAN RESEARCH AND SOCIETAL NEEDS IN 2030 TABLE 4.1 Continued Infrastructure Category and Essential Role in 2030 Capability to Be Advanced Capability to Be Developed Biological Provide routine measurements with small, • Development of methods to obtain inexpensive sensors that replicate current organism-specific growth rates and complicated laboratory techniques and yield advective, turbulent, and sinking fluxes data for developing coupled models. • Sensors for identification of plankton • Cheap, species survey sampling systems for broad biomass and community structure—genetic, distribution throughout coastal regions imaging, and acoustic • Sensors for identification of higher trophic • High throughput genomic, protionomic, levels (e.g., fish, marine mammals)— metabolamic techniques genetic, imaging, and acoustic • Sensors for toxin identification (including • Cheap, small toxin sampling systems for broad harmful algal blooms and pathogens) distribution throughout coastal regions • Wide-area benthic sensors for seafloor mapping to provide estimates of benthic community state and function Geological/Geophysical Provide measurements for understanding • Seafloor strain measurements (e.g., • Global-scale, reliable, continuous sensor networks solid earth processes of the ocean crust and extensometer), seismic reflection and for real-time measurement and warning of seismic, mitigating geohazards. refraction to detect seismic events in remote volcanic, or mass wasting events areas of the ocean • Ability to measure bathymetry and processes occurring beneath and at the margins of glaciers, ice shelves, and sea ice including observations at the base of the ice canopy • Deepwater mapping systems with better • Wide-area benthic sensors for seafloor mapping sensors (e.g., lower power) and automatic at high resolution, including the ability to penetrate seafloor classification algorithms the seafloor • EM sensors that provide proxies for crustal fluids SAMPLING SYSTEMS Provide systematic collection of physical samples for study, routine monitoring, and groundtruth of in situ sensors and remote sensing. Chemical • Broader availability of uncontaminated • Clean and compact systems that could be systems and methods (e.g., GEOTRACES deployed on autonomous platforms and/or rosettes) moorings Biological • Automatic classification for biological species including automated image recognition, tagging, and acoustic spectroscopy Geological • Broader availability of shallow crust coring systems aboard multi-purpose or leased vessels • Broader use of seafloor rock drills on purposed ROVs

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49 INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS TABLE 4.1 Continued Infrastructure Category and Essential Role in 2030 Capability to Be Advanced Capability to Be Developed REMOTE SENSING Provide remote observations over broad • Swath altimeters that provide higher temporal and spatial scales for sea surface resolution sea surface height fields and height, temperature, and salinity; ocean submesoscale (<10 km) resolution closer to color; winds; precipitation; ice; and the coast radiation. • Improved coastal remote sensing algorithms for ocean color • Nested imagery in order to scale spatial and temporal variabilities for comparison to point measurements • Interferometer scatterometers that provide higher resolution wind fields closer to the coast • LIDAR for near-surface ocean and ice sheet measurements • Sensors that combine infrared and microwave channels to provide all-weather sea surface temperature fields with higher spatial and temporal resolution • Higher spectral resolution • Remote estimates of river outflows and tidal, surge, and inundation elevations • More robust wetland remote sensing to include key biological, geological, and chemical parameters • Capability to study ocean-atmosphere fluxes Satellite Provide global to regional scale remote • Sustained gravity missions that inform observations. crustal, ocean circulation, and geoid observations • Geostationary ocean color and LIDAR remote sensing capability Airborne Provide low-cost, regional to local-scale • Increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles • Use of commercial aircraft to collect and transmit remote observations with adaptive and for campaigns and monitoring ocean surface observations event-driven capabilities. • Ability to remotely measure ocean surface and ice properties beneath cloud cover Fixed Systems Extend observational systems to increasing • Increased use of electro-optical and numbers offshore, land, and ice locations infrared instruments for monitoring and for both fundamental research (e.g., coastal long time-series data circulation models) and applied needs (e.g., search and rescue, safe offshore platform operations). • Completion of the land-based HF radar • Extension of broad area surface current arrays network (e.g., HF radar, optical imagery) to offshore activities (e.g., offshore platforms, wind farms, volunteer observing ships) • Increased use of tethered aerial platforms • Increased data gathering capabilities through expanded use of commercial ocean activities Continued

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50 CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR OCEAN RESEARCH AND SOCIETAL NEEDS IN 2030 TABLE 4.1 Continued Infrastructure Category and Essential Role in 2030 Capability to Be Advanced Capability to Be Developed MODELING AND COMPUTATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE Community-based centers with capabilities • Broadly accessible centers with exascale • Direct assimilation of many additional channels for increased resolution models supporting or petascale capability to support and run of remotely sensed and in situ global array data basic research and operational assimilative coupled models; store and manage vast (versus algorithmic or other preprocessing of the predictions. amounts of diverse information; visualize, data) query and interpret data in four dimensions; and also mine, distill, and summarize key information • Skillful parameterizations of upper ocean mixing, including production of marine aerosols and indirect climatic influences with reliable methods to separate marine aerosol from other type of aerosols (i.e., land, pollution) • Regional predictions of anthropogenic CO2 uptake and release • Increased coupling of biogeochemical and physical models • Quantitative rate laws that can be • Food web models that can accurately predict the incorporated into biogeochemical models competitive success of specific taxa • Integration of the deep ocean with the • Marine resource estimates for projected growth of shelf seas for ecosystem-based management, industrial activities in the oceans including safety and environmental impacts for various industrial activities • Coupled ice, ocean, and atmospheric models to predict ice movement and thickness and to link with observed changes in ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles in polar regions • Coupled ocean, surface wave, and • High-resolution hurricane forecast models that atmospheric models to improve simulations are much more sensitive to effects of the ocean, of severe storms pathways and coastal adjacent coastal lands, and estuaries on storm inundation intensity • Tsunami arrival times and inundation areas • Advanced tsunami warning systems with low false-alarm rates for coastal residents, especially in developing and under-developed countries • Estimating outcomes of geoengineering experiments DATA MANAGEMENT Manage vast amounts of multidisciplinary • Improved approaches to analyze data using • International agreements to make databases data with high informational value for common frameworks and interchangeable broadly accessible fundamental or applied research and societal lexicon (e.g., informatics) use as well as ensure access for a broad base of users. • Archiving and synthesizing tools for • Integrated, open access to local, state, and federal metadata and data metadata and data resources • Protein data banks, sequencing facilities and databases, with metadata on instrumentation, calibrations, analytical sources of error • Virtual (distributed) center for river outflow, precipitation, and tide gauge data

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51 INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS TABLE 4.1 Continued Infrastructure Category and Essential Role in 2030 Capability to Be Advanced Capability to Be Developed • Virtual (distributed) center for land dust transport, waves, surf conditions and surface currents from land, coastal and offshore sites • Sustained, expanded, broadly accessible (distributed) virtual centers for bathymetry, sidescan, multibeam and seismic data storage DATA TELEMETRY AND COMMUNICATIONS Maintain and expand robust two-way • Expand redundant, parallel, and standard • Establish “store and forward” communication communications for a broad range of ocean communication pathways to avoid capabilities using industrial partners (e.g., research infrastructure. dependence on a single infrastructure passenger planes in high latitudes, offshore provider commercial operations, etc.) ENABLING ORGANIZATIONS Sponsors Maintain U.S. ocean science strength • Greater use of interagency and • Increased private-sector participation via through diversity of funding sources and cross-sector programs (e.g., National foundations and service sectors of the ocean the variety of sectors represented, ensuring Oceanographic Partnership Program) industry (e.g., oil and gas, shipping) flexibility in how research is performed and evaluated. Shipboard Technical Support Provide professional technical support to • Broader skill sets to keep pace with embarked research teams. emerging new systems, techniques and communications Community Facilities and Centers Provide and sustain physical or virtual • Broader access to calibration standards • Increased private-sector participation via (distributed) advanced community-wide and complex (chemical, genetic, optical, foundations and service sectors of the ocean facilities for ocean research infrastructure acoustic) analytical instruments industry where users can interact with cutting-edge technology in a manner that simplifies operations and maintenance requirements and/or lowers purchase and operation costs. • Shore-based laboratory that provide capabilities for high-throughput measurements and maintain complicated, expensive equipment • Sustained expertise to continued • Community facilities that support scientific operations and increased access to polar operations in all types of extreme or remote field stations environments • Biological laboratory facilities for constraining organism life history parameters for ecosystem models (e.g., sensitivity to temperature, nutrient concentration, presence of other organisms)

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