Asymptomatic infection: An infection where the patient does not have any apparent symptoms (also known as a subclinical infection).
Bacteria: Microscopic, single-celled organisms that have some biochemical and structural features different from those of animal and plant cells. Bovine tuberculosis: Tuberculosis in cattle caused by infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis that can be transmitted to other animals and to humans.
Brucellosis: An infectious disease caused by the bacteria of the genus Brucella. These bacteria are primarily passed among animals, and they cause disease in many different vertebrates. Humans become infected by coming in contact with animals or animal products that are contaminated with these bacteria, and the disease can cause a range of symptoms that are similar to the flu and may include fever, sweats, headaches, back pains, and physical weakness.
Buruli ulcer: A chronic, indolent, necrotizing disease of the skin and soft tissue caused by toxin-producing mycobacteria, Mycobacterium ulcerans. It is the third most common mycobacterial disease of immunocompetent hosts after tuberculosis and leprosy.
Chagas disease: A potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Predominantly found in Latin America, T. cruzi is commonly transmitted to humans and other mammals by an insect vector.
Convenience sampling: A nonprobability sampling technique where subjects are selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher; see http://www.experiment-resources.com/convenience-sampling.html (accessed December 2, 2010).
Cysticercosis: A parasitic tissue infection caused by larval cysts of the pork tapeworm. These larval cysts infect brain, muscle, or other tissue and are a major cause of adult-onset seizures in most low-income countries. An individual acquires cysticercosis from ingesting eggs excreted by a person who has an intestinal tapeworm.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV): A common virus that infects people of all ages. Most CMV infections are “silent”; most people who are infected with CMV have no signs or symptoms. CMV can cause symptomatic disease in people with a weakened immune system and in babies infected before birth.