Whipple’s disease; and some of the most extensive and revealing analyses to date of the human indigenous microbial ecosystem.

Dr. Relman advises the U.S. government, as well as nongovernmental organizations, in matters pertaining to microbiology, emerging infectious diseases, and biosecurity. He is a member of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, a member of the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate Review Committee for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and he advises several U.S. government departments and agencies on matters related to pathogen diversity, the future life sciences landscape, and the nature of present and future biological threats. He has served as Chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (National Institutes of Health [NIH]) and as a member of the Board of Directors, Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Dr. Relman is currently Vice-Chair of a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study of the science underlying the Federal Bureau of Investigation investigation of the 2001 anthrax mailings, and he co-chaired a three-year NAS study that produced a widely cited report titled Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences (2006). He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology and a member of the Association of American Physicians. Dr. Relman received the Squibb Award from the IDSA in 2001 and was the recipient of both the NIH Director’s Pioneer Award and the Distinguished Clinical Scientist Award from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation in 2006.

James M. Hughes, M.D. (Vice-Chair), is professor of medicine and public health at Emory University’s School of Medicine and Rollins School of Public Health, serving as director of the Emory Program in Global Infectious Diseases, executive director of the Southeastern Center for Emerging Biological Threats, and senior advisor to the Emory Center for Global Safe Water. He is the senior scientific advisor for infectious diseases to the International Association of National Public Health Institutes funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Prior to joining Emory in June 2005, Dr. Hughes served as director of the National Center for Infectious Diseases (NCID) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Dr. Hughes received his B.A. and M.D. degrees from Stanford University and completed postgraduate training in internal medicine at the University of Washington, infectious diseases at the University of Virginia, and preventive medicine at CDC. After joining CDC as an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer in 1973, Dr. Hughes worked initially on food-borne and water-related diseases and subsequently on infection control in health care settings. He served as director of CDC’s Hospital Infections Program from 1983 to 1988, as deputy director of NCID from 1988 to 1992, and as director of NCID from 1992 to 2005. A major focus of Dr. Hughes’ career is on building partnerships among the clinical, research, public health, and veterinary communities to prevent and respond to infectious diseases at the national and global levels. His research interests include emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance,

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