Howard Koh, M.D.

Assistant Secretary for Health

200 Independence Avenue SW Hubert H. Humphrey Building, 7-716G Washington, DC 20201

Dear Dr. Koh:

In response to a request from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) established the Committee on Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2020 to develop and recommend 12 indicators and 24 objectives for consideration by HHS for guiding a national health agenda and for consideration for inclusion in Healthy People 2020. It was anticipated that the work of the committee would build upon the 1999 IOM report, Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2010, and on the work of the Committee on the State of the USA Health Indicators. The product of the committee was to be a consensus letter report.

In conducting its work, the committee was asked to

  1. Review current and past health indicators sets, including Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators, the State of the USA (SUSA) indicators, and the Community Health Status Indicators;

  2. Give consideration to provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that mandate the establishment of key national indicators and prevention-related measures, goals, and objectives;

  3. Define basic principles or purposes for Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicators;

  4. Develop criteria for selecting Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicators. Such criteria should be actionable and reflect the importance of science, evidence, and public health concerns. Development of such criteria should involve consideration of Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators and reflect the Healthy People 2020 framework that includes new issues and topics (e.g., health communication and health information technology);

  5. Choose indicators that, to the extent possible, have annual data sources, with comparable data available at the state and county level; and

  6. Identify 24 objectives drawn from Healthy People 2020 and 12 topics under which the selected objectives will be organized.

During the HHS presentation of the charge to the committee on November 8, 2010, the committee was informed that since only 39 of



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 1
Howard Koh, M.D. Assistant Secretary for Health 200 Independence Avenue SW Hubert H. Humphrey Building, 7-716G Washington, DC 20201 Dear Dr. Koh: In response to a request from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) established the Commit - tee on Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2020 to develop and recommend 12 indicators and 24 objectives for consideration by HHS for guiding a national health agenda and for consideration for inclusion in Healthy People 2020. It was anticipated that the work of the commit - tee would build upon the 1999 IOM report, Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2010, and on the work of the Committee on the State of the USA Health Indicators. The product of the committee was to be a consensus letter report. In conducting its work, the committee was asked to 1. Review current and past health indicators sets, including Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators, the State of the USA (SUSA) indicators, and the Community Health Status Indicators; 2. Give consideration to provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act that mandate the establishment of key national indicators and prevention-related measures, goals, and objectives; 3. Define basic principles or purposes for Healthy People 2020 Lead- ing Health Indicators; 4. Develop criteria for selecting Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicators. Such criteria should be actionable and reflect the impor- tance of science, evidence, and public health concerns. Develop- ment of such criteria should involve consideration of Healthy Peo - ple 2010 Leading Health Indicators and reflect the Healthy People 2020 framework that includes new issues and topics (e.g., health communication and health information technology); 5. Choose indicators that, to the extent possible, have annual data sources, with comparable data available at the state and county level; and 6. Identify 24 objectives drawn from Healthy People 2020 and 12 top - ics under which the selected objectives will be organized. During the HHS presentation of the charge to the committee on November 8, 2010, the committee was informed that since only 39 of 1

OCR for page 1
2 LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 the 42 Healthy People 2020 topics had written objectives, the committee could propose objectives for the three topics under development. Those topics are: social determinants of health; health-related quality of life and well-being; and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health. The com - mittee also received clarification from HHS that the 12 topics selected by the committee did not need to be drawn from the list of 42 topics listed in Healthy People 2020. The following pages make up the letter report and provide the com- mittee’s recommendations regarding that task described above. The report is organized as follows. First is a brief discussion of Healthy People 2020, its mission, goals, and foundation health measures, all of which served as background information for the committee in completing its task. Next is the presentation of the committee’s recommendations concerning topics, indicators, and objectives. This is followed by a discussion of the committee process, the framework and the process used to select objec- tives, and a discussion of the selection of topics and indicators. A detailed discussion of each of the selected objectives is then presented as well as suggestions for measures that could be used in the three Healthy People topic areas for which no objectives exist: social determinants of health; health-related quality of life and well being; and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health. HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 Healthy People has evolved during the three decades in which it has existed. In 1990, Healthy People 2000 had two overarching goals, 15 topic areas, and 226 objectives. Today Healthy People 2020 has four overarch - ing goals, 42 topics areas (of which 39 contain objectives), and nearly 600 objectives. The mission of Healthy People 2020 is to · Identify nationwide health improvement priorities; · ncrease public awareness and understanding of determinants of I health, disease, disability, and opportunities for progress; · rovide measureable objectives and goals applicable at national, P state, and local levels; · ngage multiple sectors to take actions to strengthen policies and E improve practices that are driven by the best available evidence and knowledge; and · Identify critical research evaluation and data collection needs. The following are the overarching goals of Healthy People 2020:

OCR for page 1
3 LETTER REPORT · Attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease. · Achieve health equity; eliminate disparities. · Create social and physical environments that promote good health. · romote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behav- P iors across life stages. Additionally, Healthy People 2020 has developed four “foundation health measures.” According to the Healthy People 2020 website 1: Over the course of the decade, the four foundation health measures will be used to monitor progress toward promoting health, preventing dis- ease and disability, eliminating disparities, and improving quality of life. The four classes of foundation health measures are general health sta- tus, health-related quality of life and well-being, determinants of health, and disparities. The foundation health measures were published by HHS after the charge to the committee was developed and the work of the com- mittee begun. The committee was not required in the charge to take this set of measures into account in developing its recommendations. RECOMMENDATIONS As instructed in the statement of task, the committee has developed and recommends 12 indicators and 12 topics, and selected 24 objectives from the Healthy People 2020 objectives that relate to the identified indi- cators and topics. A list of the objectives with accompanying subobjec - tives, quantitative goals, and data sources can be found in Appendix B. Recommendation 1: The committee recommends that the following indicators be used by HHS as the Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicators. These indicators are: 1. Proportion of the population with access to health care services 2. Proportion of the population engaged in healthy behaviors 3. Prevalence and mortality of chronic disease 4. Proportion of the population experiencing a healthy physical environment 5. Proportion of the population experiencing a healthy social environment 1 See http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/about/tracking.aspx (accessed November 18, 2010).

OCR for page 1
4 LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 6. Proportion of the population that experiences injury 7. Proportion of the population experiencing positive mental health 8. Proportion of healthy births 9. Proportion of the population engaged in responsible sexual behavior 10. Proportion of the population engaged in substance abuse 11. Proportion of the population using tobacco 12. Proportion of the population receiving quality health care services Recommendation 2: The committee recommends the following 24 objectives,2 selected from the Healthy People 2020 objectives, as important objectives related to these indicators. 1. AH 5: Increase educational achievement of adolescents and young adults. 2. AHS 1: Increase the proportion of persons with health insurance. 3. AHS 3: Increase proportion of persons with a usual primary care provider. 4. AHS 7: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of persons who receive appropriate evidence-based clinical preventive services. 5. C 1: Reduce the overall cancer death rate. 6. EH 1: Reduce the number of days the Air Quality Index (AQI) exceeds 100. 7. EMC 1: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of children who are ready for school in all five domains of healthy devel- opment: physical development, social-emotional development, approaches to learning, language, and cognitive development. 8. FP 8: Reduce pregnancy rates among adolescent females. 9. HA 1: Reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). 10. HC/HIT 1: (Developmental) Improve the health literacy of the population. 11. HDS 2: Reduce coronary heart disease deaths. 12. HDS 5: Reduce the proportion of persons in the population with hypertension. 2 The numbers are those used in Healthy People 2020 to identify the objectives.

OCR for page 1
5 LETTER REPORT 13. HIV 17: Increase the proportion of sexually active persons who use condoms. 14. IVP 1: Reduce fatal and nonfatal injuries. 15. MHMD 4: Reduce the proportion of persons who experience major depressive episodes (MDE). 16. MICH 8: Reduce low birth weight (LBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW). 17. NWS 10: Reduce the proportion of children and adolescents who are considered obese. 18. NWS 17: Reduce consumption of calories from solid fats and added sugars in the population aged 2 years and older. 19. PA 2: Increase the proportion of adults who meet current fed- eral physical activity guidelines for aerobic physical activity and for muscle-strengthening activity. 20. SA 13: Reduce past-month use of illicit substances. 21. SA 14: Reduce the proportion of persons engaging in binge drinking of alcoholic beverages. 22. SH 4: Increase the proportion of adults who get sufficient sleep. 23. TU 1: Reduce tobacco use by adults. 24. TU 3: Reduce the initiation of tobacco use among children, adolescents, and young adults. Table 1 displays the relationship among the recommended objectives, indicators, and topics. The following section of the report describes the process the commit - tee used to complete its work. COMMITTEE PROCESS The committee met three times over the course of this 6-month study. The first meeting was held in conjunction with an information gathering session during which HHS staff delivered the charge to the committee and provided background information on the evolution of Healthy People since 1990. The remaining two meetings were held in closed session dur- ing which the committee reviewed, analyzed, and synthesized different approaches to indicator development, among which were Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2010 (IOM, 1999), the State of the USA Health Indicators (IOM, 2009b), the Community Health Status Indicators pro- gram of HHS, and the County Health Rankings (Mobilizing Action Toward Community Health, 2010). The committee also reviewed provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) related to the key national indicator system, and various quality provisions including the

OCR for page 1
6 LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 TABLE 1 Topics, Indicators, and Objectives Objectivea Topic Indicator Access to Care Proportion of 1. AHS 1: Increase the proportion of the population persons with health insurance. with access 2. AHS 3: Increase proportion of persons to health care with a usual primary care provider. services 3. AHS 7: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of persons who receive appropriate evidence-based clinical preventive services. Healthy Proportion of 4. PA 2: Increase the proportion of adults Behaviors the population who meet current federal physical engaged activity guidelines for aerobic physical in healthy activity and for muscle-strengthening behaviors activity. 5. NWS 10: Reduce the proportion of children and adolescents who are considered obese. 6. NWS 17: Reduce consumption of calories from solid fats and added sugars in the population aged 2 years and older. 7. SH 4: Increase the proportion of adults who get sufficient sleep. Chronic Disease Prevalence and 8. HDS 2: Reduce coronary heart disease mortality of deaths. chronic disease 9. HDS 5: Reduce the proportion of persons in the population with hypertension. 10. C 1: Reduce the overall cancer death rate. Environmental Proportion of 11. EH 1: Reduce the number of days the Determinants the population Air Quality Index (AQI) exceeds 100. experiencing a healthy physical environment Social Proportion of 12. HC/HIT 1: (Developmental) Improve Determinants the population the health literacy of the population. experiencing a 13. EMC 1: (Developmental) Increase healthy social the proportion of children who are environment ready for school in all five domains of healthy development: physical development, social-emotional development, approaches to learning, language, and cognitive development. 14. AH 5: Increase educational achievement of adolescents and young adults.

OCR for page 1
7 LETTER REPORT TABLE 1 Continued Objectivea Topic Indicator Injury Proportion 15. IVP 1: Reduce fatal and nonfatal of the injuries. population that experiences injury Mental Health Proportion of 16. MHMD 4: Reduce the proportion the population of persons who experience major experiencing depressive episodes (MDE). positive mental health Maternal and Proportion of 17. MICH 8: Reduce low birth weight Infant Health healthy births (LBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW). Responsible Proportion of 18. FP 8: Reduce pregnancy rates among Sexual Behavior the population adolescent females. engaged in 19. HIV 17: Increase the proportion of responsible sexually active persons who use sexual behavior condoms. Substance Abuse Proportion of 20. SA 13: Reduce past-month use of illicit the population substances. engaged in 21. SA 14: Reduce the proportion of substance persons engaging in binge drinking of abuse alcoholic beverages. Tobacco Proportion of 22. TU 1: Reduce tobacco use by adults. the population 23. TU 3: Reduce the initiation of tobacco using tobacco use among children, adolescents, and young adults. Quality of Care Proportion of 24. HA 1: Reduce central line-associated the population bloodstream infections (CLABSI). receiving quality health care services a The numbering of the objectives is directly from Healthy People 2020. National Strategy to Improve Health Care Quality, Quality Measure Development, and quality in wellness programs. (Appendix A provides a table that summarizes provisions of the ACA as they relate to the 12 indicators and 24 identified objectives.) In the document Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2010: Final Report (IOM, 1999), the committee found the use of the terms topic, indicator, and objective confusing. The committee determined that it was necessary to define these three terms because it was directed to identify

OCR for page 1
8 LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 12 indicators, 24 objectives and 12 topics (number six above in the list of issues to consider). For purposes of this report, therefore, a topic is defined as a general category relevant to health, for example, chronic illness. An indicator is defined as a measurement, for example, prevalence of cardiovascular dis - ease. An indicator could relate to multiple topics, for example, the indica - tor percentage of adults with a body mass index (BMI) equal to or greater than 30 could relate to the topics of chronic disease and health behaviors. Leading health indicators are quantitative expressions of health-related concepts that reflect major public health concerns. By major public health concern, the committee means a major component of overall morbidity, mortality, or limited functional health status or health-related quality of life, or a major determinant of morbidity, mortality, or functional health status or health-related quality of life. An objective is a statement of movement in an indicator toward a quantitative target, for example, reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular disease by 10 percent. PRINCIPLES AND PURPOSES The committee was asked to define basic principles or purposes for Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicators. The committee confined its discussion to the scope of the charge that it was given and tried to address each of the bullet points as well as the overall statement of task. In identifying topics, indicators, and objectives, the committee sought to use the available base of scientific knowledge to identify important domains of health in terms of statistics on mortality, morbidity, functional health status, and the extent to which a current health state also represented a risk for future health concerns. Within these broad principles, the com - mittee chose specific objectives using the criteria listed in Table 2, which were similar to those used to select the Healthy People 2010 Leading Health Indicators. Since a larger set of topics and objectives already exists in the full- length Healthy People 2020 document, and HHS has also identified a set of foundation health measures for special focus, the committee worked with the idea that the topics, indicators, and objectives it put forward could be used to create an even sharper focus on health domains of special significance. Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2010 (IOM, 1999) recommended that indicators be used as follows: 1. To elicit interest and awareness among the general population; 2. To motivate diverse population groups to engage in activities that will exert a positive impact on specific indicators and, in turn, improve the overall health of the nation; and

OCR for page 1
9 LETTER REPORT 3. To provide ongoing feedback concerning progress toward improv- ing the status of specific indicators. The committee believes that the indicators for Healthy People 2020 also should serve these purposes. The specific number 12 for indicators suggests that an indicator and related objectives could be selected for special attention each month during a calendar year, although the rec- ommended indicators and objectives are clearly important enough to be worthy of attention at all times. HHS may wish to use the recommended indicators and objectives in a variety of other ways, including highlight - ing them in communications to state and local health departments, using them as a guide to funding priorities in a variety of HHS programs, and using them as priority guides for ongoing departmental public health data collection and reporting activities. HHS may also wish to invest analytic resources into the development of aggregate indices for any of the 12 recommended topics for which such indices do not already exist. The committee’s discussion of health-related quality of life and the Economic Hardship Index offers an example of aggregate indices in topics other than the 12 recommended here for spe- cial attention. While each of the 24 recommended objectives has at least one clearly defined measure and data source, many of the broader topics and indicators are not easily reflected or monitored by a single number. Development and validation of aggregate indices in these areas would be a valuable part of the Healthy People 2020 effort that could then carry into future 10-year Healthy People cycles. FRAMEWORK FOR SELECTING INDICATORS AND OBJECTIVES Once the committee agreed on the definitions of terms to be used in its task, it turned to defining the framework for health within which the topics, indicators, and objectives would be developed or selected. The committee agreed that developing the framework would have been facili- tated if Healthy People 2020 had included a definition of health. However, absent that definition, the committee proceeded by reviewing several existing frameworks. The framework used in the report Healthy People: The Surgeon General’s Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention highlighted preventive health services, health protection, and health pro- motion as important determinants of disease and disability (HEW, 1979). Evans and Stoddart (1990) proposed a framework of health determinants that included disease, health functioning, well-being, and behavioral and biological responses to social and physical environments. A population health framework for setting national and state health goals proposed by Kindig and colleagues (2008) included health outcomes, health determi -

OCR for page 1
10 LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 nants (health care, health behaviors, socioeconomic factors, and physical environment), and health policies and interventions. A similar framework is used in the County Health Rankings (Mobilizing Action Toward Com- munity Health, 2010) and includes health outcomes (morbidity and mor- tality), health factors (health behaviors, clinical care, social and economic factors, and physical environment), and programs and policies. The conceptual framework the committee developed for organiz- ing and displaying the 24 objectives selected for Healthy People 2020 (Figure 1) consists of the intersection of two conceptual models: the life course model or perspective and the health determinants and health outcomes model. These two models represent two of the three concep - tual frameworks recommended by the IOM Leading Health Indicator Committee for Healthy People 2010, which the committee was asked to consider in its work (IOM, 1999). The life course perspective also forms the implicit basis for one of the four overarching goals of Healthy People 2020: “Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behav - iors across all life stages.” Health determinants are one of the four foun- dational health measures of Healthy People 2020. The life course approach is based on two concepts: first, the impact of specific risk factors and determinants of health varies during the life FIGURE 1 Framework for Objectives for Leading Health Indicators Health Determinants and Health Outcomes Social and Physical Health and Econo- Environ- Health Health Care Policy mic Outcomes Life Stage ment Behavior Services Pregnancy and infancy: birth, growth, and maternal bond Childhood: growth, learning and development of familial and social bonds Adolescence: transition to independence Young adult: independence and work Adult: work, family, societal contribution Elderly: meaning, legacy, decline FIGURE 1 Framework for objectives for leading health indicators.

OCR for page 1
11 LETTER REPORT course; and second, health and disease result from the accumulation of the effects of risk factors and determinants over the life course. The combina - tion of these two components produces a life course health “trajectory” that represents the cumulative effect of risk factors and determinants at each point in the life course. Typically, the health trajectory “rises” during childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, plateaus during middle age, and then declines with advancing age. This trajectory can be improved through the reduction of risk factors and the promotion of health through individual and population level (i.e., societal) actions, applied at specific points or during specific stages of the life course, especially during the early years of life (Ben-Shlomo and Kuh, 2002; Halfon, 2009; Halfon and Horchstein, 2002; IOM, 1999; Wise, 2009). There is also evidence to sug - gest that the impact of factors during early life and at other points in the life course is not immutable but can be influenced by other factors later in the life course (Ben-Shlomo and Kuh, 2002; Wise, 2009). The committee believes that the life course approach provides a useful framework for viewing health determinants and their relative importance at different stages of life, and for guiding the development of targeted health policies, programs, and actions to improve health (Guyer et al., 2009). OBJECTIVES In addition to the framework, the committee also developed criteria for selecting objectives from among the almost 600 objectives in Healthy People 2020. In the 1999 IOM report Leading Health Indicators for Healthy People 2010, the criteria listed were identified as criteria for selecting lead- ing health indicators. To reflect its definitions of topics, indicators, and objectives, the committee modified the criteria used in Healthy People 2010, for its use in selecting objectives. These criteria are displayed in Table 2. Despite a conceptual framework and explicit criteria for selection con- tained in Table 2, the task of choosing 24 objectives from the hundreds of objectives proposed for Healthy People 2020 was very challenging. Each of the objectives included in Healthy People 2020 has relevance and is important to a particular population. Yet, the committee was charged with selecting only 24. Some objectives were eliminated from consideration because they represented health determinants with relatively small effects on overall health in a population or because they were not clearly “action- able” (i.e., responsive to policies or initiatives by public or private health agencies) or because great progress has already been made in the specific area addressed by the objective. The committee also sought to have a bal- ance in the selected objectives so they were not all focused, for example, on individual health behaviors or on measures of health for children. A

OCR for page 1
54 LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 The committee reviewed the 24 objectives it selected for inclusion in the Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicators and noted that, while these objectives are relevant to all, there are particular disparities in many of the underlying indicators that are related to LGBT populations. As discussed earlier in this report, educational achievement is related to improved health which may be of particular importance in LGBT populations, many of whom face high rates of special and complex health problems (e.g., HIV/AIDs) and difficulties in dealing with the health care system more generally. Therefore, the committee offers the following modifications of the selected objectives for use in tracking LBGT health. For ease of comparison with the original Healthy People 2020 objective, the number of the objective has been modified by placing an L immedi- ately after the number to indicate its use with LGBT populations: · H 5L: Increase the educational achievement of lesbians, gay men, A and bisexual and transgender adolescents and young adults. · HS 1L: Increase the proportion of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual A and transgender persons with health insurance. · HS 5L: Increase the proportion of lesbians and transgender per- A sons with a usual primary care provider. · IV 17L: Increase the proportion of condom use among gay or H bisexual males aged 15 and above who are sexually active with other men or women. · HMD 4L.1: Reduce the proportion of gay, bisexual or question- M ing males and females aged 12 to 17 years who experience major depressive episodes (MDEs). · HMD 4L.2: Reduce the proportion of lesbian, gay men, bisexual, M and transgender persons aged 18 years and older who experience major depressive episodes (MDEs). · WS 10L: Reduce the proportion of lesbian and bisexual female N adolescents who are considered obese. · A 13L: Reduce the proportion of lesbians’, gay males’, bisexuals’, S and transgender persons’ past-month use of illicit drugs. · A 14L: Reduce the proportion of lesbian, gay males, and bisexual S persons engaging in binge drinking of alcoholic beverages. · U 1L: Reduce tobacco use by lesbian, gay men, and transgender T adults. The committee believes that by including objectives that address issues of disparities in health for the LGBT populations, there will be a focus for implementing actions to lesson disparities and improve the health of LGBT populations. A major difficulty in examining LGBT health relates to the availability

OCR for page 1
55 LETTER REPORT of data for analysis. According to the Healthy People website,11 “Sexual orientation and gender identity questions are not asked on most national or state surveys, making it difficult to estimate the number of LGBT indi- viduals and their health needs.” Therefore, the committee believes HHS should focus on improving and developing datasets that will facilitate analysis of disparities in LGBT health, thereby leading to action that can improve the quality of life and well-being of LGBT populations. CONCLUSION Based on a framework that integrates the life course model with a model of health determinants and health outcomes, the committee selected 24 objectives and grouped them into two sets of topics and indicators. The first set is the approach recommended by the committee. This thematic approach categorizes the objectives into 12 health-related themes. The second set, the framework approach, places the objectives into each of the categories of the overarching framework. Either or both of these two approaches can be used by HHS to focus on health domains of particular interest or to identify priority areas for collecting and report- ing information. The committee also suggested that HHS consider several ideas for populating the three Healthy People 2020 topic areas that do not currently have objectives. These include · Social Determinants of Health o Explore the use of the Hardship Index for use in monitoring socioeconomic aspects of the social determinants of health. · Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being o Use health-adjusted life expectancy as an indicator for health- related quality of life. o Focus particular attention on measures that are capable of pro- ducing summary measures of health in the form of a 0–1 health utility score. o Review measures and datasets related to the concepts of happi- ness and well-being as a basis for defining specific objectives. · Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Health o Modify objectives identified by the committee to focus specifi - cally on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender populations. 11 See http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/overview.aspx?topicid=25 (accessed January 9, 2011).

OCR for page 1
56 LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 Healthy People 2020 objectives are framed to drive action to improve health, and targets are set to allow for measuring progress over time. The committee believes that the selected objectives and indicators will help focus both national and local action aimed at achieving the Healthy Peo - ple 2020 goals of attaining high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death; achieving health equity, eliminating disparities, and improving the health of all groups; creating social and physical environments that promote good health for all; and promoting quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages. REFERENCES Abma, J. C., G. M. Martinez, W. D. Mosher, and B. S. Dawson. 2004. Teenagers in the United States: Sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, 2002. Vital Health Stat 23(24):1-48. AHRQ (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality). 2007. National healthcare disparities report. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research Quality. AIRNow. 2010. Air Quality Index (AQI)—A guide to air quality and your health. http://www. airnow.gov/index.cfm?action=aqibasics.aqi (accessed December 14, 2010). American Academy of Pediatrics. 2000. Fetal alcohol syndrome and alcohol-related neuro - developmental disorders. Pediatrics 106(2 Pt 1):358-361. American Heart Association. 2010. Heart disease and stroke statistics: 2010 update at-a-glance. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association. American Lung Association. 2010. Trends in tobacco use. http://www.lungusa.org/finding- cures/our-research/trend-reports/Tobacco-Trend-Report.pdf (accessed February 4, 2011). Anderson, L. M., C. Shinn, M. T. Fullilove, S. C. Scrimshaw, J. E. Fielding, J. Normand, and V. G. Carande-Kulis. 2003. The effectiveness of early childhood development programs: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 24(3):32-46. Antonovsky, A. 1967. Social class, life expectancy and overall mortality. The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 45(2):31-73. Barrett, D. C., L. M. Pollack, and M. L. Tilden. 2002. Teenage sexual orientation, adult open - ness, and status attainment in gay males. Sociological Perspectives 45(2):163-182. Behan, D., M. Eriksen, and Y. Lin. 2005. Economic effects of environmental tobacco smoke report. Schaumberg, IL: Society of Actuaries. Bell, M. L., A. McDermott, S. L. Zeger, J. M. Samet, and F. Dominici. 2004. Ozone and short- term mortality in 95 US urban communities, 1987-2000. Journal of the American Medical Association 292(19):2372-2378. Bell, M. L., F. Dominici, and J. M. Samet. 2005. A meta-analysis of time-series studies of ozone and mortality with comparison to the national morbidity, mortality, and air pollution study. Epidemiology 16(4):436-445. Ben-Shlomo, Y., and D. Kuh. 2002. A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology: Conceptual models, empirical challenges and interdisciplinary perspectives. Interna- tional Journal of Epidemiology 31(2):285-293. Bergen, G., L. Chen, M. Warner, and L. Fingerhut. 2008. Injury in the United States: 2007 charterbook. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/misc/injury2007.pdf (accessed December 17, 2010).

OCR for page 1
57 LETTER REPORT Berkman, L., and T. Glass. 2000. Social integration, social networks, social support, and health. In Social epidemiology, edited by L. Berkman and I. Kawachi. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Pp. 137-173. Berkman, N. D., D. A. Dewalt, M. P. Pignone, S. L. Sheridan, K. N. Lohr, L. Lux, S. F. Sutton, T. Swinson, and A. J. Bonito. 2004. Literacy and health outcomes. Evidence Report— Technology Assessment (Summary) 87:1-8. Brewer, R. D., and M. H. Swahn. 2005. Binge drinking and violence. Journal of the American Medical Association 294(5):616-618. Brown, C. A., E. M. Cheng, R. D. Hays, S. D. Vassar, and B. G. Vickrey. 2009. SF-36 includes less Parkinson disease (PD)-targeted content but is more responsive to change than two PD-targeted health-related quality of life measures. Quality of Life Research 18(9):1219- 1237. Buchmueller, T., and C. S. Carpenter. 2010. Disparities in health insurance coverage, access, and outcomes for individuals in same-sex versus different-sex relationships, 2000-2007. American Journal of Public Health 100(3):489-495. Cameron, E., J. Mathers, and J. Perry. 2006. Being well and well-being: The value of com - munity and professional concepts in understanding positive health. In Policy review 18: Analysis and debate in social policy, edited by K. Clarke and T. Maultby. Bristol, UK: Policy Press. Pp. 121-144. Carlisle, A. J., and N. C. Sharp. 2001. Exercise and outdoor ambient air pollution. British Journal of Sports Medicine 35(4):214-222. Carlisle, S., and P. Hanlon. 2008. Well-being as a focus for public health? A critique and defence. Critical Public Health 18(3):263-270. Castaneda, R., N. Sussman, L. Westreich, R. Levy, and M. O’Malley. 1996. A review of the effects of moderate alcohol intake on the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 57(5):207-212. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2005. Reduction in central line-associated bloodstream infections among patients in intensive care units—Pennsylvania, April 2001–March 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 54(40):1013-1016. CDC. 2008. Smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses—United States, 2000-2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57(45):1226- 1228. CDC. 2009a. Cigarette smoking among adults and trends in smoking cessation—United States, 2008. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 58(44):1227-1232. CDC. 2009b. Health-related quality of life. http://www.cdc.gov/hrqol/ (accessed June 17, 2009). CDC. 2010a. Alcohol and public health. http://cdc.gov/alcohol/ (accessed December 19, 2010). CDC. 2010b. Cancer statistics by demographic. http://cdc.gov/cancer/dcpc/data/demographics. htm (accessed December 15, 2010). CDC. 2010c. Condoms and STDs: Fact sheet for public health personnel. http://www.cdc.gov/ condomeffectiveness/latex.htm (accessed December 19, 2010). CDC. 2010d. Defining childhood overweight and obesity. http://cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/ defining.html (accessed December 15, 2010). CDC. 2010e. Device-associated module: CLABSI . http://www.cdc.gov/nhsn/pdfs/ pscmanual/4psc_clabscurrent.pdf (accessed December 15, 2010). CDC. 2010f. HIV and AIDS among gay and bisexual men. http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/ newsroom/docs/FastFacts-MSM-FINAL508COMP.pdf (accessed January 9, 2011). CDC. 2010g. Leading causes of death. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/lcod.htm (accessed December 15, 2009). CDC. 2010h. Obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool aged children: 1998-2008 . http:// cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/lowincome.html (accessed December 16, 2010).

OCR for page 1
58 LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 CDC. 2010i. Physical activity and health: At-a-glance. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/ ataglan.htm (accessed December 14, 2010). CDC. 2010j. Physical activity and health: The link between physical activity and morbidity and mortality. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/srg/mm.htm (accessed December 14, 2010). CDC. 2010k. Preventing teen pregnancy. http://www.cdc.gov/TeenPregnancy/AboutTeen Preg.htm (accessed December 14, 2010). CDC. 2010l. Youth and tobacco use. http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_ sheets/youth_data/tobacco_use/index.htm#overview (accessed December 10, 2010). Center for Nutrition and Promotion. 2010. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Commit- tee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. Chandra, A., G. M. Martinez, W. D. Mosher, J. C. Abma, and J. Jones. 2005. Fertility, family planning, and reproductive health of U.S. women: Data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital Health Statistics 23(25):1-160. Chen, B., and H. Kan. 2008. Air pollution and population health: A global challenge. Envi- ronmental Health and Preventive Medicine 13(2):94-101. Chen, C., and H. Yi. 2007. Trends in alcohol-related morbidity among short-stay community hos- pital discharges, United States 1979-2005. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Chou, R., A. K. Smits, L. H. Huffman, R. Fu, and P. T. Korthuis. 2005. Prenatal screening for HIV: A review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Annals of Internal Medicine 143(1):38-54. Conron, K. J., M. J. Mimiaga, and S. J. Landers. 2010. A population-based study of sexual orientation identity and gender differences in adult health. American Journal of Public Health 100(10):1953-1960. Corrao, G., L. Rubbiati, A. Zambon, and S. Arico. 2002. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol- preventable mortality in Italy. A balance in 1983 and 1996. European Journal of Public Health 12(3):214-223. Corrao, G., V. Bagnardi, A. Zambon, and C. La Vecchia. 2004. A meta-analysis of alcohol consumption and the risk of 15 diseases. Preventive Medicine 38(5):613-619. Cutler, D., and A. Lleras-Muney. 2006. Education and health: Evaluation theories and evidence. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Darroch, J. E., S. Singh, and J. J. Frost. 2001. Differences in teenage pregnancy rates among five developed countries: The roles of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Family Planning Perspectives 33(6):244. de Roos, N. M., E. G. Schouten, and M. B. Katan. 2001. Consumption of a solid fat rich in lau- ric acid results in a more favorable serum lipid profile in healthy men and women than consumption of a solid fat rich in trans-fatty acids. Journal of Nutrition 131(2):242-245. Department of Agriculture. 1998. Continuing survey of food intakes by individuals, 1994-1996. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. Diaz, R., G. Ayala, and E. Bein. 2001. The impact of homophobia, poverty and racism on the mental health of gay and bisexual Latino men: Findings from three U.S. cities. American Journal of Public Health 91(6):141-146. Diener, E. 2000. Subjective well-being: The science of happiness, and a proposal for a na - tional index. American Psychologist 55:34-43. Diener, E., E. Suh, R. Lucas, and H. Smith. 1999. Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin 125:276–302. Dilley, J. A., K. W. Simmons, M. J. Boysun, B. A. Pizacani, and M. J. Stark. 2010. Demon - strating the importance and feasibility of including sexual orientation in public health surveys: Health disparities in the Pacific northwest. American Journal of Public Health 100(3):460-467.

OCR for page 1
59 LETTER REPORT Doherty, R. B. 2010. Universal health care coverage in the United States: Is it “slip, slidin’ away”? Annals of Internal Medicine 154(2):118-120. Doshi, R. K., G. Patel, R. Mackay, and F. Wallach. 2009. Healthcare-associated infections: Epidemiology, prevention, and therapy. Mt. Sinai Journal of Medicine 76(1):84-94. Easterlin, R. A. 2003. Building a better theory of well-being. http://economics.ucr.edu/ seminars/fall03/10-03-03easterlin.pdf (accessed January 19, 2011). Egerter, S., P. Braveman, T. Sadegh-Nobari, R. Grossman-Kahn, and M. Dekker. 2009. Educa- tion matters for health. Princeton, NJ: RWJF Commission to Build a Healthier America. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2010. AirCompare—Health Concerns. http://www. epa.gov/aircompare/health.htm (accessed December 14, 2010). Evans, R. G., and G. L. Stoddart. 1990. Producing health, consuming health care. Social Sci- ence & Medicine 31(12):1347-1363. Fielding, J., C. Husten, and M. Eriksen. 1998. Tobacco: Health effects and control. In Public health and preventive medicine, edited by K. Maxcy, M. Rosenau, J. Last, and R. Wallace. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange. Frey, B. S., and A. Stutzer. 2002. What can economists learn from happiness research? Journal of Economic Literature 40(2):402-435. Fryback, D. 1998. Methodological issues in measuring health status and health-related qual - ity of life for population health measures. In Summarizing population health: Directions for the development and application of population metrics, edited by M. J. Field and M. R. Gold. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Pp. 39-57. Fryback, D. G., N. C. Dunham, M. Palta, J. Hanmer, J. Buechner, D. Cherepanov, S. A. Herrington, R. D. Hays, R. M. Kaplan, T. G. Ganiats, D. Feeny, and P. Kind. 2007. US norms for six generic health-related quality-of-life indexes from the national health measurement study. Medical Care 45(12):1162-1170. Fryback, D. G., M. Palta, D. Cherepanov, D. Bolt, and J.-S. Kim. 2010. Comparison of 5 health- related quality-of-life indexes using item response theory analysis. Medical Decision Making 30(1):5-15. Fujiwara, T., and I. Kawachi. 2009. Is education causally related to better health? A twin fixed-effect study in the USA. International Journal of Epidemiology 38(5):1310-1322. Garofalo, R., R. C. Wolf, L. S. Wissow, E. R. Woods, and E. Goodman. 1999. Sexual orienta - tion and risk of suicide attempts among a representative sample of youth. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 153(5):487-493. Giltay, E. J., J. M. Geleijnse, F. G. Zitman, T. Hoekstra, and E. G. Schouten. 2004. Dispositional optimism and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a prospective cohort of elderly Dutch men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry 61(11):1126-1135. Grant, J. M., G. Kosovich, M. S. Frazer, and S. Bjerk. 2009. Outing Age 2010: Public policy issues affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) elders. Washington, DC: National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. Greenfeld, L. 1998. Alcohol and crime: An analysis of national data on the prevalence of alcohol involvement in crime. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Guerin, K., J. Wagner, K. Rains, and M. Bessesen. 2010. Reduction in central line-associated bloodstream infections by implementation of a postinsertion care bundle. American Journal of Infection Control 38 (6):430-433. Guttmacher Institute. 2010. U.S. teenage pregnancies, births and abortions: National and state trends and trends by race and ethnicity. Washington, DC: Guttmacher Institute. Guyer, B., S. Ma, H. Grason, K. Frick, D. Perry, A. Sharkey, and J. McIntosh. 2009. Early childhood health promotion and its life course health consequences. Academic Pediatrics 9(3):142-149. Halfon, N. 2009. Life course health development: A new approach for addressing determi - nants of health and spending. Expert Voices February.

OCR for page 1
60 LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 Halfon, N., and M. Horchstein. 2002. Life course health development: An integrated frame - work for developing health policy and research. The Milbank Quarterly 80(3):433-479. Halonen, J. I., T. Lanki, P. Tiittanen, J. V. Niemi, M. Loh, and J. Pekkanen. 2010. Ozone and cause-specific cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 64(9):814-820. Hamilton, B., J. Martin, and S. Ventura. 2009. Births: Preliminary data for 2007 . National Vital Statistics Reports 57(12):1-23. Hamilton, B., J. Martin, and S. Ventura. 2010a. Births: Preliminary data for 2008 . National Vital Statistics Reports 58(16): 1-18. Hamilton, B., J. Martin, and S. Ventura. 2010b. Births: Preliminary data for 2009 . National Vital Statistics Reports 59(3):1-29. Harwood, H., and E. Bouchery. 2004. The economic costs of drug abuse in the United States, 1992-2002. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy. Heck, J. E., R. L. Sell, and S. S. Gorin. 2006. Health care access among individuals involved in same-sex relationships. American Journal of Public Health 96 (6):1111-1118. Helliwell, J. F. 2005. Well-being, social capital, and public policy: What’s new? http://www. gpiatlantic.org/conference/papers/helliwell.pdf (accessed January 19, 2011). Herbst, J. H., E. D. Jacobs, T. J. Finlayson, V. S. McKleroy, M. S. Neumann, and N. Crepaz. 2008. Estimating HIV prevalence and risk behaviors of transgender persons in the United States: A systematic review. AIDS Behavior 12(1):1-17. HEW (Department of Health, Education, and Welfare). 1979. Healthy People: The Surgeon General’s Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Washington, DC: U.S. De- partment of Health, Education, and Welfare. HHS (Department of Health and Human Services). 1989. Reducing the health consequences of smoking: 25 years of progress. A report of the surgeon general. Rockville, MD: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HHS. 1998. Tobacco use among U.S. racial/ethnic minority groups: African Americans, American Indians, and Alaska natives, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders and Hispanics. A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HHS. 2004. The health consequences of smoking: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HHS. 2006a. Fact sheet: Preventing infant mortality. http://www.hhs.gov/news/factsheet/ infant.html (accessed December 17, 2010). HHS. 2006b. Healthy People 2010 midcourse review. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2010/ Data/midcourse/html/default.htm (accessed December 17, 2010). HHS. 2006c. Healthy People 2010 midcourse review: Section 12: Heart disease and stroke. Wash- ington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. HHS. 2010. Youth and tobacco use. http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/ youth_data/tobacco_use/index.htm#overview (accessed December 10, 2010). Hughes, T. L. 2005. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among lesbians and gay men. Annual Review of Nursing Research 23:283-325. Inglehart, R. 2009. Collection of graphs presenting WVS data. http://www.worldvaluessurvey. org/wvs/articles/folder_published/article_base_56 (accessed January 20, 2011). IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1979. Healthy people: The surgeon general’s report on health promo- tion and disease prevention. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 1999. Leading health indicators for Healthy People 2010: Final report. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2002. Health insurance is a family matter. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2004. Health literacy is a family matter. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2006. Genes, behavior, and the social environment: Moving beyond the nature/nurture debate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

OCR for page 1
61 LETTER REPORT IOM. 2009a. America’s uninsured crisis: Consequences for health and health care. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2009b. State of the USA health indicators: Letter report. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine. IOM. 2010. For the public’s health: The role of measurement in action and accountability. Washing- ton, DC: The National Academies Press. Kapp, J. M., J. Jackson-Thompson, G. F. Petroski, and M. Schootman. 2009. Reliability of health-related quality-of-life indicators in cancer survivors from a population-based sample, 2005, BRFSS. Public Health 123(4):321-325. Kavey, R.-E. W. 2010. How sweet it is: Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, obesi- ty, and cardiovascular risk in childhood. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 110(10):1456-1460. Kawachi, I., and L. Berkman. 2001. Social ties and mental health. Journal of Urban Health 78(3):458-467. Kawachi, I., N. E. Adler, and W. H. Dow. 2010. Money, schooling, and health: Mechanisms and causal evidence. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 1186:56-68. Kenagy, G. P. 2005. Transgender health: Findings from two needs assessment studies in Philadelphia. Health and Social Work 30(1):19-26. Kessler, R. C., H. S. Akiskal, M. Ames, H. Birnbaum, P. Greenberg, R. Hirschfeld, R. Jin, K. R. Merikangas, G. E. Simon, and P. S. Wang. 2006. Prevalence and effects of mood disorders on work performance in a nationally representative sample of U.S. workers. American Journal of Psychiatry 163(9):1561-1568. Kindig, D. A., Y. Asada, and B. Booske. 2008. A population health framework for setting national and state health goals. Journal of the Ameican Medical Society 299(17):2081-2083. Klitsch, M. 2003. Youngest mothers’ infants have greatly elevated risk of dying by age one. Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health 35(1):52. Kruks, G. 2010. Gay and lesbian/homeless/street youth: Special issues and concerns. Journal of Adolescent Health 12(7):515-518. Kung, H., D. Hoyert, J. Xu, and S. Murphy. 2008. Deaths: Final data for 2005. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Lantz, P. M., and A. Pritchard. 2010. Socioeconomic indicators that matter for population health. Preventing Chronic Disease 7(4):A74. Laurant, M., D. Reeves, R. Hermens, J. Braspenning, R. Grol, and B. Sibbald. 2005. Substi - tution of doctors by nurses in primary care. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2):CD001271. Lee, J. G., G. K. Griffin, and C. L. Melvin. 2009. Tobacco use among sexual minorities in the USA, 1987 to May 2007: A systematic review. Tobacco Control 18(4):275-282. Leedham, B., B. E. Meyerowitz, J. Muirhead, and W. H. Frist. 1995. Positive expectations predict health after heart transplantation. Health Psychology 14 (1):74-79. Litt, J., H. G. Taylor, N. Klein, and M. Hack. 2005. Learning disabilities in children with very low birthweight: Prevalence, neuropsychological correlates, and educational interven - tions. Journal of Learning Disabilities 38(2): 130-141. Lloyd-Jones, D., R. Adams, and T. Brown. 2010. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update. A report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation 121(7): e46-215. Lyons, T., G. Chandra, and J. Goldstein. 2006. Stimulant use and HIV risk behavior: The influence of peer support group participation. AIDS Education and Prevention 18(5):461- 473. Maciosek, M. V., L. I. Solberg, A. B. Coffield, N. M. Edwards, and M. J. Goodman. 2006. Colorectal cancer screening: Health impact and cost effectiveness. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 31(1):80-89.

OCR for page 1
62 LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 Maciosek, M., A. Coffield, T. Flottemesch, N. Edwards, and L. Solberg. 2010. Greater use of preventive services in US health care could save lives at little or no cost. Health Affairs 29(9):1656. Mansergh, G., G. N. Colfax, G. Marks, M. Rader, R. Guzman, and S. Buchbinder. 2001. The circuit party men’s health survey: Findings and implications for gay and bisexual men. American Journal of Public Health 91(6):953-958. Martin, J. A., B. E. Hamilton, P. D. Sutton, S. J. Ventura, F. Menacker, and M. L. Munson. 2005. Births: final data for 2003. National Vital Statistics Reports 54(2):1-116. Martin, J. A., B. E. Hamilton, P. D. Sutton, S. J. Ventura, T. J. Mathews, S. Kirmeyer, and M. J. K. Osterman. 2010. Births: final data for 2007. National Vital Statistics Reports 58(24): 1-85. Mathers, C., K. Iburg, and S. Begg. 2006. Adjusting for dependent comorbidity in the calcula- tion of healthy life expectancy. Population Health Metrics 4(1):4. Mielenz, T., E. Jackson, S. Currey, R. DeVellis, and L. F. Callahan. 2006. Psychometric prop - erties of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-related Quality of life (CDC HRQoL) items in adults with arthritis. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 4:66. Mills, N. L., H. Tornqvist, M. C. Gonzalez, E. Vink, S. D. Robinson, S. Soderberg, N. A. Boon, K. Donaldson, T. Sandstrom, A. Blomberg, and D. E. Newby. 2007. Ischemic and throm- botic effects of dilute diesel-exhaust inhalation in men with coronary heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine 357(11):1075-1082. Mobilizing Action Toward Community Health. 2010. County health rankings. http://www. countyhealthrankings.org/ (accessed December 18, 2010). Montiel, L. M., R. P. Nathan, and D. J. Wright. 2004. An update on urban hardship. Albany, NY: The Nelson A. Rockerfeller Institute of Government. Mula, M., M. Viana, R. Jauch, B. Schmitz, D. Bettucci, A. E. Cavanna, G. Strigaro, M. G. Tota, H. Israel, U. Reuter, and F. Monaco. 2009. Health-related quality of life measures and psychiatric comorbidity in patients with migraine. European Journal of Neurology 16(9):1017-1021. Nathan, R. P., and C. F. Adams, Jr. 1989. Four perspectives on urban hardship. Political Sci- ence Quarterly 104(3):483-508. National Commission on Prevention Priorities. 2007. Preventive Care: A national profile on use, disparities, and health benefits. http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/8-7-07%20-%20 Partnership%20for%20Prevention%20Report%281%29.pdf (accessed December 20, 2010). National Gay and Lesbian Taskforce. 2009. National transgender discrimination survey: Prelimi- nary findings. Washington, DC: National Gay and Lesbian Taskforce. Nepomnyaschy, L., and N. E. Reichman. 2006. Low birthweight and asthma among young urban children. American Journal of Public Health 96(9): 1604-1610. NIH PROMIS Network. 2010. Patient reported outcomes measurement information system http:// www.nihpromis.org/default.aspx (accessed December 20, 2010). Office of Applied Studies. 2006. Suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, major depressive episode, and substance use among adults. Washington, DC: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. 2005. Drinking in America: Myths, re- alities, and prevention policy. http://www.udetc.org/documents/Drinking_in_America. pdf (accessed December 15, 2010). Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2010. Fact sheet: Consequences of illicit drug use in Amer- ica. http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/html/consdrug_fs.html (ac- cessed December 18, 2010). Ogden, C. L., M. D. Carroll, L. R. Curtin, M. M. Lamb, and K. M. Flegal. 2010. Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007-2008. Journal of the American Medical Association 303(3):242-249.

OCR for page 1
63 LETTER REPORT O’Grady, N. P., M. Alexander, E. P. Dellinger, J. L. Gerberding, S. O. Heard, D. G. Maki, H. Masur, R. D. McCormick, L. A. Mermel, M. L. Pearson, I. I. Raad, A. Randolph, and R. A. Weinstein. 2002. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. The Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Pediatrics 110(5):e51. Paneth, N. S. 1995. The problem of low birth weight. The Future of Children 5(1): 19-34. Perper, K., K. Peterson, and J. Manlove. 2010. Child trends, fact sheet publication #2010-01. Washington, DC: Child Trends. Petrou, S., S. Petrou, T. Sach, and L. Davidson. 2001. The long-term costs of preterm birth and low birth weight: results of a systematic review. Child: Care, Health & Development 27(2): 97-115. Ponce, N. A., S. D. Cochran, J. C. Pizer, and V. M. Mays. 2010. The effects of unequal access to health insurance for same-sex couples in California. Health Affairs 29(8):1539-1548. Porche, D. J. 1998. Condom effectiveness. Journal of the Association of Nurses and AIDS Care 9(3):91-94. Pronovost, P., D. Needham, S. Berenholtz, D. Sinopoli, H. Chu, S. Cosgrove, B. Sexton, R. Hyzy, R. Welsh, G. Roth, J. Bander, J. Kepros, and C. Goeschel. 2006. An intervention to decrease catheter-related bloodstream infections in the ICU. New England Journal of Medicine 355 (26):2725-2732. Putnam, R. D. 2000. Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community . New York: Simon & Schuster. Ratzan, S., and R. Parker. 2000. Current bibliographies in medicine: Health literacy. Bethesda, MD: Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institutes of Health. Reece, M., D. Herbenick, V. Schick, S. A. Sanders, B. Dodge, and J. D. Fortenberry. 2010. Condom use rates in a national probability sample of males and females ages 14 to 94 in the United States. Journal of Sex and Medicine 7(Suppl 5):266-276. Rehm, J., G. Gmel, C. T. Sempos, and M. Trevisan. 2003. Alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. Alcoholism Research and Health 27(1):39-51. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT. 2005. Getting ready: National school readiness indicators initiative: A 17-state partnership. Providence, RI: Rhode Island KIDS COUNT. Robert, S. A., D. Cherepanov, M. Palta, N. C. Dunham, D. Feeny, and D. G. Fryback. 2009. Socioeconomic status and age variations in health-related quality of life: Results from the national health measurement study. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 64(3):378-389. Royer, T. I., H. Beneda, and E. Lang. 2009. Prospective attainment of a zero central line- associated blood stream infection rate: A clear enhanced process to success. American Journal of Infection Control 37 (5):E84-E85. Russell, R. B., N. S. Green, C. A. Steiner, S. Meikle, J. L. Howse, K. Poschman, T. Dias, L. Potetz, M. J. Davidoff, K. Damus, and J. R. Petrini. 2007. Cost of hospitalization for preterm and low birth weight infants in the United States. Pediatrics 120(1): e1-9. SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration). 2009a. Major depressive episode and treatment among adults. The NSDUH Report (May 14, 2009). SAMHSA. 2009b. Results from the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed tables. http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/2K8NSDUH/tabs/Sect4peTabs10to11.pdf (ac- cessed December 17, 2010). SAMHSA. 2010. Results from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Volume I. Sum - mary of National Findings. Rockville, MD: SAMHSA Office of Applied Studies. Seligman, M. 2008. Applied psychology: An international review. Positive Health (57):3-18. Shannon, R. P., B. Patel, D. Cummins, A. H. Shannon, G. Ganguli, and Y. Lu. 2006. Econom - ics of central line-associated bloodstream infections. American Journal of Medical Quality 21(6 Suppl):7S-16S.

OCR for page 1
64 LEADING HEALTH INDICATORS FOR HEALTHY PEOPLE 2020 Smith, G. S., C. C. Branas, and T. R. Miller. 1999. Fatal nontraffic injuries involving alcohol: A meta-analysis. Annals of Emergency Medicine 33(6):659-668. Stansfield, S. 1999. Social support and social cohesion. In Social determinants of health, edited by M. Marmot and R. Wilkinson. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Starfield, B. 2010. Reinventing primary care: Lessons from Canada for the United States. Health Affairs 29(5):1030-1036. Statistics Canada. 2010. 37a–HLT health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE). http://www.statcan. gc.ca/pub/82-401-x/2009000/considerations/hlt/37ahlt-eng.htm (accessed December 20, 2010). Steiner, M. J., W. Cates, Jr., and L. Warner. 1999. The real problem with male condoms is nonuse. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 26(8):459-462. Struble, C. B., L. L. Lindley, K. Montgomery, J. Hardin, and M. Burcin. 2010. Overweight and obesity in lesbian and bisexual college women. Journal of the American College of Health 59(1):51-56. Sungkyu, L., and C. Sunha. 2009. Disparities in access to health care among non-citizens in the United States. Health Sociology Review 18(3):307-320. Thornton, J., and J. Rice. 2008. Does extending health insurance coverage to the uninsured improve population health outcomes? Applied Health Economics and Health Policy 6 (4):217. U.S. Census Bureau. 2007. Statistical abstract of the United States: 2007: The national data book. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Van Leeuween, J., S. Boyle, and S. Salomunsen-Sautel. 2006. Lesbian, gay and bisexual homeless youth: An eight-city public health perspective. Child Welfare 85(2):151-170. Veenhoven, R. 1997. Advances in understanding happiness. Revue Quebecoise de Psychologie 18(29-79). Veenhoven, R. 2008. Healthy happiness: Effects of happiness on physical health and the consequences for preventive health care. Journal of Happiness Studies 9(3):449-469. Warner, L., K. M. Stone, M. Macaluso, J. W. Buehler, and H. D. Austin. 2006. Condom use and risk of gonorrhea and chlamydia: A systematic review of design and measurement factors assessed in epidemiologic studies. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 33(1):36-51. Wechsler, H., A. Davenport, G. Dowdall, B. Moeykens, and S. Castillo. 1994. Health and behavioral consequences of binge drinking in college. A national survey of students at 140 campuses. Journal of the American Medical Association 272(21):1672-1677. Whitbeck, L. B., X. Chen, D. R. Hoyt, K. A. Tyler, and K. D. Johnson. 2004. Mental disorder, subsistence strategies, and victimization among gay, lesbian, and bisexual homeless and runaway adolescents. Journal of Sexual Research 41(4):329-342. Wise, P. H. 2009. Confronting social disparities in child health: A critical appraisal of life- course science and research. Pediatrics 124(Supplement 3):S203-S211. Xavier, J., J. Honnold, and J. Bradford. 2007. The health, health-related needs and lifecourse experiences of transgender Virginians. http://www.vdh.virginia.gov/epidemiology/ DiseasePrevention/documents/pdf/THISFINALREPORTVol1.pdf (accessed Decem- ber 14, 2010). Xu, K. T. 2002. Usual source of care in preventive service use: A regular doctor versus a regular site. Health Services Research 37(6):1509-1529. Yang, Y. 2007. Long and happy living: Trends and patterns of happy life expectancy in the U.S., 1970-2000. Social Science Research 37(4):1235-1252. Zuckerman, B., and N. Halfon. 2003. School readiness: An idea whose time has arrived. Pediatrics 111(6):1433-1436.