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Index A anthrax mailings, 40–41 size and granularity of material in letters, agar, 89, 113, 167 79–80 American Media, Inc. (AMI), 26, 56–57, 60, trajectory and outcomes of, 61–62, 62f 62, 65, 67, 76 anthrax mailings case American Society of Microbiology (ASM) Bio background, 25–26 Defense Meeting Presentations, 178 chronology of, 26, 30–31 Amerithrax investigations, 25–26 timeline of key events, 28–30t analytical techniques used on evidentiary timeline of scientific events in, 48–52t material, 57, 58–59t anthrax program, 66 collection and analysis of clinical and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), environmental samples and cross 56, 57, 66, 79, 81–84, 95 contamination, 60, 176–77 clinical and epidemiological samples, 60–62, 64 B crime scene environmental samples, Bacillus sp. 64–66 B. anthracis, 1, 37, 44–45, 97 letter material and cross contamination, as biological weapon, 40–41 67–70 biology, 37–38, 44–45 samples from overseas site identified by chemical and physical properties, 177 intelligence, 66–67 clinical aspects, 38–40 federal coordinated response and early history of Ames strain of, 44 assignment of laboratory work, identification of B. anthracis strain, 55–57 97–100 See also specific topics isolates (see morphotype isolates) Ames Ancestor sequence, 103 modes of transmission, 39 Ames strain B. anthracis, 6–7, 31, 32, 44, 103, phylogeny, 41–44 129, 169 worldwide distribution of lineages of, Ames strain DNA, 8 43, 43f Ames strain identification, FBI documents B. cereus, 42, 84, 88 regarding, 162–63 B. subtilis, 84, 96, 121–22, 169–70 Ames strain samples, subpoena protocol contamination of New York samples for collection and submission of, with, 65, 104–6 126–30, 132, 144–47 genetic diversity and phylogenetic amplified fragment length polymorphism characterization of, 171 (AFLP), 98 205

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206 INDEX in New York Post letter, 96, 105, Defence Research Establishment Suffield 121–22 (DRES), 69 whole genome assembly of B. subtilis Department of Justice (DOJ) isolate, 170–71 Amerithrax Investigative Summary, 93, 147 B. subtilis screening, 171–72 scientific conclusions, 11–23t, 32–33 bacterial growth conditions and processing diatrizoate, 38 methods, features of, 87–89 detection of, 77, 87–89, 96 bioterrorism investigations, 53, 54 dilution experiments, 188–89 Blanco, Ernesto, 26 DNA, 8, 102 blood agar, 89, 113, 167 Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), 78, 95–96, Brokaw, Tom, 26 168–69 C E (14C) carbon-14 dating, 165–66. See also edema factor (EF), 39 radiocarbon dating Ekaterinburg. See Sverdlovsk outbreak Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry envelope measurements, 92–93 (CAMS), 90 enzymes produced by B. anthracis Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 126 F Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Sciences Unit/ FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation), 9 Chemical Biological Science Unit documents provided by, 161–79 (CBSU), 71 declassified reports, 177 chemical analysis scientific conclusions and committee committee findings, 93–96 findings, 4–23t, 32–33 methods for, 81, 81t scientific investigations, 31–32 (see also See also specific topics Amerithrax investigations) Chemistry Unit, FBI Laboratory, 165 See also specific topics Committee on Review of the Scientific FBI hazardous materials (HAZMAT) teams, Approaches Used During the FBI’s 64, 68 Investigation of the 2001 Bacillus FBI Repository (FBIR), 32 anthracis Mailings creation of, 126–30 biographical information on, 193–204 FBI Repository (FBIR) samples charge to, 27 comparison of material in letters with, committee process, 33–35 125–26 findings, 4–23t, 70–74, 121–23 analyses based on resampling RMR- formation, xi 1029 and interpretation of results, recommendations, 10, 70–74 140–44 See also specific topics committee findings, 144–51 cross contamination. See under Amerithrax See also specific topics investigations statistical interpretation of the evidence and analyses of, 132–34 D G Daschle, Tom, letter received by, 26, 28t, 30–31, 58–59t, 68, 79–80, 82, 87, genetic engineering, 100, 102–4, 163 113–22. See also specific topics genetic markers in New York Post letter “deep sequencing,” 101, 150 (powder), 115t, 116–22, 148–49

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207 INDEX L genome assembly of B. subtilis isolate, 170–71 genome sequencing, 101, 163–64 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of morphotype isolates, 114–19 (LLNL), 79, 86, 90 See also Institute of Genomic Research Leahy, Patrick, letter received by, 30, 68, 69, genotypes, 139, 139t 76–80, 88–92, 96, 109, 113–22 A1 and A3, 119, 172–73 powder on, 63f B and D, 119–20, 173–75 silicon content, 82–84, 85f, 87, 94, 95 development and application of assays for, lethal factor (LF), 39 119–21 letter material, silicon and other elements in, E, 120–21, 175–76 80 genetic assays to test for the four, 130 elemental analysis, 81–84 mutation, in FBIR samples, 133–34, 133t, letter powder 134t Leahy, 62, 63f, 64 observed and expected distribution of New York Post, 62, 63f, 64 positive signatures for the four, 137, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), 100 138t in RMR-1029, 125, 130–32, 138, 139t, 140–42, 145–48 M mass spectrometry (MS), 88–90 H media component analysis, 89 meglumine, 38 hazardous materials (HAZMAT) teams, 64, 68 detection of, 77, 87–89, 96 heme, 89, 167 morphological variants in evidentiary material, identification and characterization of committee findings, 121–23 I development and application of assays for inductively coupled plasma-optical emission genotypes, 119–21 spectroscopy (ICP-OES), 81–83, 94 selection criteria for genetic variations used inhalational anthrax, 26, 28–29t, 30, 31, 39, in screening, 113–14 40, 44–45, 60–62, 64, 97 See also morphotypes Institute of Genomic Research (TIGR), 32, morphotype isolates, whole genome 102–5, 115, 117–20 sequencing of, 114–19 Institute of Infectious Diseases. See U.S. Army morphotypes, 5–6 Research Institute of Infectious background information on, 107–9 Diseases defined, 106 Ivins, Bruce, 26, 140–42, 145 detection and characterization of, 109–13 phenotypic characteristics, 113, 113t genetic characterization of, 116, 116t J reasons FBI was interested in, 106–7 multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA), 98, 99 Justice Department, U.S. See Department of Justice N K nano time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (nano-SIMS), 86 Keim, Paul, 99–100 National Academies, xii–xiii, 35 National Academy of Sciences (NAS), xi, 56 National Research Council (NRC), xi, 1, 26 New York City letters, 26, 60–62. See also American Media, Inc.

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208 INDEX New York Post letter (powder), 62, 63f, 64, 68, SEM-EDX (scanning electron microscope 85f, 94–95 with energy-dispersive X-ray) B. subtilis in, 96, 105, 121–22 analysis, 79, 81–86 genetic markers in, 115t, 116–22, 148–49 of Leahy powder, 85f SEM-EDX analysis of, 83–85, 94–96 of New York Post letter, 83–85, 94–96 Senate letters, 26, 30–31 silicon analysis, 7–8, 12t, 84–87, 94–96. See P also under letter material silicon measurements in evidentiary and plasmids, 39 surrogate samples, 82, 82t polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 102 115–18 polymorphism(s) Soviet Union. See Sverdlovsk outbreak amplified fragment length, 98 spatially resolved elemental analysis, 83–84 single nucleotide, 115–18 spo0A gene, 108–9 postal workers, 61 spo0F gene, 117 protective antigen (PA), 39 spore preparation estimates of media volume required for, 77, 77t R and purification, 75–78 time needed for, 8 radiocarbon dating, 181–82 spores of B. anthracis samples, 90 biology, 37–38, 44–45 of letter received by Patrick Leahy, 95–96 derivation of RMR-1029, 130–32 See also carbon-14 (14C) dating estimated ranges of total number of, 76, RenoCal, 88, 168 76t RMR-1029 (spore-containing flask), 32, 74, 77, resilience, 37–38 85, 88, 96, 149, 150 stable isotope analysis, 90–93, 166–67 analyses based on resampling, 140–44 forensics potential, 183–84 genotypes in, 125, 130–32, 138, 139t, Stable Isotope Ratio Facility for 140–42, 145–48 Environmental Research (SIRFER), results obtained by resampling from, 142, 90–93 143t Statistical Analysis Report (FBI), 135–36 RMR-1029 spores, derivation of, 130–32 committee assessment of, 185–91 RMR-1030 (spore-containing flask), 85n representativeness, randomness, and independence, 136–40, 185–86 S Stevens, Robert, 26, 28t, 60 subpoena protocol for collection and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), 83, 84, submission of Ames strain samples, 164–65 126–30, 132, 144–47 scanning electron microscope. See SEM surrogate preparation and purification, 78–79 science Sverdlovsk outbreak, 41 FBI’s uses of, 35–36 qualifiers of certainty in biological sciences, T 53, 55 and scientific investigation, as part of law TaqMan technique, 105, 106 enforcement investigation, 47, Technical Review Panels, 56 53–55 “Select Agents” program, 126 SEM (scanning electron microscope), 79, 81, 85f

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209 INDEX U V U.S. Army Research Institute of Infectious variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) Diseases (USAMRIID), 56–57, 66, analysis, 98, 99 109, 131, 140–41, 161–62 volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), 89–90 USDOJ. See Department of Justice W water samples, stable isotope analysis of, 92

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