RFS2 divides the total renewable fuel requirement into four categories:
• Conventional biofuel that is ethanol derived from corn starch and has a life-cycle greenhouse-gas (GHG) threshold of at least 20-percent reduction in emissions compared to petroleum-based gasoline and diesel.
Biomass-based diesel that achieves life-cycle GHG reduction threshold of at least 50 percent.
Advanced biofuels that are renewable fuels other than ethanol derived from corn starch and that achieve a life-cycle GHG reduction threshold of at least 50 percent. Advanced biofuels can include cellulosic biofuels and biomass-based diesel.
Cellulosic biofuels derived from any cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin from renewable biomass that achieve a life-cycle GHG reduction threshold of at least 60 percent.
FINDING: Absent major technological innovation or policy changes, the RFS2-mandated consumption of 16 billion gallons of ethanol-equivalent cellulosic biofuels is unlikely to be met in 2022.
The United States had the capacity to produce 14.1 billion gallons of ethanol per year from corn grain and 2.7 billion gallons of biodiesel per year from soybean oil, other vegetable oils, and animal fats at the end of 2010. That year, about 13.2 billion gallons of ethanol and