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D Glossary Alcohol fuels Fuels that are organic compounds that contain one or more hy- droxyl groups (-OH) attached to one or more of the carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon chain. Common alcohol fuels include ethanol, methanol, and butanol. Algae A group of aquatic eukaryotic organisms that contain chloro- phyll. Algae can be microscopic in size (microalgae) or observ- able to the eye (macroalgae). Aliphatic alcohol An alcohol that contains a hydrocarbon fragment derived from a fully saturated, nonaromatic hydrocarbon. Anoxia The absence of dissolved oxygen. Biodiesel Diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl esters derived from bio- logical material such as vegetable oils, animal fats, and algal oils. Biofuel Fuel derived from biomass. Biomass Any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis, including agricultural crops and trees, wood and wood residues, plants (including aquatic plants), grasses, animal resi- dues, municipal residues, and other residue materials. Bioreﬁnery A commercial-scale processing facility that successfully inte- grates all processes for extracting and converting biomass feed- stocks into a spectrum of saleable products. Carbon sequestration Net transfer of atmospheric carbon dioxide into long-lived car- bon pools. Cellulose A polymer of glucose, (C6H10O5)n, that forms cell walls of most plants. 301
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302 APPENDIX D Commercial The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) deﬁnes a demonstration commercial demonstration for biofuel reﬁnery as a facility that has the capacity to process 700 dry tons of feedstock per day. In addition, a commercial demonstration facility will be a fully integrated facility that includes all processing steps at a scale sufﬁcient to identify potential operational problems. Corn stover Corn stalks, leaves, and cobs that remain after the corn-grain is harvested. Demonstration facility NREL deﬁnes a demonstration facility for biofuel reﬁnery as one that has the capacity to process 70 dry tons of feedstock per day. A true demonstration facility will be a fully integrated facility that includes all of the processing steps that a commercial-scale plant would have. Drop-in fuel Nonpetroleum fuel that is compatible with existing infrastruc- ture for petroleum-based fuels. Feedstock Material that can be processed to make fuel, including grains, crop residues, forestry products, plant oils, animal fats, and mu- nicipal wastes. Feedstuff Nutrient-rich material that can be incorporated into the diet of livestock or other animals. Green diesel Hydrogenation product of triglycerides. Hemicellulose A matrix of polysaccharides present in almost all plant cell walls with cellulose. Hydrocarbon fuels Fuels that are organic compounds that contains primarily carbon and hydrogen and only trace amounts of other atoms such as sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen. Hydrocarbon fuels include petro- leum-based materials such as alkanes, oleﬁns, and aromatics. Hypoxia Low dissolved oxygen concentrations, generally less than 2 mil- ligrams per liter. Land cover Land cover is the extent and type of physical and biological cover over the surface of land. Land use Land use is deﬁned by anthropogenic activities, such as agricul- ture, forestry, and urban development, that alter land-surface pro- cesses including biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biodiversity. Lignin A complex polymer that occurs in certain plant cell walls. Lignin binds to cellulose ﬁbers and hardens and strengthens the cell walls of plants. Lignocellulosic biomass Plant biomass composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Pilot demonstration NREL deﬁnes a pilot demonstration for biofuel reﬁnery as a fa- cility that has the capacity to process 1-10 dry tons of feedstock per day. These facilities typically do not include fully integrated processes. Reid Vapor Pressure A measure of fuel volatility. Stumpage A fee charged by a landowner to companies or operators for the right to harvest timber on that land.