CHEMISTRY IN PRIMETIME AND ONLINE

Communicating Chemistry in Informal Environments

WORKSHOP SUMMARY

Tina Masciangioli, Rapporteur


Chemical Sciences Roundtable

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
                          OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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CHEMISTRY IN PRIMETIME AND ONLINE Communicating Chemistry in Informal Environments W ORKSHOP SUMMARY Tina Masciangioli, Rapporteur Chemical Sciences Roundtable Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant DE-FG02-07ER15872, the National Institutes of Health under Grant N01-OD-4-2139 (Task Order 25), and the National Science Foundation under Grant CHE-0621582. The report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Govern - ment. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-18770-1 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-18770-2 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal govern - ment. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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CHEMICAL SCIENCES ROUNDTABLE CHAIR MARK A. BARTEAU, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware WILLIAM F. CARROLL JR.,* Occidental Chemical Corporation, Dallas, Texas MEMBERS MICHAEL R. BERMAN, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Arlington, Virginia APURBA BHATTACHARYA, Texas A&M, Kingsville, Texas PAUL F. BRYAN, Biomass Program, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. MARK CARDILLO,* Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, New York ROBERT J. CELOTTA, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland JOHN C. CHEN, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania JENNIFER SINCLAIR CURTIS, University of Florida, Gainesville TERESA FRYBERGER, NASA Earth Sciences Division, Washington, D.C. JOHN W. KOZARICH, ActivX Biosciences Inc., La Jolla, California LUIS E. MARTINEZ, Private Consultant, Jupiter, Florida JOHN J. MCGRATH, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia KENNETH G. MOLOY, DuPont Company Experimental Station, Wilmington, Delaware ROBERT PEOPLES, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. MATTHEW PLATZ, National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia DOUGLAS RAY, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington MICHAEL E. ROGERS,* National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland ERIC ROHLFING, U.S. Department of Energy, Germantown, Maryland JAMES M. SOLYST,* ENVIRON International Corporation, Arlington, Virginia PATRICIA A. THIEL, Iowa State University, Ames LEVI THOMPSON, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor RICHARD P. VAN DUYNE, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant KATHRYN HUGHES, Program Officer TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Responsible Staff Officer ANGELA OLSON, Christine Mirzayan S&T Policy Fellow (January-April 2011) SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Research Associate RACHEL YANCEY, Program Assistant * These members of the Chemical Sciences Roundtable oversaw the planning of the Workshop on Chemistry in Primetime and Online: Communicating Chemistry in Informal Environments, but were not involved in the writing of this workshop summary. v

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BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY CO-CHAIRS RYAN R. DIRKX, Arkema Inc., King of Prussia, Pennsylvania C. DALE POULTER, University of Utah, Salt Lake City MEMBERS ZHENAN BAO, Stanford University, California ROBERT BERGMAN, University of California, Berkeley HENRY BRYNDZA, E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware EMILY CARTER, Princeton University, New Jersey PABLO DEBENEDETTI, Princeton University, New Jersey MARY JANE HAGENSON, Chevron Phillips Chemical Company, LLC, The Woodlands, Texas CAROL J. HENRY, The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. JILL HRUBY, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts JOSEF MICHL, University of Colorado, Boulder MARK A. RATNER, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois ROBERT E. ROBERTS, Institute for Defense Analyses, Washington, D.C. DARLENE J. S. SOLOMON, Aligent Laboratories, Santa Clara, California ERIK J. SORENSEN, Princeton University, New Jersey JEAN TOM, Bristol-Myers Squibb, West Windsor, New Jersey WILLIAM C. TROGLER, University of California, San Diego DAVID WALT, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL STAFF DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director AMANDA CLINE, Administrative Assistant KATHRYN HUGHES, Program Officer TINA M. MASCIANGIOLI, Senior Program Officer SHEENA SIDDIQUI, Research Associate RACHEL YANCEY, Program Assistant vi

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Preface The Chemical Sciences Roundtable (CSR) was established in 1997 by the National Research Council. It provides a science-oriented apolitical forum for leaders in the chemi - cal sciences to discuss chemistry-related issues affecting government, industry, and uni - versities. Organized by the National Research Council’s Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, the CSR aims to strengthen the chemical sciences by fostering communication among the people and organizations—spanning industry, government, universities, and professional associations—involved with the chemical enterprise. One way it does this is by organizing workshops that address issues in chemical science and technology that require national or more widespread attention. In May 2010, the CSR organized a workshop on the topic “Chemistry in Primetime and Online: Communicating Chemistry in Informal Environments.” The one-and-a-half-day workshop was held to • Examine science content, especially chemistry, on television, on the Internet, in museums, and in other informal educational settings, • Explore how the public obtains scientific information, and • Discuss methods chemists can use to improve and expand their efforts to reach a general, nontechnical audience. Specific consideration was given to the rapid changes taking place in mass media com - munication and the opportunities that interactive web technologies may provide scientists in developing and distributing materials for informal education. Means of measuring rec - ognition and retention of the information presented in various media formats and settings was also discussed. Workshop participants included chemical practitioners (e.g., graduate students or postdocs, professors, administrators); informal learning experts; public and private fund - ing organizations; science writers, bloggers, publishers, and university communications officers; and television and web producers. This document summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop. In accordance with the policies of the CSR, the workshop did not attempt to establish any conclusions or recommendations about needs and future directions, focusing instead on issues identified by the speakers and workshop participants. In addition, the organizing committee’s role was limited to planning the workshop. The workshop summary has been prepared by the workshop rapporteur Tina Masciangioli as a factual summary of what occurred at the workshop. vii

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viii PREFACE IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT INTERNET WEBSITES The Internet information provided in this Summary was correct, to the best of our knowl - edge, at the time of publication. It is important to remember, however, the dynamic nature of the Internet. Information on websites can be transient, and is not always validated or verifiable. Resources that are free and publicly available one day may require a fee or restrict access the next, and the location of items may change as menus and homepages are reorganized.

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This workshop summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published sum - mary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this workshop summary: Jo Ann Caplin, Science TV Workshop, Wynnewood, Pennsylvania Jennifer S. Curtis, University of Florida, Gainesville Al Hazari, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Terri M. Taylor, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC David R. Walt, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they did not see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this summary was overseen by Jeffrey I. Steinfeld, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was respon - sible for making certain that an independent examination of this summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the author and the institution. ix

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Contents 1 OVERVIEW 1 2 INTRODUCTION TO INFORMAL LEARNING 4 Surrounded by Science, 4 Informal Chemistry, 8 Chemistry, the Neglected Science, 12 Open Discussion, 18 3 CHEMISTRY IN PRINT 19 Writing about Chemistry, 19 Respect for Chemistry, 20 From Magazines to Blogs, 23 Open Discussion 2, 26 4 LOCAL OUTREACH EFFORTS 28 New Jersey ACS Local Section, 28 Nashville ACS Local Section, 29 Citizen Science, 30 Open Discussion 3, 32 5 CHEMISTRY IN MUSEUMS 34 Chemistry at the Koshland Science Museum, 34 Chemistry at the Deutsches Museum, 36 The Museum at the Chemical Heritage Foundation, 38 Open Discussion 4, 42 6 CHEMISTRY IN VIDEO, IN MOVIES, AND ON THE RADIO 47 Periodic Table of Videos, 47 EarthSky: A Clear Voice for Science, 49 Chemistry in the Movies, 51 Open Discussion 5, 53 xi

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xii CONTENTS 7 TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES55 55 Games that Matter, 55 Cultivating Chemistry Communication Leaders, 57 Libraries and Librarians, 59 Open Discussion 6, 63 8 WORKSHOP WRAP-UP SESSION 65 Bridging the Communication Gap, 65 Strategic Planning, 65 Taking Chemistry to the Streets, 65 The Message, Medium, Hook, Audience, and Messenger, 66 Open Discussion 7, 66 APPENDIXES A Select References 73 B Workshop Agenda 75 C Biographies 77 D Workshop Attendees 83 E Origin of and Information on the Chemical Sciences Roundtable 87

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Acronyms AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science ACC American Chemistry Council ACS American Chemical Society AIChE American Institute of Chemical Engineers AP Advanced Placement ASTC Association of Science and Technology Centers CAISE Center for Advancement of Informal Science Education CHF Chemical Heritage Foundation CRPA Communicating Research to Public Audiences CSI Crime Science Investigation EA Electronic Arts IGERT Integrative Graduate Education and Research ISE Informal Science Education IYC 2011 International Year of Chemistry 2011 NCW National Chemistry Week NIH National Institutes of Health NISE Nanoscale Informal Science Education NRC National Research Council NSDL National Science Digital Library NSF National Science Foundation PBS Public Broadcasting Service PROS Parallel Remote Online System SMILE Science and Math Informal Learning Educators STEM science, technology, engineering, or mathematics xiii

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