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Appendix D Acronyms and Abbreviations AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science ACEX Arctic Coring Expedition CCD carbonate compensation depth CIA Chemical Index of Alteration CO2 carbon dioxide DOE Department of Energy DOSECC Drilling, Observation, and Sampling of the Earth’s Continental Crust DSDP Deep Sea Drilling Project EMIC Earth system models of intermediate complexity ENSO El Niño-Southern Oscillation E&O education and outreach ESM Earth system model GCM global climate model; also general circulation model GIS geographic information system ICDP International Continental Scientific Drilling Program ICP-MS inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ID-TIMS isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry IODP Integrated Ocean Drilling Program IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 193

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194 APPENDIX D ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone ka thousands of years ago ky thousand years LGM Last Glacial Maximum LPIA Late Paleozoic Ice Age Ma million of years ago MAT mean annual temperature my million years μmol micromole NAO North Atlantic Oscillation NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NCEAS National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NRC National Research Council NSF National Science Foundation OAE oceanic anoxic event ODP Ocean Drilling Program pCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide PDO Pacific Decadal Oscillation PETM Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum PI principal investigator PMIP Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project ppmv parts per million by volume SIMS secondary ion mass spectrometry SST sea surface temperature TEX86 tetraether index of 86 carbon atoms; paleothermometer based on the composition of membrane lipids of marine picoplankton TOC total organic carbon USGS U.S. Geological Survey