Appendix B

List of Planetary Science Community
White Papers Contributed

One of the defining features of a decadal survey is broad community participation. One of the most important ways to ensure that the planetary science community played a major role in providing input to this report was the creation of a mechanism by which individuals and groups of individual researchers could submit white papers directly to the Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. White papers on all topics of relevance to the survey were strongly encouraged, and the community was made aware of this through community newsletters, open letters to the community distributed using several relevant e-mail explorers, and personal solicitations during town hall meetings.

To facilitate document management, several submission guidelines were imposed. These included of a seven-page limit (in a pre-specified format), the requirement for transmission to the committee by a specific individual (the submitting author) through a special National Research Council (NRC) website, and a submission deadline of September 15, 2009; the deadline was set to ensure that all contributions were available for consideration and discussion no later than during the second meetings of both the steering group and the five panels.

Everyone in the planetary science community was encouraged to author white papers. However, members of the committee’s steering group and the chairs of panels were discouraged from doing so on the grounds that they should maintain a degree of impartiality.

In total, the committee received 199 white papers, which are listed below, arranged alphabetically by last name of the submitting (lead) author. Most, but not all papers, had multiple authors. Indeed, multiple authorship was specifically encouraged by the committee on the grounds that consensus is more compelling than a single viewpoint. To facilitate consensus and to advertise what white papers were in preparation, the Lunar and Planetary Institute established a website on which potential authors could state their intention to draft a white paper on a specific topic and thus acquire co-authors. Some individual white papers attracted a hierarchy of authors, co-authors, supporters, and endorsers—sometimes running into the hundreds. The committee made no attempt to keep track of the identities and affiliations of those individuals whose only contribution to a particular document was to add their name to it. The committee was able to determine that 1,669 unique individuals were authors or co-authors of at least one white paper (Table B.1). For comparison, some 380 individuals contributed 24 white papers in support of the NRC’s first planetary decadal survey process (see Appendix B in National Research Council, New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2003).

The energy, financial resources, and time devoted by the planetary community to this process is both gratifying to the committee and clear evidence of a broad desire among those in the community to openly discuss and



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Appendix B List of Planetary Science Community White Papers Contributed One of the defining features of a decadal survey is broad community participation. One of the most important ways to ensure that the planetary science community played a major role in providing input to this report was the creation of a mechanism by which individuals and groups of individual researchers could submit white papers directly to the Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. White papers on all topics of relevance to the survey were strongly encouraged, and the community was made aware of this through community newsletters, open letters to the community distributed using several relevant e-mail explorers, and personal solicitations during town hall meetings. To facilitate document management, several submission guidelines were imposed. These included of a seven- page limit (in a pre-specified format), the requirement for transmission to the committee by a specific individual (the submitting author) through a special National Research Council (NRC) website, and a submission deadline of September 15, 2009; the deadline was set to ensure that all contributions were available for consideration and discussion no later than during the second meetings of both the steering group and the five panels. Everyone in the planetary science community was encouraged to author white papers. However, members of the committee’s steering group and the chairs of panels were discouraged from doing so on the grounds that they should maintain a degree of impartiality. In total, the committee received 199 white papers, which are listed below, arranged alphabetically by last name of the submitting (lead) author. Most, but not all papers, had multiple authors. Indeed, multiple authorship was specifically encouraged by the committee on the grounds that consensus is more compelling than a single viewpoint. To facilitate consensus and to advertise what white papers were in preparation, the Lunar and Planetary Institute established a website on which potential authors could state their intention to draft a white paper on a spe- cific topic and thus acquire co-authors. Some individual white papers attracted a hierarchy of authors, co-authors, supporters, and endorsers—sometimes running into the hundreds. The committee made no attempt to keep track of the identities and affiliations of those individuals whose only contribution to a particular document was to add their name to it. The committee was able to determine that 1,669 unique individuals were authors or co-authors of at least one white paper (Table B.1). For comparison, some 380 individuals contributed 24 white papers in support of the NRC’s first planetary decadal survey process (see Appendix B in National Research Council, New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2003). The energy, financial resources, and time devoted by the planetary community to this process is both gratify- ing to the committee and clear evidence of a broad desire among those in the community to openly discuss and 323

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324 VISION AND VOYAGES FOR PLANETARY SCIENCE TABLE B.1 Institutional Distribution of Authors and Co-Authors of White Papers Contributed in Support of the Planetary Decadal Survey for 2013-2022 Affiliation United States International Total Academia 494 167 661 Research and nonprofit institutions 202 71 273 Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) 245 — 245 NASA centers (excluding JPL) 234 — 234 Other U.S. government agencies 31 — 31 Foreign government agencies — 98 98 Industry 93 6 99 Other/not specified/unknown 27 1 28 Total 1,326 343 1,669 to set priorities to guide the community’s future activities related to the study of the solar system and planetary systems in general. Following is the list of lead authors and titles of the white papers submitted to the committee in support of the planetary science decadal survey. Mian M. Abbas, Global Distributions of Gas and Dust in the Lunar Atmosphere from Solar Infrared Absorption Measurements with a Fourier Transform Spectrometer Mian M. Abbas, Importance of Measurements of Charging Properties of Individual Submicron Size Lunar Dust Grains Paul A. Abell, Goals and Priorities for the Study of Centaurs and Trans-Neptunian Objects in the Next Decade Paul A. Abell, Scientific Investigation of Near-Earth Objects via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle C. Agnor, The Exploration of Neptune and Triton Charles Alcock, Whipple: Exploring the Solar System Beyond Neptune Using a Survey for Occultations of Bright Stars Mark Allen, Astrobiological Research Priorities for Titan Ariel D. Anbar, Astrobiology Research Priorities for Mercury, Venus and the Moon Robert F. Arentz, NEO Survey: An Efficient Search for Near-Earth Objects by an IR Observatory in a Venus- like Orbit James W. Ashley, The Scientific Rationale for Studying Meteorites Found on Other Worlds Sami W. Asmar, Planetary Radio Science: Investigations of Interiors, Surfaces, Atmospheres, Rings and Environments David H. Atkinson, Entry Probe Missions to the Giant Planets Jeffrey L. Bada, Seeking Signs of Life on Mars: In Situ Investigations as Prerequisites to Sample Return Missions Kevin H. Baines, Venus Atmospheric Explorer New Frontiers Concept Tibor Balint, Technologies for Future Venus Exploration Bruce Banerdt, The Rationale for a Long-Lived Geophysical Network Mission To Mars Patricia M. Beauchamp, Technologies for Outer Planet Missions: A Companion to the Outer Planet Assessment Group (OPAG) Strategic Exploration White Paper Dana E. Beckman, SOFIA Planetary Science Vision Reta Beebe, Data Management, Preservation and the Future of PDS Torsten Bondo, Preliminary Design of an Advanced Mission to Pluto Lars Borg, A Consensus Vision for Mars Sample Return Alan Boss, Astrobiology Research Priorities for Exoplanets

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325 APPENDIX B William F. Bottke, Exploring the Bombardment History of the Moon Sarah E. Braden, Unexplored Areas of the Moon: Non-Mare Domes Daniel Britt, Asteroids Linda R. Brown, Laboratory Spectroscopy to Support Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Composition Mark A. Bullcock, The Venus Science and Technology Definition Team Flagship Mission Study Bonnie J. Buratti, The Small Satellites of the Solar System Jack Burns, Science from the Moon: The NASA NLSI Lunar University Network for Astrophysics Research (LUNAR) Bruce A. Campbell, Exploring the Shallow Subsurface of Mars with Imaging Radar: Scientific Promise and Technical Rationale Julie C. Castillo-Rogez, Laboratory Studies in Support of Planetary Geophysics Andrew Cheng, Binary and Multiple Systems Vincent Chevrier, Laboratory Measurements in Support of Present and Future Missions to Mars Karla B. Clark, Europa Jupiter System Mission Michael R. Collier, Global Imaging of Solar Wind-Planetary Body Interactions Using Soft X-ray Cameras Geoffrey C. Collins, Ganymede Science Questions and Future Exploration Pamela G. Conrad, Geochronology and Mars Exploration John F. Cooper, Space Weathering Impact on Solar System Surfaces and Mission Science Athena Coustenis, Future in Situ Balloon Exploration of Titan’s Atmosphere and Surface William B.C. Crandall, A Decadal Shift: From Space Exploration Science to Space Utilization Science Ian A. Crawford, The Scientific Rationale for Renewed Human Exploration of the Moon Arlin Crotts, On Lunar Volatiles and Their Importance to Resource Utilization and Lunar Science Andrew Daga, Lunar and Martian Lava Tube Exploration as Part of an Overall Scientific Study J.B. Dalton, Recommended Laboratory Studies in Support of Planetary Science Andrew M. Davis, Development of Capabilities and Instrumentation for Curation and Analysis of Returned Samples Charles D. Edwards, Jr., Relay Orbiters for Enhancing and Enabling Mars in Situ Exploration Larry W. Esposito, Mission Concept: Venus in Situ Explorer (VISE) Ashley Espy, Interplanetary Dust Jack Farmer, Astrobiology Research and Technology Priorities for Mars Bill Farrel, The Lunar Dust Exosphere: The Extreme Case of an Inner Planetary Atmosphere Leigh N. Fletcher, Jupiter Atmospheric Science in the Next Decade Jonathan J. Fortney, Planetary Formation and Evolution Revealed with Saturn Entry Probe Friedmann Freund, Previously Overlooked/Ignored Electronic Charge Carriers in Rocks Marc Fries, Extralunar Materials in Lunar Regolith Ian Garrick-Bethell, Ensuring United States Competitiveness in the 21st Century Global Economy with a Long- Term Lunar Exploration Program James B. Garvin, Venus: Constraining Crustal Evolution from Orbit via High-Resolution Geophysical and Geo- logical Reconnaissance Barry Geldzahler, Future Plans for the Deep Space Network Jon D. Giorgini, Radar Astrometry of Small Bodies: Detection, Characterization, Trajectory Prediction, and Hazard Assessment John Grant, Future Mars Landing Site Selection Activities Robert E. Grimm, Electromagnetic Sounding of Solid Planets and Satellites David H. Grinspoon, Comparative Planetary Climate Studies

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326 VISION AND VOYAGES FOR PLANETARY SCIENCE Eberhard Grun, In-Situ Mass Spectrometry of Atmosphereless Planetary Objects William M. Grundy, Exploration Strategy for the Ice Dwarf Planets M. Gudipati, Laboratory Studies for Planetary Sciences Jasper S. Halekas, Determining the Origins of Lunar Remanent Crustal Magnetism Kevin P. Hand, An Astrobiological Lens on Planetary System Science Kevin P. Hand, Astrobiology Priorities for Planetary Science Flight Missions Candice J. Hansen, Neptune Science with Argo—A Voyage Through the Outer Solar System Candice J. Hansen, Triton Science with Argo—A Voyage Through the Outer Solar System Walter Harris, Solar System Suborbital Research: A Vital Investment in Scientific Techniques, Technology and Investigators of Space Exploration in the 21st Century Samad Hayati, Strategic Technology Development for Future Mars Missions Michael Hecht, The Microstructure of the Martian Surface Michael Hecht, Next Steps in Mars Polar Science Charles A. Hibbitts, Stratospheric Balloon Missions for Planetary Science Robert Hodyss, Recommended Laboratory Studies in Support of Planetary Science: Surface Chemistry of Icy Bodies Mark Hofstadter, The Atmospheres of the Ice Giants, Uranus and Neptune Mark Hofstadter, The Case for a Uranus Orbiter Steven D. Howe, The Mars Hopper: Long Range Mobile Platform Powered by Martian In-Situ Resources T.A. Hurford, The Case for an Enceladus New Frontiers Mission Dana M. Hurley, Lunar Polar Volatiles and Associated Processes Naoya Imae, Supporting the Sample Return from Mars Bruce M. Jakosky, Are There Signs of Life on Mars? A Scientific Rationale for a Mars Sample-Return Cam- paign as the Next Step in Solar System Exploration Jeffrey R. Johnson, The Importance of a Planetary Cartography Program: Status and Recommendations for NASA 2013-2023 Jeffrey R. Johnson, Summary of the Mars Science Goals, Objectives, Investigations, and Priorities Bradley L. Jolliff, Constraining Solar System Impact History and Evolution of the Terrestrial Planets with Exploration of Samples from the Moon’s South Pole-Aitken Basin Thomas Jones, Strengthening U.S. Exploration Policy via Human Expeditions to Near-Earth Objects Rhawn Joseph, Life on Earth Came from Other Planets Rhawn Joseph, Life on Earth Came from Other Planets: Summary Michael Kavaya, Mars Orbiting Pulsed Doppler Wind Lidar for Characterization of Wind and Dust Robert M. Kelso, Proposal for a Lunar Exploration/Science Campaign: A Commercially-Leveraged, Science- Focused, Lunar Exploration Program Mohammed O. Khan, The Importance of Utilizing and Developing Radioisotope Electric Propulsion for Missions Beyond Saturn Krishan K. Khurana, Lunar Science with ARTEMIS: A Journey from the Moon’s Exosphere to Its Core Georgiana Kramer, The Lunar Swirls Kimberly R. Kuhlman, Tumbleweed: A New Paradigm for Surveying the Surface of Mars E. Robert Kursinski, Dual Satellite Mars Climate and Chemistry Mission Concept Dante S. Lauretta, Astrobiology Research Priorities for Primitive Asteroids Samuel J. Lawrence, Sampling the Age Extremes of Lunar Volcanism Lawrence G. Lemke, Heavier Than Air Vehicles for Titan Exploration Robert J. Lillis, Mars’s Ancient Dynamo and Crustal Remanent Magnetism

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327 APPENDIX B Sanjay S. Limaye, Venus Atmosphere: Major Questions and Required Observations Amy S. Lo, Secondary Payloads Using the LCROSS Architecture David J. Loftus, Chemical Reactivity of Lunar Dust Relevant to Human Exploration of the Moon Ralph D. Lorenz, The Case for a Titan Geophysical Network Mission Jonathan I. Lunine, Saturn’s Titan: A Strict Test for Life’s Cosmic Ubiquity Jonathan I. Lunine, The Science of Titan and Its Future Exploration Edward R. Martinez, Thermal Protection System Sensors Michael D. Max, Is a Resource-Mars a Stepping-Stone to Human Exploration of the Solar System? William B. McKinnon, Exploration Strategy for the Outer Planets 2013-2022: Goals and Priorities Stephen M. Merkowitz, The Moon as a Test Body for General Relativity Scott Messenger, Sample Return from Primitive Asteroids and Comets Richard S. Miller, Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO): A Nuclear Astrophysics All-Sky Survey Mission Concept Using the Moon as a Platform for Science Michael A. Mischna, Atmospheric Science Research Priorities for Mars Yasunori Miura, Lunar Fluids from Carbon and Chlorine Contents of the Apollo Lunar Samples Saumitra Mukherjee, Effect of Star-Burst on Sun-Earth Environment Scott L. Murchie, The Scientific Rational for Robotic Exploration of Phobos and Deimos John F. Mustard, Seeking Signs of Life on a Terrestrial Planet: An Integrated Strategy for the Next Decade of Mars Exploration John F. Mustard, Why Mars Remains a Compelling Target for Planetary Exploration Clive R. Neal, Developing Sample Return Technology Using the Earth’s Moon as a Testing Ground Clive R. Neal, The Lunar Exploration Roadmap Clive R. Neal, The Rationale for Deployment of a Long-Lived Geophysical Network on the Moon Clive R. Neal, Why the Moon Is Important for Solar System Science Connor A. Nixon, Titan’s Greenhouse Effect and Climate: Lessons from the Earth’s Cooler Cousin Robert J. Noble, New Opportunities for Outer Solar System Science Using Radioisotope Electric Propulsion E.Z. Noe Dobrea, Near-Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy of the Surface of Mars at Meter-Scales to Constrain the Geological Origin of Hydrous Alteration Products, Identify Candidate Sites and Samples for Future In Situ and Sample Return Missions, and Guide Rover Operations Michael C. Nolan, Imaging of Near-Earth Asteroids Michael C. Nolan, Near-Earth Objects Julian Nott, Advanced Titan Balloon Design Concepts Julian Nott, Titan’s Unique Attraction: It Is an Ideal Destination for Humans Brian J. O’Brien, Indicative Basic Issues About Lunar Dust in the Lunar Environment David Y. Oh, Single Launch Architecture for Potential Mars Sample Return Mission Using Electric Propulsion Glenn S. Orton, Earth-Based Observational Support for Spacecraft Exploration of Outer-Planet Atmospheres Glenn S. Orton, Saturn Atmospheric Science in the Next Decade Robert T. Pappalardo, Science of the Europa Jupiter System Mission Cynthia B. Phillips, Exploration of Europa Carlé M. Pieters, The Scientific Context for the Exploration of the Moon Andrew Pohorille, Limits of Terrestrial Life in Space Oleksandr Potashko, Atmosphere as Sign of Life Lisa Pratt, Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C): A Potential Rover Mission for 2018 Olga Prieto-Ballesteros, Astrobiology in Europa and Jupiter System Mission (EJSM)

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328 VISION AND VOYAGES FOR PLANETARY SCIENCE Scot C.R. Rafkin, The Value of Landed Meteorological Investigations on Mars: The Next Advance for Climate Science Andreas Rathke, Testing for the Pioneer Anomaly on a Pluto Exploration Mission J. Edmund Riedel, A Survey of Technologies Necessary for the Next Decade of Small Body and Planetary Exploration Andrew S. Rivkin, The Case for Ceres: Report to the Planetary Science Decadal Survey Committee Andrew S. Rivkin, The Trojan Asteroids: Keys to Many Locks Thomas Ruedas, Seismological Investigations of Mars’s Deep Interior S.W. Ruff, Laboratory Studies in Support of Planetary Surface Composition Investigations John D. Rummel, Planetary Protection for Planetary Science and Exploration Erin L. Ryan, The TRACER Mission: A Proposed Trojan and Centaur Flyby Mission Scott A. Sandford, The Comet Coma Rendezvous Sample Return (CCRSR) Mission Concept—The Next Step Beyond Stardust Robert Schingler, ROSI—Return on Science Investment: A System for Mission Evaluation Based on Maximizing Science Harrison H. Schmitt, Geopolitical Context of Lunar Exploration and Settlement Harrison H. Schmitt, Lunar Field Geological Exploration Harrison H. Schmitt, Lunar Helium-3 Fusion Resource Distribution Harrison H. Schmitt, Lunar Pyroclastic Deposits and the Origin of the Moon Harrison H. Schmitt, Observations Necessary for Useful Global Climate Models Dirk Schulze-Makuch, Astrobiology Research Priorities for the Outer Solar System Susanne P. Schwenzer, The Importance of (Noachian) Impact Craters as Windows to the Sub-Surface and as Potential Hosts of Life Amalie Sinclair, Lunar Light—Planetary Renewal—A Holistic Viewpoint Mark Skidmore, Planetary Science and Astrobiology: Cold Habitats for Life in the Solar System David E. Smith, A Budget Phasing Approach to Europa Jupiter System Mission Science Michael D. Smith, Mars Trace Gas Mission: Scientific Goals and Measurement Objectives Sue Smrekar, Venus Exploration Goals, Objectives, Investigations, and Priorities George Sonneborn, Study of Planetary Systems and Solar System Objects with JWST Linda J. Spilker, Cassini-Huygens Solstice Mission Linda J. Spilker, Neptune Ring Science with Argo—A Voyage Through the Outer Solar System John A. Stansberry, KBO Science with Argo—A Voyage Through the Outer Solar System Andrew Steele, Astrobiology Sample Acquisition and Return Douglas Stetson, Mars Exploration 2016-2032: Rationale and Principles for a Strategic Program Nathan Strange, Astrodynamics Research and Analysis Funding Tore Straume, Solar Radiation Output: Reading the Record of Lunar Rocks James T. Struck, Nobel Prize in Chemistry and Physics Arbitrary—Could Be Awarded to Almost Anyone Who Has Worked in the Fields James T. Struck, Some Anthropology of Humans in Space David R. Thompson, Onboard Science Data Analysis: Implications for Future Missions Matthew S. Tiscareno, Rings Research in the Next Decade Timothy N. Titus, Mars Polar Science for the Next Decade Alan Tokunaga, The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility Wesley A. Traub, Exoplanets and Solar System Exploration Allan H. Treiman, Groundbreaking Sample Return from Mars: The Next Giant Leap in Understanding the Red Planet Allan H. Treiman, Sample Return from Earth’s Moon Allan H. Treiman, Venus Geochemistry: Progress, Prospects, and Future Missions

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329 APPENDIX B Peter Tsou, A Case for Life, Enceladus Flyby Sample Return Steve Vance, Icy Satellite Processes in the Solar System: A Plurality of Worlds Ethiraj Venkatapathy, Thermal Protection System Technologies for Enabling Future Mars/Titan Science Missions Ethiraj Venkatapathy, Thermal Protection System Technologies for Enabling Future Sample Return Missions Ethiraj Venkatapathy, Thermal Protection System Technologies for Enabling Future Venus Exploration Ethiraj Venkatapathy, Thermal Protection System Technologies for Enabling Outer Planet Missions Janet Vertesi, Sociological Considerations for the Success of Planetary Exploration Missions J. Hunter Waite, Jr., Titan Lake Probe James D. Walker, Active Seismology of Asteroids Through Impact and/or Blast Loading Harold A. Weaver, Goals and Priorities for the Study of Comets in the Next Decade (2011-2020) Anthony Wesley, Ground-Based Support for Solar-System Exploration: Continuous Coverage Visible Light Imaging of Solar System Objects from a Network of Ground-Based Observatories David A. Williams, Future Io Exploration for 2013-2022 and Beyond, Part 1: Justification and Science Objectives David A. Williams, Future Io Exploration for 2013-2022 and Beyond, Part 2: Recommendations for Missions James G. Williams, Lunar Science and Lunar Laser Ranging Paul Withers, The Ionosphere of Mars and Its Importance for Climate Evolution Michael H. Wong, A Dedicated Space Observatory for Time-Domain Solar System Science Tsun-Yee Yan, Radiation Facts and Mitigation Strategies for the JEO Mission Roger V. Yelle, Prebiotic Atmospheric Chemistry on Titan Eliot F. Young, Balloon-Borne Telescopes for Planetary Science: Imaging and Photometry

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