E
Acronyms

ACA Acetoacetate

ACES Army Center of Excellence, Subsistence

ACL Acetyl-L-Carnitine

AD Alzheimer’s disease

ADA American Dietetic Association

ADAS-Cog Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale

ADP Adenosine diphosphate

AED Anti-epileptic drug(s)

AI Adequate Intake

ALA Alpha-linolenic acid

ARDS Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

ALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

AMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range

AMP Adenosine monophosphate

AMPK 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase

AOC Alteration of Consciousness/Mental State

ASPEN American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

ATP Adenosine 5′-triphosphate

ARDS Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

bAMC Bilateral anterior medial cortex

BBB Blood-brain barrier

BCAA Branched-chain amino acids

BDNF Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

BI Barthel Index

BMI Body Mass Index

BOH β-hydroxyburate

BTF Brain Trauma Foundation



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E Acronyms ACA Acetoacetate ACES Army Center of Excellence, Subsistence ACL Acetyl-L-Carnitine AD Alzheimer’s disease ADA American Dietetic Association ADAS-Cog Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale ADP Adenosine diphosphate AED Anti-epileptic drug(s) AI Adequate Intake ALA Alpha-linolenic acid ARDS Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome ALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis AMDR Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range AMP Adenosine monophosphate 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK AOC Alteration of Consciousness/Mental State ASPEN American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Adenosine 5′-triphosphate ATP ARDS Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome bAMC Bilateral anterior medial cortex BBB Blood-brain barrier BCAA Branched-chain amino acids BDNF Brain-derived neurotrophic factor BI Barthel Index BMI Body Mass Index b-hydroxyburate BOH BTF Brain Trauma Foundation 421

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422 NUTRITION AND TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY Ca2+ Intracellular calcium CaEDTA Calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate CaMKII Calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase I CCI Controlled cortical impact CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Cytidine 5′–diphosphocholine CDP-choline CI Confidence Interval CI Cerebral infarction CNS Central nervous system CNS Canadian Neurological Score COBRIT Citicoline Brain Injury Treatment CREB Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding CSF Cerebral spinal fluid CSWF Continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep CT Computerized tomography CTE Chronic traumatic encephalopathy CVA Cerebrovascular disease CVD Cardiovascular disease DAI Diffuse axonal injury DCI Delayed cerebral ischemia DFE Dietary folate equivalents DHA Docosahexaenoic acid DM Diabetes mellitus DMSO Dimethyl sulfoxide DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid DoD Department of Defense DRI Dietary Reference Intakes DRS Disability Rating Scores DVBIC Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center DWI Diffusion-weighted imaging EAR Estimated Average Requirements EBG Evidence-Based Guidelines EDTA Ethylene diamine teta-acetic acid (typically in the form of a salt) EEG Electroencephalography EGb Ginkgo biloba extract EN Enteral Nutrition EPA Eicosapentaenoic acid ESPEN European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition FAST-MAG Field Administration of Stroke Therapy—Magnesium FFA Free fatty acid(s) FMD Flow-mediated dilatation fMRI Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging FP Fluid percussion FSCM Food Service Contract Management FSMB Food Service Management Board

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423 APPENDIX E GABA Gamma-aminobutyric acid GABAA Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A GCS Glasgow Coma Scale GFAP Glial fibrillary acidic protein GHB Gamma hydroxybutyrate GOS Glasgow Outcome Score GRV Gastric residual volume GSH Glutathione HIF-1 Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 HR Hazard ratio ICP Intracranial pressure ICU Intensive care unit IED Improvised explosive devices IGF-I Insulin-like growth factor IL-1 Interleukin-1 i.m. intramuscularly/intramuscular IMAGES Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Stroke IOM Institute of Medicine IRB Institutional Review Board IU International Units i.v. Intravenously/intravenous JCCoE Joint Culinary Center of Excellence LDL Low-density lipoprotein LDL-c Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LOC Loss of Consciousness LOS Length of hospital stay MCT Medium-chain triglycerides MDA Malondialdehyde MDRI Military Dietary Reference Intake Mg Magnesium MgSO4 Magnesium sulfate MI Myocardial infarction MRE Meal, Ready to Eat MRI Magnetic resonance imaging mRS Modified Rankin Scale MT Metallothionein mTBI Mild Traumatic Brain Injury MWM Morris water maze Na Sodium NAD+ Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NE Niacin equivalents NGF Nerve growth factor NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

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424 NUTRITION AND TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY NICU Neonatal Intensive Care Unit NIH National Institutes of Health NIHSS NIH Stroke Scale NMDA N-methyl-D-aspartate NO Nitric oxide NPD1 Neuroprotectin D1 NSE Neuron specific enolase NSOR Nutritional standards for operational rations NT-3 Neurotrophin 3 OEF Operation Enduring Freedom OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom OR Odds ratio Oxy-Hb Oxy-hemoglobin PARP Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase PICO Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome PN Parenteral Nutrition PTA Post Traumatic Amnesia PTSD Posttraumatic stress disorder PUFA Polyunsaturated fatty acid(s) RCT Randomized control trial RDA Recommended Dietary Allowances RMR Resting Metabolic Rate RNA Ribonucleic acid ROS Reactive oxygen species RQ Respiratory quotient RR Risk ratio RXR Retinoic acid receptor SAH Subarachnoid hemorrhage SCCM Society of Critical Care Medicine SDNN Standard deviation of normal RR intervals SEM Standard error of mean SGZ Subgranular zone SIRT1 Sirtuin-1 SOD Superoxide dismutase SVX Subventricular zone TBD To be determined TBI Traumatic brain injury TEF Thermal effect of food TNF Tumor necrosis factor TPN Total parenteral nutrition TUNEL Transferase-mediated biotinylated dUTP nick-end labeling UCP Uncoupling protein UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level

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425 APPENDIX E USARIEM U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine VA Department of Veterans Affairs VDR Vitamin D receptor VDRE Vitamin D response elements VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor WMH White matter hypersensitivity WRAMC Walter Reed Army Medical Center XO Xanthine oxidase Zn Zinc

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