Drag queen or king—An individual who cross-dresses in women’s or men’s clothing, adopts a hyperfeminine or hypermasculine presentation, and appears part time in the cross-gender role.

Gay—An attraction and/or behavior focused exclusively or mainly on members of the same sex or gender identity; a personal or social identity based on one’s same-sex attractions and membership in a sexual-minority community.

Gender dysphoria—A term for distress resulting from conflicting gender identity and sex of assignment (Cohen-Kettenis and Gooren, 1999; Murad et al., 2010).

Gender expression—Characteristics in appearance, personality, and behavior culturally defined as masculine or feminine.

Gender identityOne’s basic sense of being a man, woman, or other gender (such as transgender) (Bockting, 1999).

Gender role conformityThe extent to which an individual’s gender expression adheres to the cultural norms prescribed for people of his or her sex.

Gender role nonconformity—Nonconformity with prevailing norms of gender expression.

Gender-variant children—Children who are gender role nonconforming.

Heterosexual—Refers to individuals who identify as “heterosexual” or “straight” or whose sexual or romantic attractions and behaviors focus exclusively or mainly on members of the other sex or gender identity.

Homophobia—A term used broadly to refer to various manifestations of sexual stigma, sexual prejudice, and self-stigma based on one’s homosexual or bisexual orientation.

Homosexual—As an adjective, used to refer to same-sex attraction, sexual behavior, or sexual orientation identity; as a noun, used as an identity label by some persons whose sexual attractions and behaviors are exclusively or mainly directed to people of their same sex.

Intersectionality—A theory used to analyze how social and cultural categories intertwine (Knudsen, 2006).

Intersex—A term used for people who are born with external and/or internal genitalia that vary from typical male or female genitalia, or a chromosomal pattern that varies from XX (female) or XY (male).

Intimate partner violence—Physical, sexual, or psychological harm inflicted by a current or former partner or spouse (CDC, 2006).

Lesbian—As an adjective, used to refer to female same-sex attraction and sexual behavior; as a noun, used as a sexual orientation identity label by women whose sexual attractions and behaviors are exclusively or mainly directed to other women.

Nulliparity—The condition of being nulliparous, or not bearing offspring.

QueerIn contemporary usage, an inclusive, unifying sociopolitical, self-affirming umbrella term for people who are gay; lesbian; bisexual; pan-

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement