among LGBT youth, 160, 171

See also Substance use

American Association for Public Opinion Research, 128

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 204

American Indians and Alaska Natives, 72

American Psychiatric Association, 38, 251

American Psychological Association, 38, 3940

American Public Health Association, 3940

American Society for Reproductive Medicine, 204

Anal cancer, 205206, 232, 263

Anxiety. See Mood and anxiety disorders

Asians/Pacific Islanders, 3031, 194, 226, 228

Association of American Medical Colleges, 6566

B

Barriers to care

deficiencies in provider knowledge and training as, 6566

geographical location as factor in, 16

health insurance coverage, 6667, 274

for HIV/AIDS, 69

for LGBT adults, 224, 234

for LGBT youth, 62, 274

personal-level, 62

provider bias, 6364, 274275

recommendations for research, 8, 295

reluctance to disclose sexual orientation or gender identity as, 14, 62, 63, 224225, 269270, 274

research opportunities, 75, 235

stigma-related, 6165

structural, 61, 6465

for transgender persons, 225, 274

types of, 2, 75, 224

Benjamin, Harry, 49, 50

Bigender persons, 26

Bisexual individuals

acceptance in sexual-minority community, 213

coming out and disclosure behaviors, 31, 213, 253, 254

depression, 194, 256, 257

eating disorders, 150151

economic status, 60, 74

family acceptance, 253

hate crime, 214

health service utilization, 222223

organized community of, 41

partner and family relationships research, 228

prevalence estimates, 5456

protective factors for youth, 164

racial/ethnic differences, 31

self-reported health status, 259

stigmatization and discrimination, 212213

substance use, 218

suicidal ideation and behavior, 195, 258

variability in sexual identity, 28, 212213

See also Bisexual men;

Bisexual women;

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations

Bisexual men

depression, 194

early experience of sexuality, 29

health services utilization, 5, 160, 191, 274

HIV risk and outcomes, 23, 155, 208209

mental health status, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 221

parenthood among, 47

prevalence estimates, 56

relationship patterns among elders, 277

sexual behavior in youth, 153, 155

substance use, 5, 160, 161, 215, 216, 217, 218

suicidal ideation and behavior, 195, 258

See also Bisexual individuals;

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations

Bisexual women

cancer risks, 5, 232, 263, 282

coming out and disclosure behaviors, 187188

contraceptive use, 261

depression, 194

early experiences of sexuality, 29

eating disorders, 150151, 198199

health services utilization, 5, 190191, 223, 234, 260, 274, 282

heart disease risk, 207, 235

history of childhood abuse among, 219



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