Appendix B

Best Management Practices and
Load Reduction Efficiencies Used
in the Watershed Model



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Appendix B Best Management Practices and Load Reduction Efficiencies Used in the Watershed Model 187

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188 NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT REDUCTION GOALS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY TABLE B-1 Best Management Practices and Load Reduction Efficiencies Used in the Watershed Model Non-Point Source Best Management Practices and Efficiencies Currently Used in Scenario Builder (Values in parentheses are in progress of official approval) Agricultural BMPs How Credited Nutrient management Land-use change Forest buffers (varies by region Efficiency, Land-use change Wetland restoration (varies by region) Efficiency Land retirement Land-use change Grass buffers (varies by region) Efficiency, Land-use change Non-urban stream restoration Mass reduction/length Tree planting Land-use change Carbon sequestration/alternative crops Land-use change Conservation tillage Land-use change Continuous no-till (varies by region) Efficiency Enhanced nutrient management Efficiency Decision agriculture Efficiency High-till Efficiency Low-till Efficiency Conservation plans All hay Efficiency Pasture Efficiency Cover crops Efficiency Commodity cover crops Efficiency Stream access control with fencing Land-use change Alternative watering facility Efficiency Prescribed grazing/PIRG Efficiency Horse pasture management Efficiency Animal waste management livestock Efficiency Animal waste management poultry Efficiency Barnyard runoff control Efficiency Loafing lot management Efficiency Mortality composters Efficiency Water control structures Efficiency Poultry phytase Application reduction Swine phytase Application reduction Dairy precision feeding and forage management Application reduction Poultry litter transport Application reduction

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189 APPENDIX B TN TP SED Reduction Reduction Reduction Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency N/A N/A N/A 19-65% 30-45% 40-60% 7-25% 12-50% 4-15% N/A N/A N/A 13-46% 30-45% 40-60% 0.02 lb/ft 0.003 lb/ft 2 lb/ft N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A (10-15%) (20-40%) (70%) (7%) (N/A) (N/A) (4%) (N/A) (N/A) 8% 15% 25% 3% 5% 8% 3% 5% 8% 5% 10% 14% Varies Varies Varies Varies Varies Varies N/A N/A N/A 5% 8% 10% 9% 24% 30% N/A 20% 40% 75% 75% N/A 75% 75% N/A 20% 20% 40% 20% 20% 40% 40% 10% N/A 33% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Continued

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190 NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT REDUCTION GOALS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY TABLE B-1 Continued Agricultural BMPs How Credited Ammonia emissions reduction (interim) Application reduction Poultry litter injection (interim) Efficiency Liquid manure injection (interim) Efficiency Phosphorus sorbing materials in ditches (interim) Efficiency Resource BMPs How redited Forest harvesting practices Efficiency Dirt & gravel road erosion & sediment control— Mass reduction/length Driving surface aggregate + raising the roadbed Dirt & gravel road erosion & sediment control— Mass reduction/length with outlets Dirt & gravel road erosion & sediment control— Mass reduction/length outlets only Urban BMPs How credited Forest conservation Land-use change Urban growth reduction Land-use change Impervious urban surface reduction Land-use change Forest buffers Efficiency, land-use change Tree planting Land-use change Abandoned mine reclamation Land-use change Wet ponds and wetlands Efficiency Dry detention ponds and hydrodynamic structures Efficiency Dry extended detention ponds Efficiency Infiltration practices w/o sand, vegetation Efficiency Infiltration practices w/ sand, vegetation Efficiency Filtering practices Efficiency Erosion and sediment control Efficiency Nutrient management Efficiency Street sweeping Efficiency Urban stream restoration Load reduction/length

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191 APPENDIX B TN TP SED Reduction Reduction Reduction Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency 15-60% N/A N/A 25% 0% 0% 25% 0% 0% 40% 0% 0% TN TP SED Reduction Reduction Reduction Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency 50% 60% 60% 0 0 2.96 lb/ft 0 0 3.6 lb/ft 0 0 1.76 lb/ft TN TP SED Reduction Reduction Reduction Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 25% 50% 50% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 20% 45% 60% 5% 10% 10% 20% 20% 60% 80% 85% 95% 85% 85% 95% 40% 60% 80% 25% 40% 40% 17% 22% N/A 3% 3% 9% 0.02 lb/ft 0.003 lb/ft 2 lb/ft Continued

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192 NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT REDUCTION GOALS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY TABLE B-1 Continued Urban BMPs How Credited Septic connections Systems change Septic denitrification Efficiency Septic pumping Efficiency C/D soils, underdrain Efficiency Bioretention A/B soils, underdrain Efficiency A/B soils, no underdrain Efficiency Vegetated open channels C/D soils, no underdrain Efficiency A/B soils, no underdrain Efficiency Bioswale Efficiency Permeable pavement w/o sand, C/D soils, underdrain Efficiency vegetation A/B soils, underdrain Efficiency A/B soils, no underdrain Efficiency Permeable pavement w/ sand, C/D soils, underdrain Efficiency vegetation A/B soils, underdrain Efficiency A/B soils, no underdrain Efficiency BMPs Hydrogeomorphic region(s) Forest buffers Appalachian plateau siliciclastic non-tidal Blue Ridge non-tidal; mesozoic lowlands non- tidal; valley and ridge carbonate non-tidal Coastal plain dissected uplands non-tidal Coastal plain dissected uplands tidal; coastal plain lowlands tidal; coastal plain uplands tidal; Piedmont crystalline tidal Coastal plain lowlands non-tidal Piedmont crystalline non-tidal Coastal plain uplands non-tidal Piedmont carbonate non-tidal Valley and ridge siliciclastic non-tidal

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193 APPENDIX B TN TP SED Reduction Reduction Reduction Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency N/A N/A N/A 50% N/A N/A 5% N/A N/A 25% 45% 55% 70% 75% 80% 80% 85% 90% 10% 10% 50% 45% 45% 70% 70% 75% 80% 10% 20% 55% 45% 50% 70% 75% 80% 85% 20% 20% 55% 50% 50% 70% 80% 80% 85% TN TP SED Reduction Reduction Reduction Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency 54% 42% 56% 34% 30% 40% 65% 42% 56% 19% 45% 60% 56% 39% 52% 56% 42% 56% 31% 45% 60% 46% 36% 48% 46% 39% 52% Continued

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194 NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT REDUCTION GOALS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY TABLE B-1 Continued BMPs Hydrogeomorphic region(s) Grass buffers Appalachian plateau siliciclastic non-tidal Blue Ridge non-tidal; mesozoic lowlands non- tidal; valley and ridge carbonate non-tidal Coastal plain dissected uplands non-tidal Coastal plain dissected uplands tidal; coastal plain lowlands tidal; coastal plain uplands tidal; Piedmont crystalline tidal Coastal plain lowlands non-tidal Piedmont crystalline non-tidal Coastal plain uplands non-tidal Piedmont carbonate non-tidal Valley and ridge siliciclastic non-tidal Wetland restoration Appalachian plateau siliciclastic non-tidal (ag and urban) Coastal plain dissected uplands non-tidal; coastal plain dissected uplands tidal; coastal plain lowlands tidal; coastal plain uplands tidal; coastal plain lowlands non- tidal; coastal plains uplands non-tidal Blue Ridge non-tidal; Mesozoic lowlands non-tidal; valley and ridge carbonate non- tidal; Piedmont crystalline tidal; Piedmont crystalline non-tidal; Piedmont carbonate non-tidal Continuous no-till Coastal plain dissected uplands non-tidal; coastal plain dissected uplands tidal; coastal plain lowlands tidal; coastal plain uplands tidal; coastal plain lowlands non- tidal; coastal plains uplands non-tidal Appalachian plateau siliciclastic non-tidal; Blue Ridge non-tidal; Mesozoic lowlands non-tidal; valley and ridge carbonate non- tidal; Piedmont crystalline tidal; Piedmont crystalline non-tidal; Piedmont carbonate non-tidal; valley and ridge siliciclastic non-tidal Cover crop early drilled rye Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic**

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195 APPENDIX B TN TP SED Reduction Reduction Reduction Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency 38% 42% 56% 24% 30% 40% 46% 42% 56% 13% 45% 60% 39% 39% 52% 39% 42% 56% 21% 45% 60% 32% 36% 48% 32% 39% 52% 7% 12% 4% 25% 50% 15% 14% 26% 8% 10% 20% 70% 15% 40% 70% 45% 15% 20% 34% 15% 20% Continued

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196 NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT REDUCTION GOALS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY TABLE B-1 Continued BMPs Hydrogeomorphic region(s) Cover crop early other rye Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop early aerial soy rye Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop early aerial corn rye Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop standard drilled rye Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop standard other rye Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop late drilled rye Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop late other rye Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop early drilled wheat Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop early other wheat Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic**

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197 APPENDIX B TN TP SED Reduction Reduction Reduction Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency 38% 15% 20% 29% 15% 20% 31% 15% 20% 24% 15% 20% 18% 15% 20% 14% 15% 20% 41% 7% 10% 31% 7% 10% 35% 7% 10% 27% 7% 10% 19% N/A N/A 15% N/A N/A 16% N/A N/A 12% N/A N/A 31% 15% 20% 24% 15% 20% 27% 15% 20% 20% 15% 20% Continued

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198 NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT REDUCTION GOALS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY TABLE B-1 Continued BMPs Hydrogeomorphic region(s) Cover crop early aerial soy wheat Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop early aerial corn wheat Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop standard drilled wheat Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop standard other wheat Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop late drilled wheat Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop late other wheat Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop early drilled barley Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop early other barley Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop early aerial soy barley Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic**

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199 APPENDIX B TN TP SED Reduction Reduction Reduction Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency 22% 15% 20% 17% 15% 20% 12% 15% 20% 10% 15% 20% 29% 7% 10% 22% 7% 10% 24% 7% 10% 18% 7% 10% 13% N/A N/A 10% N/A N/A 11% N/A N/A 9% N/A N/A 38% 20% 20% 29% 20% 20% 32% 15% 20% 25% 15% 20% 27% 15% 20% 20% 15% 20% Continued

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200 NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT REDUCTION GOALS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY TABLE B-1 Continued BMPs Hydrogeomorphic region(s) Cover crop early aerial corn barley Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop standard drilled barley Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Cover crop standard other barley Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst (low-till gets only TN efficiency) settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Commodity cover crop early drill wheat Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Commodity cover crop early other wheat Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Commodity cover crop early aerial Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst soy wheat settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Commodity cover crop early aerial corn Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst wheat settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Commodity cover crop Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst standard drill wheat settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Commodity cover crop Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst standard other wheat settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic**

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201 APPENDIX B TN TP SED Reduction Reduction Reduction Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency 15% 15% 20% 12% 15% 20% 29% 7% 10% 22% 7% 10% 24% 7% 10% 19% 7% 10% 17% N/A N/A 15% N/A N/A 12% N/A N/A 7% N/A N/A 15% N/A N/A 12% N/A N/A 7% N/A N/A 6% N/A N/A 15% N/A N/A 11% N/A N/A 12% N/A N/A 7% N/A N/A Continued

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202 NUTRIENT AND SEDIMENT REDUCTION GOALS IN THE CHESAPEAKE BAY TABLE B-1 Continued BMPs Hydrogeomorphic region(s) Commodity cover crop Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst late drill wheat settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Commodity cover crop Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst late other wheat settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Commodity cover crop Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst early drill barley settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Commodity cover crop Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst early aerial soy barley settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Commodity cover crop Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst early aerial corn barley settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Commodity cover crop Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst standard drill barley settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Commodity cover crop Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst standard other barley settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Commodity cover crop Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst standard other rye settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** Commodity cover crop Coastal plain/Piedmont crystalline/karst early other barley settings* Mesozoic lowlands/valley and ridge siliciclastic** *Coastal plain dissected uplands non-tidal; coast plain dissected uplands tidal; coastal plain lowlands tidal; coastal plain uplands tidal; coastal plain lowlands non-tidal; coastal plain uplands non-tidal; valley and ridge carbonate non-tidal; Piedmont carbonate non-tidal.

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203 APPENDIX B TN TP SED Reduction Reduction Reduction Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency 7% N/A N/A 6% N/A N/A 13% N/A N/A 11% N/A N/A 9% N/A N/A 6% N/A N/A 6% N/A N/A 5% N/A N/A 13% N/A N/A 11% N/A N/A 15% N/A N/A 11% N/A N/A 12% N/A N/A 10% N/A N/A 18% N/A N/A 14% N/A N/A 15% N/A N/A 11% N/A N/A **Appalachian Plateau siliciclastic non-tidal; Mesozoic lowlands non-tidal; Piedmont crystal- line tidal; Piedmont crystalline non-tidal; valley and ridge siliciclastic non-tidal; Blue Ridge non-tidal. SOURCE: http://archive.chesapeakebay.net/pubs/NPS_BMP_Table1.8.pdf

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