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Preventing Violence Against Women and Children Workshop Summary Deepali M. Patel, Rapporteur Forum on Global Violence Prevention Board on Global Health

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Govern- ing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Administration on Aging, Office of Women’s Health; Anheuser-Busch InBev; Avon Foundation for Women; BD (Becton Dickinson, and Company); Catholic Health Initiatives; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Department of Education: Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice; Fetzer Foundation; F. Felix Foundation; Foundation to Promote Open Society; Kaiser Permanente; National Institutes of Health: National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Office of Research on Women’s Health, John E. Fogarty International Center; Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Any opin- ions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-21151-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-21151-4 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. For more information about the Institute of Medicine, visit the IOM home page at: www.iom.edu. Copyright 2011 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The serpent ad- opted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin. Suggested citation: IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2011. Preventing violence against women and children: Workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Acad- emies Press.

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“Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.” — Goethe Advising the Nation. Improving Health.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding en- gineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Coun- cil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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PLANNING COMMITTEE ON PREVENTING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND CHILDREN WORKSHOP1 JACQUELYN C. CAMPBELL (Chair), Anna D. Wolf Chair and Professor, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing CLARE ANDERSON, Deputy Commissioner, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Department of Health and Human Services GARY BARKER, International Director, Promundo-DC JEFFREY EDLESON, Professor and Director of Research, University of Minnesota School of Social Work CLAUDIA GARCÍA-MORENO, Coordinator, Department of Gender, Women, and Health, World Health Organization JOANNE LACROIX, Manager, Family Violence Prevention Unit, Public Health Agency of Canada SUSAN SALASIN, Director, Trauma and Trauma-Informed Care Program, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Consultant ELENA NIGHTINGALE, Scholar-in-Residence, Institute of Medicine 1 Institute of Medicine planning committees are solely responsible for organizing the work- shop, identifying topics, and choosing speakers. The responsibility for the published workshop summary rests with the workshop rapporteur and the institution. v

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FORUM ON GLOBAL VIOLENCE PREVENTION JACQUELYN C. CAMPBELL (Co-chair), Anna D. Wolf Chair and Professor, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing MARK ROSENBERG (Co-chair), President and CEO, The Task Force for Global Health CLARE ANDERSON, Deputy Commissioner, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Department of Health and Human Services FRANCES ASHE-GOINS, Acting Director, Office on Women’s Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services KATRINA BAUM, Division Director, Violence & Victimization Research, National Institute of Justice, Department of Justice SUSAN BISSELL, Associate Director, Child Protection Section, UNICEF ARTURO CERVANTES TREJO, Director General, National Center for Injury Prevention, Ministry of Health, Mexico XINQI DONG, Associate Professor of Medicine, Behavioral Sciences and Nursing, Rush Institute for Healthy Aging, Rush University Medical Center AMIE GIANINO, Global Director, Beer & Better World, Anheuser-Busch InBev KATHY GREENLEE, Assistant Secretary for Aging, Administration on Aging, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services RODRIGO V. GUERRERO, City Counselor, Cali, Colombia JOHN R. HAYES, Global Strategy Leader for Neuroscience, Medical Affairs, Eli Lilly and Company DAVID HEMENWAY, Director, Injury Control Research Center and the Youth Violence Prevention Center, Harvard University FRANCES HENRY, Advisor, F. Felix Foundation MERCEDES S. HINTON, Program Officer, Initiative on Confronting Violent Crime, Open Society Institute LARKE NAHME HUANG, Senior Advisor, Office of the Administrator, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services L. ROWELL HUESMANN, Amos N. Tversky Collegiate Professor of Psychology and Communication Studies Director, Research Center for Group Dynamics, Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan KEVIN JENNINGS, Assistant Deputy Secretary of Education, Office of Safe and Drug Free Schools, Department of Education CAROL M. KURZIG, President, Avon Foundation for Women JOANNE LACROIX, Manager, Family Violence Prevention Unit, Public Health Agency of Canada JACQUELINE LLOYD, Health Scientist Administrator, Prevention Research Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Services and Prevention Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse BRIGID McCAW, Medical Director, NCal Family Violence Prevention Program, Kaiser Permanente JAMES A. MERCY, Special Advisor for Strategic Directions, Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Prevention and Control vi

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PEGGY MURRAY, Senior Advisor for International Research, Office of the Director, National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism MICHAEL PHILLIPS, Director, Suicide Research and Prevention Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine COLLEEN SCANLON, Senior Vice President, Advocacy, Catholic Health Initiatives KRISTIN SCHUBERT, Program Officer, Vulnerable Populations Portfolio, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation EVELYN TOMASZEWSKI, Senior Policy Advisor, Human Rights and International Affairs, National Association of Social Workers ELIZABETH WARD, Chairman, Violence Prevention Alliance, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus Staff DEEPALI M. PATEL, Program Officer RACHEL M. TAYLOR, Research Associate RACHEL E. PITTLUCK, Senior Program Assistant BRANDON J. STRATFORD, Christine Mirzayan Fellow (January 2011-April 2011) ELENA NIGHTINGALE, Scholar-in-Residence KATE BURNS, Intern JULIE WILTSHIRE, Financial Officer PATRICK KELLEY, Board Director vii

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Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: NAEEMAH ABRAHAMS, Senior Researcher, Gender & Health Research Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa MANUEL CONTRERAS, Gender and Public Health Specialist, International Center for Research on Women LISA NAJAVITS, Professor of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine AGNES TIWARI, Associate Professor and Assistant Dean, School of Nursing, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine of the University of Hong Kong Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the final draft ix

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x REVIEWERS of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Richard Krugman, Vice Chancellor for Health Affairs and Dean, Univer- sity of Colorado at Denver. Appointed by the Institute of Medicine they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the author and the institution.

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Contents 1 Introduction 1 PART I 2 The Co-Occurrence of Child Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence 9 3 Paradigm Shifts and Changing Social Norms in Violence Prevention 20 4 The State of Prevention Research in Low- and Middle-Income Countries 32 5 Violence Prevention Among Multiple Sectors 42 PART II 6 Papers on Research in Preventing Violence Against Women and Children 49 Preventing Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Against Women: Primary Prevention Strategies 50 WHO xi

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xii CONTENTS International Men and Gender Equality Survey 79 Gary Barker, Juan Manuel Contreras, Brian Heilman, Ajay Singh, Ravi Verma, and Marcos Nascimento The Science of Prevention/Interrupting the Cycle of Violence 87 Claire Crooks Trauma-Informed Care: A Values-Based Context for Psychosocial Empowerment 97 Roger D. Fallot Enhancing Emotion Regulation: A Framework for Psychological Empowerment of Women and Children Exposed to Violence 102 Julian D. Ford 7 Papers on Global Partnerships and Government Initiatives 117 The InterCambios Alliance 118 Margarita Quintanilla Global Partnerships on Domestic Violence Legal Reform 123 Cheryl A. Thomas New Zealand’s Efforts to Address Violence Against Women and Children 136 Denise Wilson 8 Papers on Preventive Interventions 144 The IMAGE Program: Summary 145 Julia Kim Innovative Prevention Interventions: Addressing IPV and Potential Child Abuse at Prenatal Care 148 Agnes Tiwari The Fourth R: A School-Based Strategy to Prevent Adolescent Dating Violence 157 David A. Wolfe

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xiii CONTENTS The Community Advocacy Project: An Evidence-Based Psychosocial Intervention for Women with Abusive Partners 163 Cris M. Sullivan Using a Systems-Model Approach to Improving IPV Services in a Large Health-Care Organization 169 Brigid McCaw APPENDIXES A Workshop Agenda 185 B Speaker Biographical Sketches 192 C Planning Committee Biographical Sketches 205 D Forum Member Biographical Sketches 209

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