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Appendix C Glossary Biocentrism: The belief that all living things have intrinsic value. Breakthrough objective: Commonly referred to in the business community, break- through objectives are goals that extend far beyond the current capabilities and experiences of an organization and require new strategies and approaches to ensure successful attainment of these goals. These objectives are generally designed to improve performance throughout an organization. Change management: A process to prioritize allocation of resources and to pro - vide a mechanism for prioritizing any change so that critical changes are made first, followed by low priority changes. The process also ensures changes are implemented on a set schedule and is a collaborative process that requires representative involvement from as many stakeholder groups as is feasible. Culture: the integrated pattern of human behavior that includes thought, speech, action, and artifacts and depends upon the human capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations (Merriam-Webster 2001). Goal: What is specifically sought to be achieved and is determined through the use of measured indicators. Indicator: A summary measure that provides information on the state of, or change in, a system (OECD 2011b), i.e., what is being measured. Integrated assessment tools: Tools that link in a consistent fashion formal models of the environment and society (NRC 1999). Interdisciplinary: Approach that expands the multidisciplinary approach so that communication is more frequent and members are involved in problem- solving beyond the confines of their discipline (Dyer 2003). 135
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136 APPENDIX C Intergenerational equity: The fair distribution of costs and benefits among dif - ferent generations. Intragenerational equity: The fair distribution of costs and benefits among differ- ent groups of the same generation. Knowledge management: Strategies that an organization uses to enable the cre- ation of knowledge and to distribute this knowledge (OECD 2000). Metrics: Defines the unit of measurement or how the indicator is being measured (OECD 2011a). Multidisciplinary: Approach in which independent, discipline-specific members conduct separate assessment, planning, and provision of services within their own disciplines with little coordination of information (Dyer 2003). Optimize: To select the best option from a set of possible alternatives. Place-based: The use of a geographically defined area to integrate or coordinate programs. Projects that are based in a specific locale with measurable out - comes (Barca 2009). Process: A systematic series of actions designed with a goal as the endpoint. Resilience: The ability of a system or a community to absorb shocks and still retain the same basic structure and functions (USGS 2011). Screening: The use of a model or analytic method designed to select which prob - lems or decisions should be subject to further analysis (EPA 2011). Sustainability: To create and maintain conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony and that permit fulfilling social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations (NEPA 1969; Executive Order 13514, 2009). Sustainability analysis: The identification and analysis of key factors that are likely to have an impact, either positively or negatively, on delivering sustain- able benefits (AusAID 2000). Sustainability impact assessment: Impact assessment where all three dimensions of sustainable development are integrated into one assessment procedure and where the interdependence of dimensions is analyzed before decisions are made (Berger 2008). Sustainability principles: Idea that sustainability must balance the needs of three components or pillars—social, environmental, and economic. Sustainability science: An emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems that seeks to facilitate a transition toward sustainability (Clark 2007). Sustainability technology: Technologies that prevent, remove, and control envi - ronmental risks to human health and ecology (EPA 2010). Sustainable development: Development that meets the needs of the present with - out compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED 1987).
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137 APPENDIX C Sustainable innovation: Designing and implementing sustainable organizational processes and practices that generate social, environmental, and economic worth for all stakeholders involved (van Osch and Avital 2010). Tool: Something regarded as necessary to the carrying out one’s occupation or profession (Merriam-Webster 2001). Transdisciplinary: Approach that, through all steps of the implementation of a product, involves the widest span of disciplines to bring different perspec- tives to the table (Anastas 2010). REFERENCES Anastas, P. 2010. ORD: The Path Forward. Memorandum to U.S. EPA Office of Research and Devel- opment, from Paul T. Anastas, Assistant Administrator. March 5, 2010 [online]. Available: http://yosemite.epa.gov/sab/sabproduct.nsf/796BB04146A5F14C852576F9004E5E69/$File/ Anastas+Path+Forward+3-5-10.pdf [accessed May 3, 2011]. AusAID (Australian Agency for International Development). 2000. Promoting Practical Sus- tainability. Agenda Item 10. 33rd Meeting of DAC (Development Assistance Committee) Working Party on Aid Evaluation, November 22-23, 2000. Organisation for Economic Co- operation and Development [online]. Available: http://www.oecd.org/secure/pdfDocument/ 0,2834,en_21571361_34047972_31950220_1_1_1_1,00.pdf [accessed May 3, 2011]. Barca. F. 2009. Pursuing Equity through Place-Based Development Policies. Presentation at OECD/ TDPC Symposium on Regional Policy, December 2, 2009, Paris [Online]. Available: http:// www.oecd.org/dataoecd/41/37/44305783.pdf [accessed May 3, 2011]. Berger, G. 2008. Sustainability Impact Assessment: Definition, Approaches and Objectives. Presen - tation at OECD Workshop on Sustainability Assessment Methodologies, January 14-15, 2008, Amsterdam [online]. Available: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/16/52/39924538.pdf [accessed May 3, 2011]. Clark, W.C. 2007. Sustainability science: A room of its own. Proc.Natl Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(6):1737-1738. Dyer, J.A. 2003. Multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary educational models and nursing education. Nurs. Educ. Perspect. 24(4):186-188. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2010. Sustainable Technologies. Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [online]. Available: http://www.epa. gov/nrmrl/std/ [accessed May 3, 2011]. EPA. 2011. Modeling Glossary. Council for Regulatory Environmental Modeling, Office of Science Advisor, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/crem/ glossary.html [accessed May 3, 2011]. Merriam-Webster. 2001. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 10th Ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. NRC (National Research Council). 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition toward Sustainability. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2000. Knowledge Management: The New Challenge for Firms and Organizations, September 21 and 22, 2000, Ottawa, Canada [online]. Available: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/10/13/2667415.pdf [accessed May 3, 2011]. OECD. 2011a. OECD Guidance on Developing Safety Performance Indicators: Communities. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [online]. Available: http://www. oecdsafetyindicators.org/node/565 [accessed May 31, 2011]. OECD. 2011b. Sustainable Development Glossary. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and De - velopment [online]. Available: http://www.oecd.org/glossary/0,3414,en_2649_37425_1970394_ 1_1_1_37425,00.html [accessed Apr. 19, 2011].
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138 APPENDIX C USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 2011. USGS Science and Decisions Center. Information Sheet. Ver. 1, Feb. 28, 2011. van Osch, W., and M. Avital. 2010. From Green IT to Sustainable Innovation. Paper 490 in AMCIS 2010 Proceedings. AIS Electronic Library [online]. Available: http://aisel.aisnet.org/ amcis2010/490 [accessed May 3, 2011]. WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development). 1987. Report of the World Com - mission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. United Nations Documents [online]. Available: http://www.un-documents.net/wced-ocf.htm [accessed May 3, 2011].