INDEX

A

Achieve, Inc., 8, 18, 19, 331, 335, 344

Advanced Placement (AP) or honors courses, 10, 13, 16, 299, 334, 335

Alpha particles, 112

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 16, 17, 18, 23, 83, 98, 141, 301, 303, 331

American Association of Physics Teachers, 342, 344

American Astronomical Society Astronomy Education Board, 344

American Chemical Society, 342, 344

American Geological Institute, 344

American Geophysical Union, 344

American Indians, 281, 289-290

American Institute of Physics, 342, 344

American Physical Society, 342, 344

American Society of Plant Biologists, 344

America’s Lab Report, 23, 242

Anaerobic life, 148, 154, 222, 223

Anthropology, 13, 14, 287

Argumentation and analysis, 3, 16, 42

allowing time for, 11

asking questions and, 55, 56, 74

assessment of ability in, 262

cause-and-effect mechanisms, 89

communicating information and, 74-75, 77, 278

and constructing explanations, 68, 73, 251

culturally based storytelling and, 29, 285-286, 287

in engineering, 48, 52, 72

goals, 48, 55, 72-73, 278

and learning, 250, 251, 255

learning progressions, 34, 56, 73-74, 89, 220, 222, 223, 228, 229, 238, 239

norms, 252

pattern recognition and, 71

peer review, 78

purpose and importance, 27, 44, 46, 49, 52, 71-72, 79, 89, 248, 300

in science, 27, 44, 46, 48, 49, 52, 71, 78, 89

Asking questions and defining problems

and arguing from evidence, 55, 56, 74

about cause-and-effect mechanisms, 50, 89

and communicating information, 54, 75, 76

goals, 55

grade band endpoints, 205

pattern recognition and, 55, 84, 85, 86, 236

science vs. engineering, 50, 54-55, 205

Assessment, 260-265

and accountability, 323-324

in argumentation and analysis, 262

in communicating information, 262

computer-based, 262-263

contexts for, 262-264

defined, 260

designing, 263-264

equity and diversity issues, 289-290



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INDEX A in engineering, 48, 52, 72 goals, 48, 55, 72-73, 278 Achieve, Inc., 8, 18, 19, 331, 335, 344 and learning, 250, 251, 255 Advanced Placement (AP) or honors courses, 10, 13, 16, learning progressions, 34, 56, 73-74, 89, 220, 222, 223, 299, 334, 335 228, 229, 238, 239 Alpha particles, 112 norms, 252 American Association for the Advancement of Science pattern recognition and, 71 (AAAS), 16, 17, 18, 23, 83, 98, 141, 301, 303, 331 peer review, 78 American Association of Physics Teachers, 342, 344 purpose and importance, 27, 44, 46, 49, 52, 71-72, 79, American Astronomical Society Astronomy Education 89, 248, 300 Board, 344 in science, 27, 44, 46, 48, 49, 52, 71, 78, 89 American Chemical Society, 342, 344 Asking questions and defining problems American Geological Institute, 344 and arguing from evidence, 55, 56, 74 American Geophysical Union, 344 about cause-and-effect mechanisms, 50, 89 American Indians, 281, 289-290 and communicating information, 54, 75, 76 American Institute of Physics, 342, 344 goals, 55 American Physical Society, 342, 344 grade band endpoints, 205 American Society of Plant Biologists, 344 pattern recognition and, 55, 84, 85, 86, 236 America’s Lab Report, 23, 242 science vs. engineering, 50, 54-55, 205 Anaerobic life, 148, 154, 222, 223 Assessment, 260-265 Anthropology, 13, 14, 287 and accountability, 323-324 Argumentation and analysis, 3, 16, 42 in argumentation and analysis, 262 allowing time for, 11 in communicating information, 262 asking questions and, 55, 56, 74 computer-based, 262-263 assessment of ability in, 262 contexts for, 262-264 cause-and-effect mechanisms, 89 defined, 260 communicating information and, 74-75, 77, 278 designing, 263-264 and constructing explanations, 68, 73, 251 equity and diversity issues, 289-290 culturally based storytelling and, 29, 285-286, 287 369

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C formative, 261 framework impact on, 323-324 Carbon cycle, 110, 153, 154, 180, 189-190, 198, 223 implementation challenges, 260-265 Carbon dioxide, 57, 64, 92, 95, 100, 110, 129, 130, 147, individual student’s understanding, 315 148, 186, 187, 188, 223 paper-and-pencil format, 262 Carnegie Corporation, 19 for program evaluation, 261 Carrying capacities, 151, 152, 154 purposes, 261-262 Cause-and-effect mechanisms (see also Forces and motion) research and development agenda, 314-315, 317-319, argumentation from evidence, 89 323-324 asking questions about, 50, 89 standards and accountability and, 323-324 constructing explanations, 67, 69-70, 86 student engagement, 314 definition of concept, 84-85 summative, 261 in earth science, 167, 169-170, 179-180, 181, 184, 185, Association for Computing Machinery, 344 187, 190, 192 Association for Science Teacher Education, 344 in ecosystems, 86, 89, 93, 167 Atlas of Science Literacy, 13, 303 energy-related, 125-126, 237 Atoms and atomic theory of matter, 34, 57, 64, 79, 86, and engineering design, 88, 98-99, 169-170 87-88, 89, 92, 94, 96, 97-98, 100, 101, 103, 106- feedback loops, 98-99, 169-170, 181, 190 107, 108-109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 117, 118, goals of instruction, 69, 88 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 134, 135-136, 140, 143, human impacts on Earth, 167, 187, 192 153-154, 173, 225, 227, 229, 230, 233, 236-237, learning progression, 88-89, 223 238, 239-240, 303 in life sciences, 140, 145, 157-158, 160, 161, 167 modeling, 79, 86, 88, 93, 221, 229 B pattern recognition, 86, 88-89 physical laws and, 87-88 Behavioral and social sciences, 13-14, 334, 335-336 in physical sciences, 100, 103, 107, 112, 113, 114, 115- Benchmarks for Science Literacy, 13, 16, 17, 23, 30, 89, 116, 125-126, 127, 132, 223, 229, 237 103, 141, 301 scale, proportion, or quantity and, 88, 111, 113 Beta particles, 112 in space science, 175, 176 Big Bang, 67, 112, 173, 174 stability and change, 98, 100 Binding energy in molecules, 109, 110, 111, 112, 239-240 in systems, 87, 88, 89, 93, 103, 169-170, 180, 181, Biodiversity, 139, 141, 155, 161, 165, 166-167, 195, 196 182-183, 188, 192, 195, 223, 229 Biogeology, 189-190 Cells, biological, 89, 94, 130, 134, 136, 140, 143-147, Biological evolution 148, 149, 158, 159, 221, 223, 303 adaptation, 141, 164-166 Charge to committee, 1, 15, 16 biodiversity and humans, 139, 161, 166-167 Chemical energy, 111, 122, 123, 148, 223 biogeology and, 189-190 Chemical reactions, 110 common ancestry and diversity, 162-163 Chemosynthesis, 147 grade band endpoints, 162-163, 164, 165-167 Chromosomes, 144, 146-147, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161 natural selection, 141, 143, 161, 162, 163-164, 165, Classification skills, 43, 78, 84, 85, 86, 87, 108, 167, 220, 166 222, 224, 231 reproductive isolation, 165 Climate (see Weather and climate) scale of, 100 Climate Literacy Network, 344 scientific evidence of, 161, 162-163 College Board, 13, 16, 17, 23, 30, 96, 141, 218, 230, 303 speciation, 154, 155, 161, 165, 166, 167 Common Core State Standards, 19, 75, 297, 306, 339 Biological systems, 107, 140, 143, 144-145, 147, 148 Communicating information, 42, 49, 278 Biotechnology Institute, 344 arguments from evidence, 74-75, 77, 278 A Framework for K-12 Science Education 370

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asking questions and, 54, 75, 76 Council of Chief State School Officers, 19 Council of Elementary Science International, 344 assessment of skills in, 262 Council of State Science Supervisors, 18, 331, 344 data analysis and interpretation and, 63 Course structure, 12 in engineering, 53, 54, 57, 75, 77, 206, 207, 208 Crosscutting concepts, 3 (see also Cause-and-effect mecha- goals, 75-76 nisms; Energy; Matter and energy; Patterns and graphical and pictorial representations, 51, 58, 61, 62, pattern recognition; Scale, proportion, or quantity; 63, 65, 66, 74, 76, 77, 93, 206 Stability and change; Structure and function; Systems importance of skills in, 43, 208, 250 and system models) learning progressions, 76-77 mathematics and, 64, 74, 206 importance, 83 with models and computer simulations, 34, 45-46, 56, interconnections with core disciplinary ideas, 30, 101 57, 58, 63, 66, 77, 90, 92, 198, 206, 207, 208, 210, public feedback on, 341 252 research base, 30, 84 oral, 75, 76, 77, 93 Cultural issues, 28 (see also Equity in education) and pattern recognition, 65, 66, 86, 133, 183 ecosystem knowledge, 307 in science, 53, 54, 57, 74-75, 77 storytelling and arguments from evidence, 29, 285-286, statistical analysis, 14, 15, 51, 61, 63, 65, 66 287 tables, 61, 62, 63, 76, 77 Curriculum and instructional materials teacher proficiency, 256-259 framework impact on, 2, 321 technology and, 75 implementation of framework, 246-249 venues for, 75 important aspects, 247-249 written, 74-75, 76, 77 integrating dimensions into, 2, 219, 230-240, 247, Communication systems and devices, 136, 137, 202, 210, 338-339 214, 263, 342 research and development agenda, 316-317 Computer-Based Assessment of Science (CBAS), 263 standards and, 2, 321 Computer science, 10, 14-15, 299, 334, 336 Computer Science Teachers Association, 344 D Computer simulations, 45-46, 56, 57, 58, 66, 92, 198, 210 Concepts of evidence (see Procedural knowledge) Data analysis and interpretation Conservation of matter and energy, 84, 86, 94-96, 106, communicating findings, 63 108, 109, 110-111, 112, 120-121, 123, 124-126, constructing explanations, 68 128, 148, 153, 154, 175, 222, 223, 226, 228, 230, engineering design, 51, 53, 62 233-234, 236, 238 goals, 62-63 Constructing explanations learning progressions, 63 and argument from evidence, 68, 73, 251 mathematical representation, 65-66, 91 cause-and-effect mechanisms, 67, 69-70, 86 organizing data, 61, 62 data analysis and interpretation, 68 pattern recognition and, 51, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 94, 131, goals, 69 197 hypothesis formulation and testing, 43, 44, 45, 59, 60, science, 61 61, 62, 67, 76, 78, 79, 84, 87, 139 tools, 62 learning progressions, 69-70 Databases and data sets, 62, 66 modeling theories, 67, 68, 70, 79 Designing solutions, 49 (see also Engineering design) Content knowledge, practices integrated with, 11, 78 Development of framework (see also Public feedback on Context for improving science education, 1, 7 report; Vision for K-12 science and engineering Convection, 123, 124, 126, 179, 181, 182, 237 education) Core ideas (see Disciplinary core ideas) approach, 15-18 371 Index

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Atlas of Science Literacy and, 13, 303 Earth and space sciences (see also Earth and human Benchmarks for Science Literacy and, 13, 16, 17, 23, activity; Earth systems; Space sciences) 30, 89, 103, 141, 301 chemical reactions, 110 charge to committee, 15, 16 Earth-centric approach, 170 design teams, 17 information resources, 170, 172, 352-353 NRC reports and, 23 and life sciences, 169 NSES and, 13, 16, 17, 23, 30, 91-92, 103, 141, 242, patterns in, 173, 174, 175, 176, 178, 182-183, 186, 301, 332, 340 187, 188, 191-192, 193, 195, 197 rationale for, 1, 8-10 and physical sciences, 169 research base, 2 public feedback on, 342-343 relevance to human society, 172-173 Science College Board Standards for College Success and, 13, 17, 23, 30, 141, 218, 230, 303 scale in, 100, 169, 170, 179, 180, 181, 182-183, 186, Science Framework for the 2009 NAEP and, 13, 16, 17, 188, 238 23, 303 Earth systems (see also Weather and climate) Disciplinary core ideas (see also Earth and space sciences; atmosphere, 54, 57, 64, 95, 100, 103, 110, 148, 153, Engineering and technology; Life sciences; Physical 154, 169, 179, 180, 181, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, sciences 189-190, 191, 192, 194, 197-198, 223 criteria for, 31 biogeology, 189-190 crosscutting concepts, 31 biosphere, 139, 150, 153, 154, 169, 179, 180, 181, development, 17, 31 189, 190, 191, 192, 194, 196, 197-198 domains, 31 carbon cycle, 110, 153, 154, 180, 189-190, 198, 223 grade band endpoints, 33-34 cause-and-effect mechanisms, 179-180, 181, 185, 187, 190 information resources, 348-354 geosphere, 139, 153, 154, 169, 179, 180, 181, 189 learning progressions, 26, 33-34 grade band endpoints, 180-182, 183, 184-186, 188-189, public feedback on, 341-343 190 rationale for delimiting, 11, 25, 30-31, 32-33 hydrosphere, 169, 179, 181, 189, 190 structure, 31-32 interconnections and feedbacks, 169-170, 181 and understanding of science, 25 materials and systems, 179-182 Disease transmission, prevention, and treatment, 9, 43, 47, matter and energy flows, 169, 179-180, 182 67, 87, 151, 152, 202 patterns in, 182-183, 185 DNA, 85, 87, 144, 145, 148, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, plate tectonics and large-scale interactions, 97, 177, 163, 223 178-179, 180, 181, 182-183 Dynamic equilibrium, 98, 99-100 scale of interactions, 181 stability and change in, 180 water and surface processes, 179, 180, 181, 184-186 E Earthquakes, 132, 172, 178, 182-183, 192, 193, 194 Economic sciences, 10, 13-14, 62, 128, 130, 191, 192, Earth and human activity 193, 197, 202, 205, 212, 213, 299, 306 cause-and-effect mechanisms, 167, 187, 192 Ecosystems global climate change, 187, 196-198 carrying capacities, 151, 152, 154 grade band endpoints, 192, 193-194, 195-196, 198 cause-and effect mechanisms, 86, 89, 93, 167 human impacts on earth systems, 156-157, 167, cultural knowledge of, 307 194-196 data representation, 86 natural hazards, 170, 172, 191, 192-194 defined, 150 natural resource use, 161, 170, 191-192, 195, 196, 197, dynamics, functioning, and resilience, 100, 140, 141, 212, 213 154-156 patterns in, 191-192, 193, 195 A Framework for K-12 Science Education 372

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grade band endpoints, 151-152, 153-154, 155-157 terminology, 96, 122 human (anthropogenic) impacts on, 141, 155, 156-157, thermal energy, 121, 122, 123, 125, 130, 136, 180, 181 166, 167, 184, 195 (see also Heat) interdependent relationships in, 86, 140, 143, 150-152 transfer between objects or systems, 93, 110, 120, 121- introduced species, 152, 155, 167 122, 124-126 matter and energy flows, 140, 147, 148, 150, 152-154, stored (potential) energy, 96, 121-122, 123, 124, 126, 189, 223 127, 128, 129, 130, 221 modeling/models, 93, 101, 153-154 Energy efficiency, 128-129, 130 patterns in, 86, 101, 152, 155 Engineering and technology services, 166, 167 defined, in K-12 context, 11-12, 202 social interactions and group behavior, 140, 156-157 distinguishing science from, 50-53, 62 stability, 100, 152 goals, 55, 68-69 structure and function, 150 public feedback on, 336-338, 343 Einstein, Albert, 64 rationale for inclusion, 2 Einstein Fellows, 344 standards, 204 Electric power generation, 128, 130 Engineering in K-12 Education, 23 Electrical energy, 123, 125, 128 Engineering design Electromagnetic force, 88, 109, 111, 113, 116, 117-118, argumentation and analysis, 48, 52, 72 121, 123, 126, 127, 239 cause-and-effect mechanisms, 87, 88, 98-99, 169-170 Electromagnetic radiation, 64, 112, 121, 122, 130, 133- communicating information, 53, 54, 57, 75, 77, 206, 136, 149, 188 207, 208 Energy (see also Forces and motion) creative process, 46-47, 49, 52, 68-69, 70-71, 206-208 binding energy in molecules, 109, 110, 111, 112, data analysis and interpretation, 51, 53, 62, 207 239-240 defining and delimiting problems, 50, 54-56, 204-206 cause-and-effect mechanisms, 125-126, 237 grade band endpoints, 205-206, 207-208, 209-210 chemical energy, 111, 122, 123, 148, 223 investigations, 50, 59-61 in chemical processes and everyday life, 128-130 learning progressions, 56, 70-71, 93 conservation of, 110, 120-121, 123, 124-126, 128, 148, mathematics and computational thinking, 51, 65 153, 154, 175, 223, 238 matter and energy flows and, 95 crosscutting concepts, 84 models and simulations, 45-46, 50, 51, 57-58, 62, 65, definitions of, 120-124 77, 93, 94, 206-207, 208, 210, 212 electric and magnetic fields, 64, 109, 121, 122, 133, optimizing solutions, 208-210 135, 239 and pattern recognition, 51, 70, 86 electrical energy, 123, 125, 128 practices, 45-47, 49, 52, 58, 65, 68-69, 70-71 and forces, 126-127 scale in, 89, 90-91, 206 grade band endpoints, 122-124, 125-126, 127, 129-130 systems and system models, 12, 30, 46, 50, 57, 86, 88, kinetic (motion) energy, 110, 111, 121, 122, 123, 124, 94, 98-99, 128-129, 130, 133, 202, 204, 205, 206, 126 208, 214 mechanical energy, 122-123 Engineering–technology–science links, 32, 203 modeling and mathematical expressions, 123-124, 126 grade band endpoints, 211-212, 213-214 patterns, 121 influences on society and natural world, 212-214 photosynthesis, 104, 128, 129, 130, 146, 147, 148, 153, interdependence, 210-212 154, 180, 187, 189, 223 Epistemic knowledge and practices, 78, 79, 250 “producing” or “using” in everyday life, 128-130 Equity in education, 28-29 (see also Cultural issues) scale of manifestations and, 121, 122, 123-124, 127, 238 in assessments, 289-290 in systems, 120-121, 123, 124-126, 128 capacity to learn, 279-280 373 Index

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cultural context for learning, 283-284 Fossils and fossil record, 161, 162-163, 169, 177, 178, 183 culturally valued knowledge and practices, 287 Friction, 115, 116, 117, 122, 125, 128-129, 130 definition of equity, 278 discourse practices of youth and, 285-286 G equalizing opportunities, 280-282 inclusive instruction, 283-287 Gamma radiation, 112, 134, 136 prior interest and identity and, 286-287 Genes, 88, 139, 140, 143, 145, 144, 147, 157, 158-159, public feedback on, 340 160, 161, 164, 166 in standards representing diversity, 288 Geography, 14, 186, 188 sources of inequity, 279 Global climate change, 155, 171, 187, 196-198 Estimation, 91, 206 Grade band endpoints, 17 (see specific crosscutting issues Evaporation and condensation, 98, 104, 108, 184, 185, and disciplines) 233, 234, 235, 236 Graphical and pictorial representations, 51, 58, 61, 62, 63, Evolution (see Biological evolution) 65, 66, 74, 76, 77, 91, 93, 206 Extinction of species, 154, 155, 161, 162, 165, 166, 167, Gravity/gravitational forces, 64, 88, 92, 100, 113, 116, 177, 178, 189, 190, 191, 194, 196 117-118, 121-122, 123, 126, 127, 169, 173, 175, 176, 179, 180, 181-182, 184, 185 F H Feedback mechanisms in systems, 98-99, 101, 119, 120, 145, 169-170, 181, 190 Hands-On Science Partnership, 344 Food webs, 147, 151-152, 153, 154 Heat, 123, 125 Forces and motion Heat transfer, 128 cause-and-effect mechanisms, 113, 114, 115-116, 127 conduction, 119, 123, 124, 126, 206, 235, 237 Coulomb’s law, 117, 118 convection, 123, 124, 126, 179, 181, 182, 237 electromagnetism, 88, 109, 111, 113, 116, 117-118, models, 124 121, 123, 126, 127, 239 radiation, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 130, 174, 180, 186, energy transfers, 116, 120, 127 188 friction, 115, 116, 117, 122, 125, 128-129, 130 Helium, 55, 112, 113, 173 grade band endpoints, 115-116, 127 Heredity gravity/gravitational forces, 64, 88, 92, 100, 113, 116, artificial selection, 164 117-118, 121-122, 123, 126, 127, 169, 173, 175, cause-and-effect mechanisms, 145, 157-158, 160, 161 176, 179, 180, 181-182, 184, 185 chromosomes, 144, 146-147, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161 measurement, 114, 115 DNA, 85, 87, 144, 145, 148, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, models, 93, 116, 117, 118, 127 163, 223 momentum, 115, 116 genes, 88, 139, 140, 143, 144, 145, 147, 157, 158-159, Newton’s laws, 114, 115, 116, 118, 175 160, 161, 164, 166 patterns in, 115, 116-117, 118, 119, 121, 127, 130, grade band endpoints, 158-159, 160-161 173, 174, 175, 178, 181, 185 inheritance of traits, 158-159 scale and, 114, 116-117, 118, 175 mutations, 140, 143, 157-158, 159, 160, 161, 165 strong nuclear force, 88, 111, 113, 116, 117, 118, 240 variation of traits, 160-161 and structure and function, 117 Human (anthropogenic) impacts, 141, 155, 156-157, 166, in systems and system models, 88, 94, 113, 115, 116, 167, 184, 195 119, 120, 127, 176 Hydrogen, 110, 111, 112, 113, 128, 148, 173, 223 weak nuclear force, 88, 111, 112, 113, 116, 117, 118 Hypothesis formulation and testing (science), 43, 44, 45, Fossil fuels, 50, 110, 128, 180, 183, 189, 190, 191, 197, 59, 60, 61, 62, 67, 76, 78, 79, 84, 87, 139 198 A Framework for K-12 Science Education 374

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I goals, 59-60 hypothesis or model testing, 59, 61 Ideal gas law, 57 kinds of, 61 Implementation of framework learning progressions, 60-61 assessing individual student’s understanding, 315 measurements and instrumentation, 59-60, 61 assessing student engagement, 314 planning and implementation, 59-61 assessment, 260-265 coherence in the system and, 2, 244-245 K complexity of science education system and, 243-245 core questions about, 312-315 Kinetic (motion) energy, 110, 111, 121, 122, 123, 124, 126 curriculum and instructional materials, 246-249 key components of science education, 242-245 L learning and instruction, 250-255 norms and practices, 314 Language (see Terminology and language of science) organizational barriers, 324 Learning preconceptions of students and, 313 argumentation and, 250, 251, 255 progression of student understanding, 313 instruction approaches and, 250-255 public feedback on, 340 strands of proficiency, 251-255 research and development agenda, 312-320 Learning progressions teacher development, 255-260 argumentation and analysis, 34, 56, 73-74, 89, 220, Information acquisition and evaluation (see Reading sci- 222, 223, 228, 229, 238, 239 ence texts) asking questions and defining problems, 56 Instruction (see also Curriculum and instructional boundary statements, 34 materials) cause-and-effect mechanisms, 88-89, 223 building on prior interest and knowledge, 25, 26, 28, constructing explanations, 69-70 59, 60-61, 83-84, 286-287, 302, 338 data analysis and interpretation, 63 inclusive, 283-287 designing solutions, 70-71 strands of proficiency and, 253-255 for disciplinary core ideas, 33-34 on systems and system models, 94 engineering design, 56, 70-71, 93 Integrating dimensions evaluation and communication of information, 76-77 in curriculum and instruction, 2, 219, 230-240, 247, framework vision, 10-11 338-339 grade band endpoints, 33-34 grades K-2 endpoint and progression, 231-233 investigation planning and implementation, 60-61 grades 3-5 endpoint and progression, 233-236 mathematics and computational thinking, 66-67 grades 6-8 endpoint and progression, 236-238 model development and use, 58-59 grades 9-12 endpoint and progression, 239-240 pattern recognition, 60, 66, 70, 86-87, 88, 101, 233 life sciences example, 220-223 for practices, 34, 56, 58-59 performance expectations, 218-230 prior conceptions and, 25, 26 physical sciences example, 224-229, 230-240 public feedback on, 343-344 public feedback on, 338-339 research and development agenda, 315-316 in standards development, 2, 218 scale, proportion, or quantity, 36, 90-91, 233, 238, 239 International Technology and Engineering Education systems and system models, 93-94, 230, 233, 235 Association, 344 and understanding of science, 26 Investigations Learning Science in Informal Environments, 23, 252, 298 controls, 59, 61 Life sciences correlations, 61 cause-and-effect mechanisms, 140, 145, 157-158, 160, engineering design projects, 50, 59-61 161, 167 375 Index

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chemical reactions, 110, 111, 148 chemical reactions, 106, 109-111, 148 core ideas, 140-141 (see also Biological evolution; collision theory, 110 Ecosystems; Heredity; Organisms, living) conservation of, 84, 86, 94-96, 106, 108, 109, 110-111, information resources for framework, 141, 349-351 112, 120-121, 123, 124-126, 128, 148, 153, 154, patterns in, 139, 152, 155 175, 222, 223, 226, 228, 230, 233-234, 236, 238 public feedback on, 342 crosscutting concepts, 84, 93, 94-96 scale, proportion, or quantity in, 100, 139, 140, 143, cyclic, 96, 110 144 ecosystem transfers of, 140, 147, 148, 150, 152-154, Light, 70, 89-90, 104, 106, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 121, 189, 223 122, 123, 125, 128, 130, 131, 133-135, 136, 137, electrical attractions and repulsions, 107 147, 148, 149, 151, 153, 174, 189, 222, 223 (see engineering design and, 95 also Electromagnetic radiation; Photons; Waves) grade band endpoints, 108-109, 110-111, 113, 147-148, Literacy, science (see Communicating information; Reading 230-240 science texts; Terminology and language of science) incorrect beliefs and misconceptions, 96 learning progression, 95-96, 230-240 models, 58, 95, 97-98, 106, 108, 109, 110, 153 M molecules, 58, 86, 92, 94, 96-98, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 119, 120, 121, 123, 124, 125, 128, 129, Magnets and magnetic fields, 116, 117-118, 121, 123, 127, 130, 139, 140, 144, 145, 147, 148, 153, 154, 158, 181, 182 (see also Electromagnetic radiation) 161, 223, 225, 227, 236-237, 238, 239-240, 303 Mass, 64, 90, 96, 107, 108, 109, 111, 114, 115, 116, 118, nuclear processes, 88, 96, 106, 111-113, 116, 117, 118, 121, 123, 126, 174, 180, 227, 233, 234, 236 128, 130, 134, 136, 173, 240 Massachusetts Department of Education, 344 pattern recognition, 86-87, 106, 109, 223, 227, 228, Mathematical representations, 56, 57, 65-66, 86, 91 230 Mathematics and computational thinking, 49 performance expectations example, 224-229 applications, 64-65 periodic table of elements, 106, 109, 227, 239 communicating information through, 64, 74, 206 stability and change, 109 data analysis and evaluation, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66 state changes, 70, 107, 108, 109, 110, 226, 227, 231, engineering, 51, 65 232, 235-236, 237, 238 goals, 65-66 structure and properties, 106-109, 224-240 learning progression, 66-67 in systems and system models, 84, 92, 93, 94-95, 96, modeling, 51, 65, 66-67, 90, 94, 114, 116, 118 106, 110, 119, 120-122, 123, 124-126, 128-129, and pattern recognition, 51, 64, 65, 66, 86, 94 147, 148, 150, 152-154, 169, 179, 223, 239 scale and, 91 terminology, 96 scientific investigation, 51, 64-65 water cycle, 95 statistics and statistical analysis, 14, 15, 51, 61, 63, 65, Maxwell’s equations, 64 66, 91 Measurement and units, 90-91, 205, 231 systems and system models, 51, 57, 64-65, 67, 94, 126 Measurement error, 63 tools, 64-65 Mechanical energy, 122-123 Mathematization, 16 Milky Way galaxy, 174 Matter and energy (see also Energy) Minnesota Department of Education, 344 atoms and atomic theory, 34, 57, 64, 79, 86, 87-88, 89, Mitosis, 145, 146 92, 94, 96, 97-98, 100, 101, 103, 106-107, 108-109, Model-It, 59 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 117, 118, 121, 122, 123, Modeling/models (see also Systems and system models) 124, 125, 134, 135-136, 140, 143, 153-154, 173, assumptions and approximations in, 93, 94 225, 227, 229, 230, 233, 236-237, 238, 239-240, cause-and-effect mechanisms, 79, 86, 88, 93, 221, 229 303 A Framework for K-12 Science Education 376

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communicating information, 34, 45-46, 56, 57, 58, 63, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 141, 66, 77, 90, 92, 94, 198, 206, 207, 208, 210, 252 262, 263 (see also Science Framework for the 2009 computer simulations, 45-46, 56, 57, 58, 66, 92, 198, National Assessment of Educational Progress) 210 Technological Literacy Assessment, 263 conceptual, 56-57 National Association of Biology Teachers, 345 constructing explanations, 67, 68, 70, 79 National Association of Geoscience Teachers, 345 ecosystems, 93, 101, 153-154 National Association of Research in Science Teaching, 345 energy, 123-124, 126 National Council for the Social Studies, 13-14 National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies, 13 engineering applications, 45-46, 50, 51, 57-58, 62, 65, National Earth Science Teachers Association, 345 77, 93, 94, 206-207 National Governors Association, 19 evaluation and refinement, 57, 59, 62 National Middle Level Science Teachers Association, 345 forces and motion, 93, 116, 117, 118, 127 National Research Council (NRC), 14, 23, 96, 242, 298, goals, 58 312 heat transfer, 124 National Science Education Leaders Association, 345 learning progressions, 58-59, 93-94 National Science Education Standards, 13, 16, 17, 23, 30, limitations, 56, 58 91-92, 103, 141, 242, 301, 332, 340 mathematics and, 51, 65, 66-67, 90, 94, 114, 118 National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), 18, 23, 30, matter and energy flows, 58, 95, 97-98, 106, 108, 109, 331, 345 110, 153 Natural hazards, 170, 172, 191, 192-194 mental, 56, 100 Natural resources, 161, 170, 171, 191-192, 195, 196, 197, organisms, 93 212, 213 purposes of, 94 reflecting on applications of, 78 consumption, 195, 196 reliability and precision, 93 Natural selection, 141, 143, 161, 162, 163-164, 165, 166 scale and, 90, 100, 101, 122, 123-124, 127, 206 NetLogo, 59 science applications, 57, 67 Neurobiology, 13, 143 space science, 176 New Hampshire Department of Education, 345 Newton’s laws, 114, 115, 116, 118, 175 specifications, 93 Nitrogen cycle, 180 theories, 67, 68, 70, 79 North American Association for Environmental Education, tools, 59 345 Molecules, 58, 86, 92, 94, 96-98, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, Nuclear processes, 87-88, 96, 106, 111-113, 116, 117, 111, 119, 120, 121, 123, 124, 125, 128, 129, 130, 118, 128, 130, 134, 136, 173, 240 139, 140, 144, 145, 147, 148, 153, 154, 158, 161, 223, 225, 227, 236-237, 238, 239-240, 303 fission, 111, 112, 113, 128 Momentum, 115, 116 fusion, 111, 112, 113, 130, 173 Motion and stability (see also Forces and motion) radioactive decay, 87-88, 111, 112, 113, 117, 118, 125, grade band endpoints, 115-116, 117-118, 119-120 178, 182, 183, 186 interaction types, 116-118 stability/instability in physical systems, 118-120 O Mutations, 140, 143, 157-158, 159, 160, 161, 165 Ocean science, 334, 336 Orders of magnitude, 90 N Organisms, living National Aeronautics and Space Administration grade band endpoints, 144-145, 146-148, 149-150 Science Education and Public Outreach, 344 growth and development, 140, 145-147 Science Mission Directorate Education Community, 345 information processing, 149-150 377 Index

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matter and energy flows in, 130, 147-148, 220-223 Photons, 112, 122, 135 models and representations, 93 Photosynthesis, 104, 128, 129, 130, 146, 147, 148, 153, performance expectations example, 220-223 154, 180, 187, 189, 223 Photovoltaic materials, 133, 136 structure and function, 96, 139, 140, 143-145, 147 Physical scale models and prototypes, 34, 46, 58, 63, 77, system pespective, 92, 99, 107, 140, 143, 144-145, 147, 90, 206, 207, 208, 252 148 Physical sciences (see also Energy; Forces and motion; Matter and energy; Motion and stability; Waves) P cause-and-effect mechanisms in, 100, 103, 107, 112, 113, 114, 115-116, 125-126, 127, 132, 223, 229, Parsimony, 48 237 Patterns and pattern recognition, 3 core ideas, 103-105 analyzing and interpreting data, 51, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, information resources for framework, 103, 349 94, 131, 197 mathematics and computational thinking, 64 argumentation from evidence of, 71 patterns in, 106, 109, 115, 116-117, 118, 119, 121, and asking questions, 55, 84, 85, 86, 236 127, 130, 131, 132-133, 223, 227, 228, 230, 239 and cause-and-effect relationships, 86, 88-89 public feedback on, 342 in classification, 85, 86-87, 222 scale, proportion, or quantity in, 103, 108, 109, 110, cyclical, 98, 119, 176 111, 112, 114, 116-117, 118, 119, 121, 122, 238 definition of concept, 84 systems and system models, 103, 107, 110, 113, 114, in earth and space sciences, 173, 174, 175, 176, 178, 115, 116, 118-120 182-183, 186, 187, 188, 191-192, 193, 195, 197 Plate tectonics, 97, 177, 178-179, 180, 181, 182-183 energy, 121 Political science, 13, 14 in engineering design, 51, 70, 86 Practices of science and engineering (see also Modeling/ in forces and motion, 115, 116-117, 118, 119, 121, models) 127, 130, 173, 174, 175, 178, 181, 185 argumentation and analysis, 27, 44, 46, 48, 49, 52, of interactions, 115, 116-117, 118, 119, 121, 127, 130, 71-74 152 asking questions (science) and defining problems (engi- learning progressions, 60, 66, 70, 86-87, 88, 101, 233 neering), 49, 50, 54-56 in life sciences, 139, 152, 155 for classrooms, 49-77 mathematics and computational thinking and, 51, 64, collaboration, 27, 53 65, 66, 86, 94 communicating findings, 53, 56, 57, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, matter structure and properties, 106, 109, 223, 227, 74-77 228, 230 constructing scientific explanations, 49, 51, 67-68, natural resource use, 191-192 69-70 in physical sciences, 106, 109, 115, 116-117, 118, 119, content integrated with, 11, 25, 26-28, 43, 78-79 121, 127, 130, 131, 132-133, 223, 227, 228, 230, crosscutting concepts and, 42 239 data organization, analysis, and interpretation, 49, 51, representation of data and, 65, 66, 86, 133, 183 61-63, 65, 66, 68 scale and, 86-87 defined, 30 in science, 47-48, 51, 78, 84-85, 86 design development (engineering), 45-47, 49, 52, 58, 65, and stability/instability, 98, 99, 101, 118, 120 68-69, 70-71 systems and system models, 182-183, 188, 195, 229 distinguishing science from engineering, 50-53, 62 Peer review, 71, 73, 74, 75, 78 evaluation-based approach, 46, 53, 74-77 Periodic table, 106, 109, 227, 239 goals, 55, 58, 60, 62-63, 65-66, 69, 72-73, 75-76 Photoelectric effect, 122 inquiry-based approach, 30, 41, 44-45, 63 A Framework for K-12 Science Education 378

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investigation planning and implementation, 45, 49, 50, life sciences, 342 55, 59-61 organizations involved in, 344-345 learning progressions, 26, 34, 56, 58-59, 60-61, 63, overarching issues, 332-340 66-67, 69-71, 73-74, 76-77 physical sciences, 342 mathematics and computational thinking, 49, 51, 61, purpose of document, 333 62, 63, 64-67 quality of writing, 333 public feedback on, 340-341 quantity of material, 338 rationale for, 41, 42-46 scientific and engineering practices, 340-341 references consulted for, 347-348 reflecting on, 78-79 Q research and development agenda, 316 “scientific method” myth, 44, 78 Quantities and quantitative relationships, 51, 65, 88, 89, spheres of activity, 44-46 90, 91, 98, 106, 107, 115, 124, 126 standards and, 10 Quantum physics, 64, 116, 122, 133, 135, 137 understanding how scientists work, 43-44 Pressure R and rock formation, 180 temperature and, 96-97, 107, 109, 112, 113, 180, 227, Radioactive decay, 87-88, 111, 112, 113, 117, 118, 125, 237 178, 182, 183, 186 waves, 131 Radiometric dating, 112, 113 Principles of the framework Reading science texts, 53, 74, 75, 76-77, 258-259 building on prior interests and experience, 28 Reasoning ability of young children, 24-25 capacity of children to learn, 24-25 Relativity, 64, 116 core ideas and practices, 25-26 Reproduction, 140, 144, 145-146, 147, 151, 152, 157, equity in education, 28-29 158, 159, 160, 161, 163-164, 165-166 knowledge and practice, 26-28 Research and development agenda learning progressions, 26 accountability, 323-324 Prior conceptions, 25 assessment, 314-315, 317-319, 323-324 Prisms, 135 core questions behind, 312-315 Procedural knowledge, 78-79 curricular and instructional materials, 316-317, 321 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), educational experiences, 313-314 141, 262-263 implementation of framework, 212-220 Proportionality, 90, 91, 110, 121, 123, 166 key areas, 315-320 Psychology, 10, 13-14, 143, 212, 301, 334, 335, 336, 342 learning progressions, 315-316 Public feedback on report, 18 norms and practices, 314 audience, 333 organizational issues, 324 connections to math and literacy, 339-340 practices, scientific and engineering, 316 content suggestions, 334-336 preconceptions of student, 313 crosscutting concepts, 341 progression of student understanding, 313 disciplinary core ideas, 341-343 standards influence, 320-324 diversity and equity issues, 340 teacher and administrator development, 319-320, earth and space sciences, 342-343 322-323 engineering and technology, 336-338, 343 Rhode Island Department of Elementary and Secondary implementation, 340 Education, 345 integration of three dimensions, 338-339 learning progressions, 343-344 379 Index

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S Solar system, 117, 118, 169, 170, 173, 174, 175-176, 177, 179, 180, 263 Scale, proportion, or quantity Sound, 104, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 130, 131, 132, 135, and cause-and-effect mechanisms, 88, 111, 113 136-137, 231 definition of concept, 84, 85 Space sciences (see also Earth and space sciences) in earth and space sciences, 169, 170, 173, 175, 178, cause-and-effect mechanisms, 175, 176 179, 180, 181, 182-183, 186, 188, 238 Earth’s place in universe, 170, 173-174 in engineering, 89, 90-91, 206 grade band endpoints, 174, 176, 177-179 and force and motion, 114, 116-117, 118, 175 gravity/gravitational forces, 64, 88, 92, 100, 113, 116, learning progression, 36, 90-91, 233, 238, 239 117-118, 121-122, 123, 126, 127, 169, 173, 175, in life sciences, 100, 139, 140, 143, 144 176, 179, 180, 181-182, 184, 185 and mathematics and computational thinking, 91 Kepler’s laws, 175 measurement and units, 90-91, 205, 231 models/modeling, 176 and modeling, 90, 100, 101, 122, 123-124, 127, 206 nuclear processes, 112, 113, 173 orders of magnitude, 90 planetary history of Earth, 100, 170, 176-178, 181-182 and pattern recognition, 85, 86-87, 186 rotation and tilt of Earth, 175-176 in physical sciences, 103, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 114, scale in, 100, 173, 175, 178 116-117, 118, 119, 121, 122, 238 seasonal variations, 175-176 proportionality, 90, 91, 110, 121, 123, 166 solar system, 117, 118, 169, 170, 173, 174, 175-176, quantities and quantitative relationships, 51, 65, 88, 89, 177, 179, 180, 263 90, 91, 98, 106, 107, 115, 124, 126 systems and system models, 118 in scientific studies, 89 universe and stars, 67, 112, 113, 173-174 spatial, 170, 179, 180 Speciation, 154, 155, 161, 165, 166, 167 and stability changes, 99, 100, 101, 114, 119 Speed of light, 114, 115, 116, 134, 135, 136, 137 and structure and properties, 86, 96-97, 103, 107, 109, Spreadsheets, 59, 62, 63, 66 110, 117, 143, 238, 239 Stability and change in systems and system models, 92, 182-183, 186, 188, cause-and-effect mechanisms, 98, 100 230, 303 dynamic equilibrium, 99-100 temporal, 89-90, 99, 100, 112, 139, 169, 178, 180, in ecosystems, 100, 152 182, 186, 188 feedback loops, 98-99, 101 Science (see also specific disciplines and practices) homeostasis, 119, 143 defined, in K-12 context, 11 patterns in, 98, 99, 101, 118, 120 goals, 55, 69 progression, 100-101 nature of, 334, 336 scale and, 99, 100, 101, 114, 119 Science Anchors project, 23, 30 in systems, 84, 98-99, 100, 101, 113, 114, 118-120, Science College Board Standards for College Success, 13, 125, 126, 150, 152, 154-155, 169, 180, 239 17, 23, 30, 141 Standards (see also National Science Education Standards) Science education system alignment with other K-12 subjects, 306-307 coherence, 244-245 and assessment and accountability, 2, 218, 323-324 complexity, 243-245 boundary statements, 301-302 Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of and curriculum and instructional materials, 2, 218, 321 Educational Progress (NAEP), 13, 16, 17, 23, 303 development, 2, 8, 19-20 Skills (see Practices) equity and diversity in, 280, 307-308 Social interactions and group behavior, 140, 156-157 and fragmentation of education, 10 Sociology, 13, 14, 212 grade band progressions, 304-305 Solar cells/energy, 50, 130, 134, 143, 211 grade-by-grade progressions, 305 A Framework for K-12 Science Education 380

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learning goals, 298-299 forces and interactions within, 88, 94, 113, 115, 116, learning progressions, 302-304 119, 120, 127, 176 performance expectations, 218, 301 instruction, 94 recommendations, 298-308 isolated systems, 92, 115, 235 research and development agenda, 320-324 large-scale, 99, 118, 182-183 research basis, 303-304 learning progression, 93-94, 230, 233, 235 resources, time, and teacher expertise, 305-306 mathematics and computational thinking and, 51, 57, scientific and engineering practices, 300-301 64-65, 67, 94, 126 scientific rigor and accuracy, 299-300 matter and energy transfers, 84, 92, 93, 94-95, 96, 106, and teacher and administrator development, 2, 322-323 110, 119, 120-122, 123, 124-126, 128-129, 147, Statistics and statistical analysis, 14, 15, 51, 61, 63, 65, 66 148, 150, 152-154, 169, 179, 223, 239 Strands of proficiency, 250 models/modeling, 43, 46, 52, 57, 58, 59, 64-65, 67, 75, dimensions in framework and, 254-255 89, 92-96, 100, 101, 170, 197, 206, 207, 208, 211, and instruction approaches, 253-255 212, 229, 230, 236 and learning, 251-253 patterns, 98, 99, 152, 173, 175-176, 182-183, 188, 195, Strong nuclear force, 88, 111, 113, 116, 117, 118, 240 229 Structure and function in physical sciences, 103, 107, 110, 113, 114, 115, 116, definition of concept, 84, 85 118-120 in ecosystems, 150 potential energy, 121-122 forces and motion and, 117 scale effects, 84, 90, 91, 92, 100, 103, 181, 182-183, learning progression, 97-98 186, 188, 230, 239, 303 and matter and energy flows, 106-109, 147, 224-240 in space, 118 organisms, 96, 139, 140, 143-145 stability and change in, 84, 98-99, 100, 101, 113, 114, scale and, 86, 96-97, 103, 107, 109, 110, 117, 143, 118-120, 125, 126, 150, 152, 154-155, 169, 180, 238, 239 239 in systems, 96, 97, 98 structure and functioning of, 96, 97, 98 Structure of the framework (see also Disciplinary core subsystem interactions, 92, 93, 97, 103, 120-121, 144, ideas; Crosscutting concepts; Practices of science and 179, 195 engineering) Systems for State Science Assessment, 23, 242, 264, 298 dimensions, 29-33 progressions across K-12, 33-34 T Supernovas, 112, 113, 173, 174 Systems and system models (see also Earth systems; Tables and tabulating data, 61, 62, 63, 76, 77 Ecosystems) Taking Science to School, 23, 24, 242, 250, 251, 253, 254, biological, 107, 140, 143, 144-145, 147, 148 298 cause-and-effect mechanisms, 87, 88, 89, 93, 103, 169- Teachers/teaching 170, 180, 181, 182-183, 188, 192, 195, 223, 229 framework impact on, 322-323 conservation of energy in, 120-121, 123, 124-126, 128 inservice development, 259-260 cycles, 96, 98 literacy in science and engineering, 256-259 definition of concept, 84, 91-92 preservice experiences, 257-259 dynamic equilibrium, 98, 99-100 professional development, 2, 255-260, 319-320, engineering design, 12, 30, 46, 50, 57, 86, 88, 94, 322-323 98-99, 128-129, 130, 133, 202, 204, 205, 206, 208, research and development agenda, 319-320 214 research base, 257 feedback mechanisms, 98-99, 101, 119, 120, 145, 169- state licensure requirements, 257 170, 181, 190 381 Index

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Technology (see Communications systems and devices; limitations of framework, 11-15 Engineering and technology) practices integrated with knowledge, 11 Temperature Volume, 90, 97, 107, 108, 231, 233, 235 body, 145, 148, 149, 220, 223 and chemical reactions, 110-111 W data sets, 62 ecosystem impacts, 99, 151, 155 Water and electromagnetic radiation, 134 abundance, 185-186 energy transfer and, 112, 113, 121, 123, 124, 126 evaporation and condensation, 98, 104, 108, 184, 185, feedback loops, 99 233, 234, 235, 236 mean surface, of Earth, 68, 100, 188, 189, 198 cycle, 180, 184, 185 misunderstandings about, 313 grade band endpoints, 184-186 and motion of particles, 120, 121, 123, 124, 229, 238 matter and energy transfers, 96 ocean, 185 pattern recognition in, 185 and pressure, 96-97, 107, 109, 112, 113, 180, 227, 237 and surface processes, 179, 184-186 and stability in systems, 119 Waves and state changes in matter, 70, 107, 108, 109, 110, amplitude, 132, 133 226, 227, 231, 232, 235-236, 237, 238 cause-and-effect mechanisms, 132 units and measurement, 91, 231, 313 color reflection and absorption, 135 and weather and climate, 185, 186, 188 electromagnetic radiation, 64, 112, 121, 122, 130, 133- Terminology and language of science, 67, 74, 76-77, 95-96, 136, 149, 188 100, 101, 115, 122, 123, 128, 247, 258, 285, 286 energy transfer/conversion, 131, 133, 136 Theory frequency, 132 application of, 52, 79 grade band endpoints, 132-133, 134-136, 137 defined, 67 information technologies and instrumentation, 104, modeling, 67 130, 131, 132-133, 136-137, 342 Thermal energy, 121, 122, 123, 125, 130, 136, 180, 181 light, 70, 89-90, 104, 106, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, Torricelli, Evangelista, 54 121, 122, 123, 125, 128, 130, 131, 133-135, 136, Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 137, 147, 148, 149, 151, 153, 174, 189, 222, 223 (TIMSS), 141 modeling, 122, 132, 133, 135 Triangle Coalition, 345 patterns, 130, 131, 132, 132-133 photons, 112, 122, 135 (see also Light) properties, 131-133 U refraction, 132 University of Colorado at Boulder Biology Educators resonance, 131, 133 Group, 345 seismic, 132, 181 University of Washington, Seattle, 345 sound, 104, 121, 122, 131 and structure and function, 131, 133 in water, 132, 184 V wavelength, 125, 131-132, 134 Weak nuclear force, 88, 111, 112, 113, 116, 117, 118 Vermont Department of Education, 345 Weather and climate Vision for K-12 science and engineering education Earth systems interactions and, 179, 180, 186-189 core ideas, 2, 11 El Niño Southern Oscillation conditions, 197 goals, 8-10 feedback loops, 187 learning progressions, 10-11 A Framework for K-12 Science Education 382

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forecasting, 193 patterns in, 186, 187, 188, 197 global climate change, 43, 155, 156, 166, 175, 176, planetary motion and, 175, 176 184, 187, 188, 189, 191, 196-198, 306 volcanic eruptions and meteoric impacts and, 187 grade band endpoints, 188-189, 193, 198 Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 345 greenhouse gases and, 186, 187, 188, 189-190, 197, 198 X models/modeling, 189, 197, 198 X-rays, 133, 136 383 Index

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