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Appendix A Breakout Session Presentations The summary outputs from breakout sessions that are listed in this Appendix were prepared by breakout group partici - pants and they do not represent conclusions or recommendations of the committee or the NRC. The grand challenge problems described here resulted from discussions in breakout group sessions, but they do not reflect the consensus views of the workshop session breakout groups. COMMUNITY RESILIENCE (CR) Moderator: Kathleen Tierney Rapporteurs: Ron Eguchi, Laurie Johnson Participants: Mehmet Celebi, Jon Heintz, Laurie Johnson, Kincho Law, Peter May, and James Myers Grand Challenge Problem: Framework for Measuring, Monitoring, and Evaluating Community Resilience (1CR) • Description of Problem o To ensure that past and future advances in building, lifelines, urban design, technology, and socioeconomic research foster community resilience at multiple scales. • Characteristics of Grand Challenge o Resilience is multi-dimensional, multi-scale, multi-disciplinary, and integrative. It involves complex interactions that are difficult to measure, particularly in light of the multi-scale nature of resilience-related phenomena. o We are unable, at this time, to envision and measure multiple dimensions of resilience. What is needed is a characteriza - tion of resiliency in terms of scale and metrics that are applicable both for diverse systems and for their interdependencies. o It is also difficult to determine when resiliency has been achieved. Current engineering approaches do not do an adequate job, either of characterizing resilience outcomes or characterizing those outcomes in ways that are mean - ingful for end users. o There is a need to leverage state-of-the-art concepts and methods from multiple disciplines, including economics (computable general equilibrium models), sociology, and community psychology (social capital measures). • Transformative Approaches to Solution o Undertake a campaign of basic research on describing, defining, and quantifying/measuring community resilience. Different communities will vary in terms of “resilience profile” or “resilience portfolios,” making it possible to identify gaps that require specific interventions. o Create a resiliency observatory system (e.g., RAVON—Resilience and Vulnerability Observation Network), similar to other networks (NEON, WATERS). The network will enable data collection, integration, and monitoring across the United States, providing pre-event and post-event composite and multi-dimensional indicators of resilience. o Secure funding from a consortium of agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to support large-scale, long-term research. What policies and modifications should be put in place to help communities become more resilient? These might provide location-specific research and a unique portfolio of solutions developed for each place/problem. 29

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30 GRAND CHALLENGES IN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH o Establish research coordination networks (RCNs) that will be responsible for integrating research across domains and dimensions of community resilience, encompassing natural, built environment, and socioeconomic systems. • Facilities o There must be both distributed and networked facilities and “observatories.” o The design must take on a concept of a “laboratory without walls.” o Need a capability to integrate experimental testing and simulations with a more holistic understanding of communi - ties, stakeholders, and decisions/motivations. o Need basic research on interdependencies among systems and dimensions of resilience, and analytic tools for resil - ience measurement that take those interdependencies into account. o Need a “hosting” capability that can accommodate evolving community data and coordinating models that use that data to produce further-derived data. o Cyberinfrastructure for laboratories without walls. Develop information technology to support the concept of a laboratory without walls, linking field tests/observations with experimental and simulation studies. • Impact of Solution to Grand Challenge o Will provide first-ever holistic approach to resilience measurement at community scale, as well as guidance for specific interventions to enhance resilience. o User expectations will be clarified, or even improved/enhanced, and will improve practice/applications. • Projects Addressing the Grand Challenge o Define best practices in resilience methods. Inventory the resilience methods/studies/metrics performed at different scales (communities, regions) and for different community components (buildings, lifelines, social networks, economy). o Define structural resilience. Use performance-based engineering (PBE) technologies to develop building performance objectives that can be associated with resiliency objectives. o Define lifeline resilience. Use PBE technologies to develop lifeline performance objectives that can be associated with resiliency objectives. This could be a project for every lifeline system. o Develop and test resiliency metrics. Research, develop, and test various methods for quantifying resilience and determine the best method for stakeholder decision making. o Investigate infrastructure interaction effects. Perform basic research including full-scale testing and simulation of buildings and lifeline systems to investigate interactions. o Create a resilience observation pilot study. It might be a candidate city, neighborhood, or group of buildings (Sample City Concept). Set a baseline and observe actions/changes over time to define metrics and timeframes of resiliency dynamics. o Development of a city as a resilient city (e.g., Hayward, Seattle, or Los Angeles). Include: building inventory, instrumentation for ground motions and structures, vulnerability and loss estimation studies, and yet-to-be-developed methodologies. Assessments of upgrade requirements off the built environment for a resilient city. State of the organi- zation and state and local governments, and disaster-related organizations. Documentation as part of the observatory. o Multi-scale simulation modeling. Develop simulation models that link the performance of buildings and lifelines to communities. o Develop data-intensive methods for using public and social network information and online network activity of all sorts to determine and develop resiliency metrics. o Quantitative recovery modeling. Develop theoretically and empirically based models of post-earthquake recovery processes. Models should be integrated across dimensions of recovery (infrastructures, housing, business/commercial facilities, public institutions, social/economic processes); should be incorporated into simulation models that forecast recovery rates and patterns after major earthquakes; and should consider resilience, adaptation, and sustainability. o Develop the base model of a city by using remote sensing of existing infrastructure, inventory, and condition. Net - work model interdependencies and identify regions subject to cascading engineering failures. Grand Challenge Problem: Motivating Action to Enhance Community Resilience (2CR) • Description of Problem o Research has yielded numerous findings related to community resilience, yet many of these findings are not influenc - ing decisions and actions on the part of key decision makers such as private-sector facility owners and public-sector institutions. There is a need for basic research to explore a variety of mechanisms for motivating action, including (but not limited to) providing information and developing incentives for action that are meaningful to various con - stituencies, ranging from laws and regulations to informally applied norms.

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31 APPENDIX A • Characteristics of Grand Challenge o Requires advances in fundamental research on decision making under conditions of uncertainty and decision making for low-probability/high-consequence events. o Addressing this Grand Challenge also requires basic research and research integration in areas such as public ad - ministration and public policy, communication theory and practice, knowledge and technology transfer, and decision science—with engineering. • Transformative Approaches to Solution o Integration of research on risk communication and decision making with methods developed for resilience assess - ment, including simulation and visualization studies. o Expand technology transfer to include education. Include emergency response team training in high school. o Studies involving collaboration between researchers and decision makers. o Application of web2.0 and social networking-style solutions to resiliency communication /education/decision support (i.e., Earthquake Zillow). • Facilities o Laboratories that enable decision-focused research, e.g., experiments, simulations. • Impact of Solution to Grand Challenge o User expectations will be clarified, or even improved/enhanced, and will improve practice/applications. • Projects Addressing the Grand Challenge o Long-term post-earthquake recovery studies. Long-term post-earthquake evaluations of community recovery and reconstruction; identify key indicators of recovery. o Data fusion for decision models. Develop data fusion methods for integrating multi-dimensional, multi-scale, multi- media experimental simulation and observation data to support community decision-making processes. o Conduct historical and comparative research on the role of various “boundary organizations” (BOs) as change agents, identifying factors that contribute to the effectiveness of such organizations. BOs serve as a knowledge transfer orga - nization. Examples include: Applied Technology Council (ATC), National Institute of Building Sciences/Multihazard Mitigation Council (NIBS/MMC), Cascadia Region Earthquake Workgroup (CREW), and California Seismic Safety Commission. PRE-EVENT PREDICTION AND PLANNING (PR) Moderator: John Egan Rapporteur: Jerome Hajjar Participants: Raymond Daddazio, Gregory Deierlein, Steve French, Omar Ghattas, Muneo Hori, Jonathan Stewart, and Solomon Yim Grand Challenge Problem: Develop a National Built Environment Inventory (3PR) • Description of Problem o Develop an accurate, distributed, comprehensive national built environment inventory and socioeconomic database to enable dynamic forecasting of existing and future inventory • Characteristics of Grand Challenge o Inventory components ® Properties of the earth (as part of our inventory!) ® Building fabric ® Infrastructure fabric (security access is often challenging) ® Community/human functions ® Natural environment o Dynamic forecasting ® Ground truthing is not possible across large scales ® Model damage in future scenarios (i.e., based on future inventories) o Data obsolescence and heterogeneous data formats o Public policy related to data access and security ® Secure public information: utilities, military installations ® Private information (corporate, personal)

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32 GRAND CHALLENGES IN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH • Transformative Approaches to Solution o Development of new strategies for dynamic forecasting inventory for the future o Development of procedures to integrate remote sensing, automated 3D photo captures; integration of BIM; automated capture of transactional information (including subterranean) to update inventory o Establish access to all requisite information • Impact of Solution to Grand Challenge o Fundamental to achieving accurate high-fidelity simulations (regional, component) o Facilitates decision making based upon accurate data o Provides a strong link between engineering solutions and community and individual needs and outcomes • Projects Addressing the Grand Challenge o Develop a national inventory of buildings, infrastructure, environment, and community with appropriate attributes based on remote sensing, government records, etc., that is routinely updated by the transactional processes of the owners of the data sets o Develop ways to forecast future building and infrastructure inventories for metropolitan areas based on existing population and employment forecasts o Study jurisdictional challenges and public policy constraints for accessing data Grand Challenge Problem: Multi-Scale Seismic Simulation of the Built Environment (4PR) • Description of Problem o Enable high-fidelity simulation of the response of the national built environment to catastrophic earthquakes and related events (e.g., tsunami, fire) • Characteristics of Grand Challenge o Build models from underlying principles, physical, chemical, biological, societal o Enable holistic approach to component and system modeling; multi-hazard/hazard sequencing/cascading effects o Address interactions between multiple scales o Experiments required for validation—how to validate at scales where experiments are not possible? o Account for systematic uncertainties o Significant information technology (IT) challenges and opportunities: distributed, collaborative, confederated, stochastic o Outcome should incorporate community, social, economic outcomes o Harness simulation scenarios of other disciplines (e.g., climate change, weather modeling, etc.) • Transformative Approaches to Solution o Multi-disciplinary strategies are vital: from nano to global, physicists to public policy/social scientists o Simulations driven by economic growth modeling, not just hazard mitigation or loss or recovery modeling • Impact of Solution to Grand Challenge o Provides new knowledge on complex system interactions o Facilitates understandings at scales at which conducting experiments is unlikely • Projects Addressing the Grand Challenge o Assess and quantify first principle models for all identified critical simulations; verify against finer scale simulations: rupture-to-rafters; subsidence; collapse simulation o Validate against larger scale and/or case histories, particularly for systems-level analyses, whereby the simulation drives the project, with the test validating the simulation o Develop a systems approach to link heterogeneous simulation components Grand Challenge Problem: Integrated Seismic Decision Support (5PR) • Description of Problem o Develop simulation-based, automated, decision-making strategies for use in pre-event planning, real time during an event, in early response, and through to long-term recovery • Characteristics of Grand Challenge o This can relate to both pre-event (prioritization, simulators, training) and post-event predictions (emergency response) to fuel decisions o Decisions often need to be made under critical time constraints, especially post-event, but also pre-event o Ubiquitous sensor data are required to drive the decision support engines

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33 APPENDIX A o Must manage heterogeneous inputs and outputs from a range of linked simulation systems (coupled with field sensor data) • Transformative Approaches to Solution o Linking ubiquitous data streams with high-fidelity modeling o Nonlinear optimization strategies for complex decision support o Model reduction (from supercomputers to handhelds) o Incorporate end users in tool development to ensure effective solutions • Impact of Solution to Grand Challenge o Comprehensive support engines for decision makers o Potential significant savings of [lives and] losses o Transformative potential for training and education of professionals o Direct dissemination of research into practice • Projects Addressing the Grand Challenge o Develop decision support tools across different timescales, which enables different levels of pre-event decision sup - port and planning o Carefully designed experiments with real users to understand human interaction with this type of system, thus feed - ing results into the support system o Develop an integrated early warning system, based on distributed sensors, distributed datasets, distributed personnel, distributed dissemination with appropriate community response Grand Challenge Problem: Risk Assessment and Mitigation of Vulnerable Infrastructure (6PR) • Description of Problem o Develop risk assessment and mitigation strategies via retrofit and renewal of the most highly vulnerable sectors of the infrastructure (e.g., water supply and distribution systems; power systems; communication systems; hazardous existing buildings) • Characteristics of Grand Challenge o Quantify the scope, scale, and priorities of the problem: what are the key vulnerabilities to the community (e.g., redundancy) o Accurate inventory o Understand effects of ground failure o Model interconnected distributed systems o Establish broad range of performance metrics o Harness ubiquitous sensor data streams o Link to public health objectives o Alternate methods of infrastructure procurement, as costs of retrofit and renewal are prohibitive • Transformative Approaches to Solution o What’s the silver bullet here? Open-source approach to data interaction o Need matrix organization for an interdisciplinary solution o Link to other initiatives (e.g., clean water security and health) • Impact of Solution to Grand Challenge o Increase predication accuracies of design decisions (reduce contingencies) o Directly enhance community resilience • Projects Addressing the Grand Challenge o Risk assessment to assess most vulnerable buildings o Risk assessment to assess infrastructure components, including complex interactions of interconnected networks Grand Challenge Problem: Protect Coastal Communities (7PR) • Description of Problem o Protect coastal communities from tsunamis and associated coupled multi-hazard risks to increase resilience of critical structures and communities (e.g., ports and harbors; power plants) against combined ground shaking, tsunami, fire • Characteristics of Grand Challenge o Scaling issues of multi-physics problems of tsunami generation, propagation, run-up, draw-down, and fluid-structure interaction with local structures

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34 GRAND CHALLENGES IN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH o Understanding cause and effect of sedimentation, erosion, and scouring o Loading on ship facilities and coastal structures • Transformative Approaches to Solution o Coupled experimental and computational simulation for ground shaking and tsunami generation • Impact of Solution to Grand Challenge o Increase resilience of critical structures and communities against combined ground shaking, tsunami, fire • Projects Addressing the Grand Challenge o Basin modeling and simulation considering boundary conditions and generation source and absorption o Resilience of ports and harbors to sequential ground shaking (multiple events) and tsunami forces o Resilience of power plants located close to the coast o Computational and experimental simulation of submarine landslides and associated community impacts • General Geo/Tsunami Facility Characteristics o Centrifuges: robotic manipulation in flight; landslides; tsunami generation; submarine landslides o Shake tables: assembly line, high-throughput shake table testing o Six-degree-of-freedom large-scale hybrid testing o Dynamic testing of lifelines o Tsunami wave basin with increased width and length, enhanced absorption boundary conditions, and capability to incorporate ground shaking; need a basin on the order of at least 150’ wide by 250’ long, capable of tsunami genera - tion, propagation, and local effects on coastal structures (including ground shaking) o Field testing: large-capacity broadband dynamic seismic wave sources coupled with improved sensing capabilities o Sensor networks and ubiquitous sensing: transportation, lifelines; autonomous, self-organizing; sensor development: lasers, imaging, satellites, wireless, self-locating, self-placing? These allow enhanced throughput that will greatly enhance effectiveness of facilities o Underground sensing of the infrastructure in heterogeneous media o Rapid mobilization for seismic monitoring of structures and geo-facilities after major events—use robotics for fast deployment o Materials science facilities • Facility Requirements for Protecting Coastal Communities o Broad description of experimental or cyberinfrastructure facility ® Tsunami wave basin with increased width and length, enhanced absorption boundary conditions, and capability to incorporate ground shaking o How will the facility contribute to Grand Challenge solutions ® Fundamental to understand large-scale coupling between soil-structure and fluid interaction (e.g., liquefaction, foundation weakening, scouring, structural failure) o Description of facility requirements ® Need a basin on the order of at least 150 feet wide by 250 feet long, capable of tsunami generation, propagation, and local effects on coastal structures (including ground shaking) o Examples of projects on which the requirements are based ® Combined ground shaking and tsunami DESIGN OF INFRASTRUCTURE (DI) Moderator: Ken Elwood Rapporteur: Adam Crewe Participants: Ahmed Elgamal, Kent Ferre, John Halloran, Thomas Heaton, William Holmes, Kimberly Kurtis, Stephen Mahin, and James Malley Grand Challenge Problem: Regional Disaster Simulator (8DI) • Description of Problem o A comprehensive system model is needed to achieve a disaster-resilient community o Identification of problem and planning • Characteristics of Grand Challenge o Highly complex and interlinked. Data collection is challenging o Identification/inventory of infrastructure and condition—integrated with BIM

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35 APPENDIX A o Identification of cascading-type failures and how to deal with them o Integration of socioeconomic impacts • Transformative Approaches to Solution o Development of the base regional model o Smart IT, crowd sourcing o Test simulator on sample city/region o Requires input from 1CR and 3PR o Include human decision-making processes • Impact of Solution to Grand Challenge o Potential for multi-hazard simulation o Real-time decision making • Projects Addressing the Grand Challenge o Developing the base mathematical model of a region ® Developing a mathematical model of region (topology) ® What technology is needed, software, hardware ® Formulation of the problem o Development of inventory dataset (including changes with time) ® Development of technology to collect the data—remote sensing techniques ® Including current and possible future development of buildings, lifelines, socioeconomic and community resources ® Inventory and condition data o Developing models for interdependencies ® Developing appropriate network models ® Developing models for fire following ® Developing methods to identify and design for cascading engineering failures (e.g., transportation networks) potential for interlinked failures ® Models for permanent soil deformation (including for liquefaction, landslides) and its consequences ® Fault rupture modeling o Development of methods for model updating from sensor networks o Development of building models ® Occupancy, contents structure, value, proximity o Economic models o Integration of human decision models o Applications of such a simulator ® Identification of weaknesses/Making decision to mitigate weaknesses ® Pre-event drills ® Loss estimation ® Real-time response and mobilization ® What-if scenarios for mitigation o Use of example cities/regions to validate simulator models o Simulator has potential for different levels of granularity ® New generation of loss estimation tools (e.g., next generation HAZUS) o Failure of critical facilities (dam failure) Grand Challenge Problem: High-Fidelity Simulation (9DI) • Description of Problem o Achieving high confidence in performance prediction of infrastructure at scale of individual facility • Characteristics of Grand Challenge o Physics-/mechanics-based models o Holistic look at a facility (including foundations, structure, building content, services, adjacent buildings) o Multi-scale problems, complex, move away from empirical data o How to do the benchmarking? • Transformative Approaches to Solution o Reference buildings for analysis comparisons—blind prediction o High-performance/parallel computing

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36 GRAND CHALLENGES IN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH o Automated validation of analytical models to empirical datasets o Hardware in the loop o Integration of software platforms to permit physics-based modeling of interdependencies among lifeline systems. o Use of BIM equivalent as a transformative approach for modeling lifeline systems. • Impact of Solution to Grand Challenge o Reduced dependence on empirical evidence o Supports other grand challenges • Projects Addressing the Grand Challenge o Blind analysis—benchmarking o Physics-based modeling o Generating large-scale datasets for validating models o Instrumented buildings Grand Challenge Problem: New Sustainable Materials and Systems for Earthquake Resilience (10DI) • Description of Problem o Ensuring that sustainable solutions are also earthquake resilient. Leveraging the efforts towards sustainability for earthquake resilience • Characteristics of Grand Challenge o Assessments of environmental (carbon footprint) impact of repair/retrofit/new construction o Repair methods and how to design for repairability • Transformative Approaches to Solution o Highly resilient, new materials o Earthquake energy capture o Design of cheaper retrofitting systems that are also appropriate for global communities o The “perfect” protective system o Development of new innovative resilient buildings systems o Development of performance metrics to quantify resilience and sustainability in a holistic manner. (Redundancy is a benefit for resilience, but weakens sustainability.) • Impact of Solution to Grand Challenge o More resilient and sustainable society • Projects Addressing the Grand Challenge o Testing and modeling of emerging materials o Integrating earthquake engineering with green engineering o Evaluation of new materials ® For example, ultra high-performance concrete (UHPC), carbon products, green binders, recycled materials, auto- adaptive materials, carbon footprint ® Influence of aging and degradation o The “perfect” protection system o Resilient structural concepts o Structural systems that work with brittle materials, e.g., self-centering systems, replaceable fuses o Integration with LEED o Debris management o Cost-effective retrofits o Methodology for lifecycle carbon footprint o Adaptive materials—self-healing o Energy capture materials o Structural/non-structural fuses o Design for repairability o New resilient structural concepts o Low-cost retrofits

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37 APPENDIX A Grand Challenge Problem: Harnessing the Power of PBEE to Achieve Resilient Communities (11DI) • Description of Problem o PBEE is a very powerful tool but has not been fully adopted o Inclusion of multi-hazards (e.g., hurricane)—No Consensus • Characteristics of Grand Challenge o Complex, multi-disciplinary, and constraints are huge against achieving o The PBEE framework exists but much more data are needed to implement it o Current process is too complicated, not practical, and not economically viable • Transformative Approaches to Solution o Significantly more benchmarking is needed for PBEE o Need for reliable fragility data including bridges, nuclear reactors • Impact of Solution to Grand Challenge o Engineering community acceptance and implementation o Transform the way infrastructure is designed • Projects Addressing the Grand Challenge o Removing roadblocks to acceptance o Better characterization of uncertainties o Developing better analysis/statistical methods o Definitions of acceptable levels of damage—all stakeholders o Fragilities including lifelines ® Experimental program o Holistic assessment of fragility ® Participation of non-structural elements, SSI, built environment o Consequence functions (links to resilient communities) ® Business interruptions, downtime o Sensitivity analysis o Optimization o Extension of PPEE to improving risk assessment o Seismic hazard improved probabilistic models o Refine risk analysis (tracking uncertainties)—No Consensus o Quantifying resilience Facility Requirements for Grand Challenges (8DI to 11DI) • High-Performance Computing (HPC) o Broad description of experimental or cyberinfrastructure facility ® Networked computers, fast, memory, storage ® Cloud computing? o How will the facility contribute to Grand Challenge solutions ® Large-scale modeling/physics-based modeling o Description of facility requirements ® Visualization tools ® AI data comparisons between simulations and experimental data o Examples of projects on which the requirements are based ® Developing the base model of a city ® Network modeling of interdependencies for regional simulator • Data Center o Broad description of experimental or cyberinfrastructure facility ® Data management, collection, visualization ® Data retrieval/documentation of data ® Data security o How will the facility contribute to Grand Challenge solutions ® Datasets for benchmark tests ® Developing relationships (materials and components) between sustainability and EQ resilience

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38 GRAND CHALLENGES IN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH o Description of facility requirements ® Cloud storage, redundancy and backups, operators and standards, metadata management o Examples of projects on which the requirements are based ® Regional model, benchmark data • Mobile Full-Scale Testing to Destruction o Broad description of experimental or cyberinfrastructure facility ® Equipment capable of destroying infrastructure (bridges, buildings, etc.) in field ® Buy buildings to test? Build a city and test it o How will the facility contribute to Grand Challenge solutions ® Generation of data for developing better whole-system models o Description of facility requirements ® Safety? ® High-performance instrumentation o Examples of projects on which the requirements are based ® Validation of high-fidelity simulations ® SSI validation • Instrumentation Repository o Broad description of experimental or cyberinfrastructure facility ® Equipment for deployment POST earthquake ® Instrumentation to pick up data from aftershocks ® Tools for damage assessment in field ® Smart pigs and drones for definition of infrastructure systems o How will the facility contribute to Grand Challenge solutions ® Collection of high-quality data from field and experimental tests o Description of facility requirements ® High-performance instrumentation o Examples of projects on which the requirements are based ® Data for real-time simulations • Advanced Subsystems Characterization Facility o Broad description of experimental or cyberinfrastructure facility ® Corrosion, accelerated aging, fatigue, multi-axial, high temperature, high pressure ® One or more machines ® Include possible interactions between ground failure and buried lifeline systems o How will the facility contribute to Grand Challenge solutions ® Allows characterization of material, subcomponent, and system performance o Description of facility requirements ® Dynamic, large scale, high load capacity ® High-performance instrumentation o Examples of projects on which the requirements are based ® Development of physics based models ® Lifetime sustainability ® Testing of components under realistic conditions • SSI Shaking Table o Broad description of experimental or cyberinfrastructure facility ® Table specifically designed for high throughput for geotechnical/SSI testing o How will the facility contribute to Grand Challenge solutions ® Producing test data for systems including SSI o Description of facility requirements ® Fast turnover of SSI tests ® Wireless sensors—self-organizing o Examples of projects on which the requirements are based • Non-Structural Testing Facility o Broad description of experimental or cyberinfrastructure facility ® Table to simulate contents of rooms, servers, etc., at various points in building ® Seismic qualification

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39 APPENDIX A o How will the facility contribute to Grand Challenge solutions ® Characterizing performance of building content ® Development of complete building models including their content o Description of facility requirements ® Very high stroke and very high velocity o Examples of projects on which the requirements are based • Hybrid Shaking Table o Broad description of experimental or cyberinfrastructure facility ® Facility to do hybrid testing o How will the facility contribute to Grand Challenge solutions ® Subsystem characterization with correct boundary conditions o Description of facility requirements ® Computing and instrumentation o Examples of projects on which the requirements are based • Summary of Network Facilities o Network of Resilience Observatories o High Performance Computing and Cloud Computing Services o Networks of dense sensor systems ® Multi-model sensor database and data center ® Distributed sensor clouds ® Citizens as sensors data fusion facility o Mobile Experimental Network ® High-capacity (shakers) for testing to destruction ® Instrumentation repository for mobile deployment o Subsystems Characterization (high capacity) Facility o Next Generation Shaking Table Network ® SSI shaking table ® Non-structural testing facility ® Hybrid shaking table ® Full-scale shaking table o Full-scale in-field testing facility POST-EVENT RESPONSE AND RECOVERY (PRR) Moderator: Sharon Wood Rapporteur: Jerome Lynch Participants: Richard Bowker, Reginald DesRoches, Leonardo Duenas-Osorio, Mohammed Ettouney, Charles Farrar, Branko Glisic, Bret Lizundia, Sami Masri, Shamim Pakzad, Hope Seligson, and Costas Synolakis Grand Challenge Problem: Rapid Post-Earthquake Assessment (12PRR) • Description of Problem o Use assessment information to inform emergency first responders for efficient resource allocation o For a given damaged infrastructure system/component, we seek a precise quantitative assessment of the damage state o Assess impact of degraded system/component on other interdependent systems o Are there facilities that should not be entered? • Characteristics of Grand Challenges o Develop cyberinfrastructure for near-real-time data to support post-event recovery activities o Work with emergency management community to remove barriers for adopting new technologies • Transformative Approaches to Solution o Develop integrated system that identifies event, measures real-time data, updates models, and informs decision makers o Incorporation of crowd sourcing technologies

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40 GRAND CHALLENGES IN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH • Impact of Solution to Grand Challenge o Improve the speed and accuracy of post-earthquake assessments o Offer a more quantitative manner of assessment • Projects Addressing the Grand Challenge o Development of scalable systems to merge data from multiple and varied sources to assist first responders with search and rescue activities ® Sensing, BIM, GIS, data inundation, crowd sourcing ® Machine vision ® Smart grid o Regional damage assessment based on low-cost, dense, urban networks (consumer-based products) o Use redundant datasets in regional risk-based analysis o Paradigm shift to ubiquitous sensing (high-cost, low-density sensing to low-cost, high-density sensing) o National, wireless infrastructure to support public safety (first responders) o Cyberinfrastructure to integrate data from multiple sources (middleware) • Integration of Lifeline System Information with Ground Shaking to Identify Most Vulnerable Components o Balance statistical models with physics-based models for rapid assessment o Linking simulation and sensor output to tagging o Improve rapid assessment methods by studying long-term implications of tagging Grand Challenge Problem: Reconstruction and Recovery (13PRR) • Description of Problem o Transition to a community-based, holistic, risk management and resilience paradigm. Consider that with all the disasters we have to change our approach to determining land suitability, a life space, or “urban ecosystem” in recovery • Characteristics of Grand Challenges o Lack of timeline information to make post-disaster repair and rebuilding decisions in a timely manner o Lack of models and tools to forecast out long-term consequences or the impacts of potential mitigation options (such as land buyouts, redesign/reconstruction changes) o Lack good models that reflect longer-term cascading impacts of large-scale disasters o Lack of understanding of the quality or the resilience of repair technologies o The system of post-disaster mitigation and recovery assistance lacks “resilience basis” to determine best use of public funds for achieving resilience o Lack basic understanding of user needs, workflows, and decision making post-event o Define the boundaries among acceptable, repair to pre-event condition, upgrade to higher performance level and demolition o Development of recovery simulator for affected region—economic models, material availability, and multiple timescales considered in the recovery process • Transformative Approaches to Solution o Paradigm shift away from pure engineering solutions to a holistic suite of resilience options including land use plan - ning, different uses/configurations of buildings post-event, strategic resettlement or reconstruction o Development of recovery simulator for affected region—economic models, material availability, and multiple timescales considered in the recovery process o Integrate user input into program design and implementation o Assessment in real time of damage and recovery conditions of structures, infrastructure, and socioeconomic condi - tions, including partially collapsed structures, effects of aftershocks on damage states, and ongoing repairs o Use imaging technologies to assess damage and track key indicators of recovery over time • Impact of Solution to Grand Challenge o Develop tools to accelerate pace of community recovery and return to normalcy o Enhance understanding of community resilience by tracking recovery in a quantitative manner o Quantitative comparisons of recovery at a host of length and timescales • Projects Addressing the Grand Challenge o Set priorities for regional recovery ® Evaluation of costs at varying timescales ® Understanding factors that drive economic recovery at short-, medium-, and long-term scales

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41 APPENDIX A o Longitudinal comparisons of recovery time ® Comparisons of data from communities and decision-making processes ® Development of metrics to monitor community recovery o Experimentally verified information about seismic response of retrofitted systems ® Comparison of retrofit strategies based on cost and performance (verify FEMA 306) ® Maximize reuse of repurposed materials ® Development of new systems and strategies that are more cost-effective o Development of decision-making tools ® Merging simulation and observation, including imaging technologies, in real time to support post-event decisions in a timely manner ® Integration of sustainability tools to include economics of repair/retrofit strategies ® Enhanced speed and efficacy of post-earthquake assessment and tagging of damaged structures/systems ® Integration of sensor-based observations into the next generation of codes ® Enhanced understanding of deterioration mechanisms of infrastructure systems • Facility Requirements o Full-scale shake table ® Broad description of experimental facility — Large-scale shake table facility capable of full-scale structural testing — Capable of testing structures that are damaged or partially collapsed to observe failure ® How will the facility contribute to Grand Challenge solutions — Testing complete systems (including non-structural systems) is essential to understanding response of actual construction — What is the boundary between structures that are safe to occupy and those that need to be demolished (post- earthquake assessment of buildings after a moderate earthquake)? ® Description of facility requirements — Multiple testing capabilities with the capacity to test to collapse ® Examples of projects on which the requirements are based — Verification of different types of structural systems — Post-earthquake evaluation of damaged structures o Mobile, high-capacity shaker ® Broad description of experimental facility — A high-performance shaker that is capable of being placed in decommissioned structures to apply large dynamic loads — The shaker would be mobile and can be moved from structure to structure ® How will the facility contribute to Grand Challenge solutions — Can test full-scale structures that already have some degree of degradation — Allow for non-structural components and soil to be present during dynamic testing — What is the boundary between structures that are safe to occupy and those that need to be demolished? o Instrumented city ® Broad description of experimental facility — Instrumented testbed in high-risk, urban environment ® How will the facility contribute to Grand Challenge solutions — Demonstration of new technologies with respect to data management, communication, and data fusion — Study decision-making processes for development and calibration of comprehensive, community models o Distributed sensor systems ® Broad description of experimental facility — Distributed sensor systems to capture response of complete infrastructure systems ® How will the facility contribute to Grand Challenge solutions — Actual response of complex and interconnected systems — Verification of data-based models o Multi-modal sensor database ® Broad description of cyberinfrastructure facility — Large-scale database system ingesting data sources from a variety of sensor types including traditional struc - tural sensors as well as from non-traditional sensor streams — Ingesting data sources from inventory databases (BIM, GIS)

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42 GRAND CHALLENGES IN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH ® How will the facility contribute to Grand Challenge solutions — Provide a rich data source to better understand the response of complete infrastructure systems ® Description of facility requirements — Data model to ensure inter-operability of data sources — Interfaces to allow for physics-based and statistics-based modeling using data — Data mining tools that support statistical discovery o Information management system ® Broad description of cyberinfrastructure facility — Information management system capable of utilizing inventory databases (BIM, GIS), ingesting data from varied sources (traditional and non-traditional), as well as real-time sensor measurements and information to inform decision makers and first responders about the condition of the community and infrastructure networks — Information available through this system can also be used to update models and provide information needed for prioritization of reconstruction and recovery efforts ® How will the facility contribute to Grand Challenge solutions — Provide a rich data source to better understand the response of complete infrastructure systems ® Description of facility requirements — Data model to ensure inter-operability of all components — Interfaces to allow for physics-based and statistics-based modeling using data — Data mining tools that support statistical discovery — Security of the data and models