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APPENDIX G Biographical Sketches of Committee Members Warren M. Zapol (Chair), (IOM) is the emeritus Anesthetist-in-Chief at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and the Reginald Jenney Professor of Anesthesia at Harvard Medical School. He is currently the Director of the MGH Anesthesia Center for Critical Care Research. A graduate of hte Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the University of Rochester School of Medicine, Dr. Zapol’s research efforts include studies of acute respiratory failure in animals and humans. Supported by the National Science Foundation, he has led nine Antarctic expeditions to study the diving mechanisms and adaptations of the Weddell seal. In 2003, he was awarded the Intellectual Property Owners Association’s Inventor of the Year Award for the treatment of hypoxic human newborns with inhaled nitric oxide, a technique that he pioneered with his MGH team and now used to save the lives of 10,000 babies each year in the United States. In 2006, a steep mountain glacier in Antarctica was named for Dr. Zapol by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names. In 2008, he was appointed by President George W. Bush to the U.S. Arctic Research Commission. Robin E. Bell is the PGI Senior Research Professor at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Obser- vatory of Columbia University, where she directs polar research, education, and tech- nology development programs. Dr. Bell is a geophysicist who earned her Ph.D. from Columbia University. Her research interests range from ice sheet dynamics, continental tectonics, and mass balance to subglacial ecosystems. She has studied the mecha- nisms of ice sheet collapse and the environments beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet, including Lake Vostok. Dr. Bell discovered major subglacial lakes linked to the onset of fast flow in Antarctica and has advanced the concept of geologic control on ice stream dynamics. Dr. Bell was the Director of the ADVANCE program Columbia’s Earth Institute that increased the participation and advancement of women scientists and engineers at the university through institutional transformation. She has also led nine major aero-geophysical expeditions to Antarctica and Greenland including the major International Polar Year (IPY) geophysical program to explore the interior of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. She was instrumental in the development of the IPY 2007-2008. David H. Bromwich is a Senior Research Scientist and Director of the Polar Meteo- rology Group at the Byrd Polar Research Center of Ohio State University. He is also a professor with the Atmospheric Sciences Program of the Department of Geography. 189

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APPENDIX G Dr. Bromwich’s research interests include the climatic impacts of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets; global and mesoscale model simulations of the polar regions; the precipitation behavior of high southern latitudes, Greenland, and the Arctic basin; and the influence of tropical ocean-atmosphere variability on the polar regions. He has served on the National Research Council’s Committee on Geophysical and Environ- mental Data and was previously a U.S. Representative of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research. Dr. Bromwich chaired the National Research Council’s Committee on the Design of the Martha Muse Award to Support the Advancement of Antarctic Researchers. He is a member of the American Meteorological Society, the American Geophysical Union, the Royal Meteorological Society, and the Association of American Geographers. Dr. Bromwich earned his Ph.D. in meteorology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1979. Thomas F. Budinger (NAE/IOM) is professor of the Graduate School at University of California, Berkeley; Senior Medical Scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Labo- ratory; and Professor Emeritus at University of California, Berkeley and San Francisco Medical Center. He was the founding Chair of the Department of Bioengineering at the University of California, Berkeley. He is currently Home Secretary of the National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Budinger received the M.S. degree in physical ocean- ography from the University of Washington, an M.D. in medicine from the University of Colorado, and a Ph.D. degree in medical physics from the University of California, Berkeley. He served as a U.S. Coast Guard Officer in the Arctic and Antarctic and was the Science Officer for the International Ice Patrol (1957-1960). Dr. Budinger’s medical science contributions are for research on aging and heart disease. He has served NRC study topics ranging from imaging to radiation and warfighter protection. He is co- author of the text Ethics of Emerging Technologies: Scientific Facts and Moral Challenges. Recent awards include the Gold Medal from the American Roentgen Ray Society in 2009 and the Hal Anger Memorial Lectureship from the Society of Nuclear Medicine in 2010. John E. Carlstrom (NAS) is the Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago with the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physic, the Astronomy and Astrophysics and Physics departments, and the Enrico Fermi Institute. He holds a joint position with the High Energy Physics Division at Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, Dr. Carlstrom leads the 10-m South Pole Submillimeter Telescope project. Dr. Carlstrom’s Degree Angular Scale Interferometer in Antarctica revealed the microwave background’s long-sought polarization. He has also led efforts to study imprints in the microwave background created by massive clusters of galaxies, and has done pioneering research on young solar systems. He has received NASA’s 190

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Appendix G Medal for Exceptional Scientific Achievement. Dr. Carlstrom is a former member of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC) that advises NSF, NASA, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics. Dr. Carlstrom received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Cali- fornia, Berkeley. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and he received a MacArthur Fellowship in 1998. Rita R. Colwell (NAS) is a Distinguished University Professor both at the University of Maryland at College Park and at Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health and is Senior Advisor and Chairman Emeritus, Canon US Life Sciences, Inc.; President and CEO of CosmosID, Inc.; and former Director of the National Science Foundation (1998-2004). Her interests are focused on global infectious diseases, water, and health, and she has developed an international network that addresses emerg- ing infectious diseases and water issues, including safe drinking water for both the developed and developing world. Dr. Colwell has previously served as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the American Academy of Microbiology and also as President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the Washington Academy of Sciences, the American Society for Microbiology, the Sigma Xi National Science Hon- orary Society, the International Union of Microbiological Societies, and the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Dr. Colwell has also been awarded 55 honorary degrees from institutions of higher education, including her Alma Mater, Purdue University, and is the recipient of the Order of the Rising Sun, Gold and Silver Star, bestowed by the Emperor of Japan, the 2006 National Medal of Science awarded by the President of the United States, and the 2010 Stockholm Water Prize awarded by the King of Swe- den. Dr. Colwell holds a Ph.D. in oceanography from the University of Washington. Sarah B. Das is an Associate Scientist in the Geology and Geophysics Department at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Dr. Das is a glaciologist whose research interests include the reconstruction of past climate from ice cores; understanding and measuring polar ice sheet mass balance and ice dynamics; exploring the interac- tion between the coupled cryosphere-atmosphere-ocean systems; and investigating biogeochemical processes in polar environments. She received a Ph.D. in geosciences from the Pennsylvania State University, and an A.B. in geological sciences from Cornell University. Dr. Das has led and/or participated in seven Antarctic and six Greenlandic field expeditions since 1995. She is active in training the “next generation” of polar scientists, teaching and mentoring pre-K through Ph.D students. She is also committed to sharing the excitement and importance of scientific discovery with the public, and has been a featured scientist on NPR, NOVA, at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, and in the forthcoming book Science on Ice, among other outlets. 191

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APPENDIX G Hugh W. Ducklow is the Director of the Ecosystems Center at the Marine Biological Laboratory. Dr. Ducklow is a biological oceanographer and has been studying the dynamics of plankton food webs in estuaries, the coastal ocean, and the open sea since 1980. Dr. Ducklow has participated in oceanographic cruises in the Chesapeake Bay, the western North Atlantic Ocean, the Bermuda and Hawaii Time Series stations, the Black Sea, the Arabian Sea, the Ross Sea, the Southern Ocean, the Equatorial Pacific, and the Great Barrier Reef. He has been working on various projects in Antarctica since 1994. Currently, Dr. Ducklow leads the Palmer Antarctica Long Term Ecological Re- search Project on the west Antarctic Peninsula, where he is investigating the responses of the marine ecosystem to rapid climate warming. Although his research is primarily experimental and observational, he uses mathematical models and collaborates with modelers to gain deeper understanding and derive maximum benefit from the data we collect. Dr. Ducklow received his Ph.D. from Harvard University. Peter Huybers is a Professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at Harvard University. Dr. Huybers received a B.S. in physics in 1996 from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, and a Ph.D. in climate chemistry and physics from MIT in 2004. He was a NOAA Postdoctoral Fellow in Climate and Global Change in the Geology and Geophysics Department at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) from 2004 to 2006. Dr. Huybers has multiple research interests related to climate science: long- term climate cycles, annual temperature variations, and models to estimate historic temperatures based on the limited evidence available. He is the recipient of multiple awards, including a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in 2009, a Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering in 2009, the AGU James B. Macelwane Medal in 2009, a Harvard University Center for the Environment Fellowship in 2005, the MIT Carl-Gustaf Rossby Prize in 2004, and a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fel- lowship in 2001. John Leslie King is Vice Provost for Strategy and W.W. Bishop Professor in the School of Information at the University of Michigan. In January of 2000, Dr. King moved to the University of Michigan from the University of California at Irvine to be Dean of the School of Information. Dr. King spent 4 months in Germany in the spring and summer of 2005 at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main, as Fulbright Distinguished Chair in American Studies. He was hosted by the Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften (the Faculty of Economics and Business) and the Institut fur Wirtschafts Informatik (Institute for Information Systems). Dr. King was elected a Fellow of the Association for Information Systems (AIS) in late 2005 and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2007. He received an honor- ary doctorate in economics and business from the Copenhagen Business School in 2009. Dr. King received his Ph.D. in administration from the University of California at 192

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Appendix G Irvine in 1977. His current research studies the relationship between technical change and social change, concentrating on information technologies and change in social institutions. Ramon E. Lopez is currently a Professor in the Department of Physics at the Univer- sity of Texas at Arlington. Dr. Lopez is a Fellow of the American Physical Society, was awarded the 2002 Nicholson Medal for Humanitarian Service, and was named the 2010 Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS) Distinguished Scientist. He received his B.S. in physics in 1980 from the University of Illinois, and his M.S. and Ph.D. in space physics in 1984 and 1986, respectively, from Rice University. His current research focuses on solar wind-magnetosphere coupling, mag- netospheric storms and substorms, space weather prediction, and the role of spatial intelligence in science education. He is the Co-Director for Diversity for the Center for Integrated Space weather Modeling (CISM), a Science and Technology Center funded by the National Science Foundation. Dr. Lopez is also the co-author of a popular book on space weather entitled Storms from the Sun, published by the Joseph Henry Press. Olav Orheim is currently in charge of Norway’s International Polar Year effort based at the Research Council of Norway. He was employed at the Norwegian Polar Institute from 1972 to 2005—from 1993 as Managing Director. From 1989 to 2005 he was also Adjunct Professor at the University of Bergen, teaching glaciology. Dr. Orheim received his Ph.D. in 1972 from The Ohio State University where he studied Antarctic glaciers and global climate change. He has had more than 30 field seasons in the Arctic and the Antarctic, and produced about 80 research publications covering glacier mass balance and climate, ice dynamics, icebergs, remote sensing, and politics of the polar regions. In 2003 he was Chair of the Norwegian Government’s most recent review of Northern Policy. For a decade he has chaired various bodies under the Antarctic Treaty system, including the Legal and Institutional Working Group from 2005 to 2009. He has developed two much-visited Norwegian museums on glaciers and on polar regions. He is at present Chairman of the Board of five Norwegian entities, including the foun- dations Norwegian Glacier Museum in Sogn, the UNEP body GRID-A in Arendal, and the Polarship Fram, Oslo. He was in 2007 knighted under the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav. Stanley B. Prusiner, (NAS/IOM), is Director of the Institute for Neurodegenerative Dis- eases and Professor of Neurology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), where he has worked since 1972. He received his undergraduate and medical training at the University of Pennsylvania and his postgraduate clinical training at UCSF. From 1969 to 1972, he served in the U.S. Public Health Service at the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Prusiner is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of 193

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APPENDIX G Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Philosophi- cal Society, and a foreign member of the Royal Society, London. He is the recipient of numerous prizes, including the Potamkin Prize for Alzheimer’s Disease Research from the American Academy of Neurology (1991); the Richard Lounsbery Award for Extraordinary Scientific Research in Biology and Medicine from the National Academy of Sciences (1993); the Gairdner Foundation International Award (1993); the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research (1994); the Paul Ehrlich Prize from the Federal Republic of Germany (1995); the Wolf Prize in Medicine from the State of Israel (1996); the Keio International Award for Medical Science (1996); the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University (1997); the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1997); and the National Medal of Science (2010). Marilyn Raphael is a Professor in the Department of Geography at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Her research interests include the Santa Ana winds of California, global climate change and variability, climate modeling, atmospheric circulation dynamics, Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation and climate, and Antarctic sea-ice variability. Dr. Raphael received her Ph.D. in geography from The Ohio State University. She is a member of the American Geophysical Union, the American Meteorological Society, and the Association of American Geographers. She is Chair of the Department of Geography at UCLA and has served on a number of national committees including the NRC Committee for Climate Stabilization Targets for Atmo- spheric Greenhouse Gas Concentration, the Office Advisory Committee for the Office of Polar Programs of the NSF, and the national council of the Association of American Geographers. Peter Schlosser is the Vinton Professor of Earth and Environmental Engineering and Professor of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University and Senior Research Scientist at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. He also is the Associate Director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University. He received his Ph.D. in phys- ics at the University of Heidelberg, Germany, in 1985. Dr. Schlosser’s research interests include studies of water movement and its variability in natural systems (oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater) using natural and anthropogenic trace substances and isotopes as “dyes” or as “radioactive clocks”; ocean-atmosphere gas exchange; reconstruction of continental paleotemperature records using groundwater as an archive; and anthro- pogenic impacts on natural systems. He participated in seven major ocean expedi- tions, five to the polar regions. Lynne D. Talley is a Professor of Oceanography at the Scripps Institution of Oceanog- raphy at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Talley’s expertise and research in- terests lay in general ocean circulation, hydrography, theory of wind-driven circulation, 194

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Appendix G and ocean modeling. Dr. Talley has an extensive NRC committee background, having served previously on the Climate Research Committee, Global-Ocean-Atmosphere- Land System Panel, and Panel to Review the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Distributed Ac- tive Archive Center (DAAC). Dr. Talley was a National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator in 1987. Dr. Talley received her Ph.D. in Physical Oceanography from the WHOI/MIT Joint Program in Oceanography in 1982. She is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Geophysical Union, American Meteorological Society, and Oceanography Society. Diana H. Wall is a University Distinguished Professor, Professor of Biology, and Direc- tor, School of Global Environmental Sustainability at Colorado State University. She is actively engaged in research to explore how soil biodiversity contributes to healthy, productive soils and thus to society, and the consequences of human activities on soil sustainability. She has conducted more than 20 years of research in the Antarctic Dry Valleys examining the response of soil biodiversity and ecosystem processes to envi- ronmental change. Wall Valley, Antarctica, was named for her achievements in 2005. Dr. Wall was a member of the U.S. Commission of UNESCO, is a member of the U.S. Stand- ing Committee on Life Sciences for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, chaired the SCOPE Committee on Soil and Sediment Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning, and co-chaired the Millennium Development Goals Committee of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Dr. Wall was President of the Ecological Society of America, the American Institute of Biological Sciences, the Intersociety Consortium for Plant Protection, the Association of Ecosystem Research Centers, the Society of Nema- tologists, and Chair, Council of Scientific Society Presidents. 195

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