3


Care of People with Pain

Appointment after appointment, test after test, and of course, nothing to really confirm [the diagnosis]. … Having pain that I did not understand, as a physical therapist, fearing some dreadful disease was hard enough. … So, in addition to pain, I had anxiety and depression. … The medication that finally gave me better relief was pulled off the market recently by the FDA.

—A person with chronic pain1

While pain care has grown more sophisticated, the most effective care still is not widely available. Some cases of acute pain can be successfully treated but are not; others could be dealt with promptly, but agonizing delays occur. And most people with severe, persistent pain still do not receive—and often are not offered—systematic relief or the comprehensive, integrated, evidence-based assessment and treatment that pain care clinicians strive to provide.

Currently available treatments have limited effectiveness for most people with severe chronic pain. For many such individuals, pain management on a daily basis takes place outside any health care setting. They must respond to and attempt to control their own pain while they are at home, at work or school, or in their communities as they go about their lives as actively as they can, or think they can. From that vantage point, the assistance provided by health professionals

________________

1 Quotation from response to committee survey.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 113
3 Care of People with Pain Appointment after appointment, test after test, and of course, nothing to really confirm [the diagnosis]. . . . Having pain that I did not understand, as a physical therapist, fearing some dreadful disease was hard enough. . . . So, in addition to pain, I had anxiety and depression. . . . The medication that finally gave me better relief was pulled off the market recently by the FDA. —A person with chronic pain1 While pain care has grown more sophisticated, the most effective care still is not widely available. Some cases of acute pain can be successfully treated but are not; others could be dealt with promptly, but agonizing delays occur. And most people with severe, persistent pain still do not receive—and often are not offered—systematic relief or the comprehensive, integrated, evidence-based assessment and treatment that pain care clinicians strive to provide. Currently available treatments have limited effectiveness for most people with severe chronic pain. For many such individuals, pain management on a daily basis takes place outside any health care setting. They must respond to and attempt to control their own pain while they are at home, at work or school, or in their communities as they go about their lives as actively as they can, or think they can. From that vantage point, the assistance provided by health pro fessionals 1 Quotation from response to committee survey. 113

OCR for page 113
114 RELIEVING PAIN IN AMERICA is largely a matter of guiding, coaching, and facilitating self-management. The clinician’s approach clearly must be patient-centered—that is, specific to the individual—to be effective. Because skills in guiding and coaching are not spe - cifically emphasized in medical education, few physicians are sufficiently pre - pared to perform this support role, although some health professionals from other disciplines, such as nursing or psychology, may be. Worse, even those physicians and other health professionals who are sufficiently prepared encounter obstacles because of the way health care is typically organized, reimbursed, marketed, and evaluated—namely, around specialization, procedural interventions, and a hierarchy of care management. To a great degree, as this chapter describes, effective pain care involves a number of individuals, beginning with the patient, and various treatments. First and foremost is self-management—that is, the patient’s attempts to manage pain and prevent flare-ups or additional injury. Beyond self-management, the health care sector provides pain care through primary care, specialty care, and pain centers, each of which may offer diverse treatment approaches, including medications, interventional procedures, surgery, psychological therapies (not typically available in primary care), rehabilitative and physical therapy, and complementary and alternative therapies. This chapter describes these approaches in general terms. People with pain frequently consult various types of providers, often sequentially but sometimes concurrently, and use many different therapies as they seek relief, knowledge, and understanding. This chapter also examines selected issues and barriers in pain care, including how clinicians assess pain; issues around the use of opioid medications; the perverse incentives incorporated in most health insurance coverage; and patient-level issues, such as unrealistic expectations or reluctance to report pain. Finally, the chapter describes some emerging models of effective pain care, including those of the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, quality improvement practitioners, and award-winning programs. The resources available to help the tens of millions of Americans with acute and chronic pain are few and stretched thin. Nor is the path to maximum achievable relief straightforward or clear of pitfalls. Small measures will not sig - nificantly improve pain care. Rather, as discussed in Chapter 1, a cultural trans- formation in how pain is perceived, diagnosed, and managed will be necessary to make the best care currently possible—care we know how to provide—accessible to Americans in pain.

OCR for page 113
115 CARE OF PEOPLE WITH PAIN TREATMENT OVERVIEW Is it too much to ask that we, the patients, no longer be bound to a sys- tem where no one professional takes responsibility for the patient—a system of unbelievable referrals with unscientific, unproven treatments (and hope) sold to the patient by each referring physician. In many cases, patients end up worse and more and more destitute, yet they grasp for hope with each referral. —A chronic pain advocate2 Numerous factors—involving the type of pain, one’s background and per- sonal traits, and the family and social environments—affect an individual’s treat - ment plan. In many different cases, especially for people with complex, chronic pain conditions, biopsychosocial care (taking into account patients’ unique bio - logic and genetic constitution, their psychological and emotional composition and reaction, and the societal and environmental framework within which they reside and function) has been shown to be advantageous. In all cases, a trusting relationship between patient and clinician fosters clear communication intended to improve outcomes. Steps in Care When confronted with pain, some people seek professional help early on, probably from a primary care clinician, while others attempt, at least initially, to handle the situation on their own. If the pain persists, however, affecting physical functioning and quality of life, a person is likely to seek treatment—and should do so—in case the pain is functioning in its warning role as described in Chapter 1. At least initially, a clinician probably will assume pain is a symptom of some underlying condition and prescribe analgesics, while focusing on discovering what the underlying problem might be. But if a cause cannot be found, if early treatments fail to bring improvement, and if pain persists for several months, it may progress to the point where it becomes a disease in itself, that is, an abnor- mal condition that impairs or disrupts normal bodily functioning (this is almost always chronic pain). Then, regardless of the initiating process, cause, or under- lying disease, the clinician must focus on management of the pain condition in order to assist in restoring the individual to a better state of health. This is not to 2 Quotation from submission by Peter Reineke of stories from the membership of patient advocacy groups.

OCR for page 113
116 RELIEVING PAIN IN AMERICA say that all pain is a serious disease. When pain is a disease in itself, however, it requires comprehensive assessment, care planning, and treatment. Many factors affect the initial pain experience: • the severity, frequency, and extent of the pain itself; • the underlying disease process or pathology, if there is one; • genetic factors; • people’s attitudes, emotional makeup, and beliefs and the meaning of the experience for them (for example, an accident victim might associate pain with a companion’s loss of life); • knowledge and beliefs about the effectiveness and availability of treatments; • environmental circumstances, such as the advice of family and col- leagues, the burdens of work, other life stressors, and physical aspects of the home (e.g., stairs); and • responses of physicians and other health professionals (encouragement to engage in exercise or other self-management efforts versus suspicion or denigration of the patient’s coping efforts). In sum, the pain experience has diverse contributors and wide-ranging effects. Likewise, there are numerous ways to assess and treat it. A simple medical model, in which a physician attempts to diagnose, treat, and “cure” the cause of pain, often is too limited an approach, and the physician applying this approach is stymied at the outset when the cause cannot be found. Instead, a biopsychosocial framework takes into account the rich range of potential causes, effects, and treatment strategies. Pain care is available in many settings, and a patient’s journey may include any or all of the following steps, in sequence or in any order and with any number of repeat visits with the same or new clinicians and advisors: • self-management, perhaps in consultation with family and friends— whose prior experience and knowledge, whether accurate or not, will play a key role—but with little systematic guidance or intervention from a clinician; • primary care, where practitioners may employ a variety of management strategies, including use of prescription drugs and suggestions for exer- cise, physical therapy, or weight loss, perhaps after some consultation with specialists; • specialist care, from a professional in diagnosing and treating an under- lying disease (cancer, heart disease) causing the pain or from a pain specialist; and • a pain center, where an interdisciplinary approach may be offered.

OCR for page 113
117 CARE OF PEOPLE WITH PAIN Almost every patient is likely to engage in self-management, and almost everyone—even those consulting with a pain specialist—should benefit from the involvement of a primary care practitioner (or medical home) who is able to help coordinate care across the full spectrum of providers (IOM, 1996). Such coordination of care helps prevent people from seeking relief from multiple pro - viders and treatment approaches that may leave them frustrated and angry and worse off both physically and mentally, and from falling into a downward spiral of disability, withdrawal, and hopelessness. Certainly, fragmentation hinders the development of a strong, mutually trusting relationship with a single health pro - fessional who takes responsibility for coordinating care. This relationship is one of the keys to successful pain treatment. Self-Management Self-management is almost always the first step in a person’s journey to relieving pain, and is one that is returned to repeatedly. Because severe pain strongly influences virtually all aspects of a person’s quality of life, and because treatment often is insufficient and involves several specialties and professions, the burden of controlling pain falls most heavily on people in pain and their families. Self-management succeeds partly because it helps patients believe in their own capacity to control their pain (Keefe et al., 2008). Pain beliefs correlate with outcomes, and patients function better when they have some control, are not severely disabled, and avoid “catastrophizing” pain—that is, exaggerating its threat and believing they cannot control it (see also Chapter 1) (Keefe et al., 2000). Self-management of pain may be viewed as including both informal efforts undertaken by people with pain, perhaps following the advice of nonprofessionals or written or online sources of information, and structured activity, guided by a health professional or by an established protocol and intended to enhance the person’s capacity for self-management. In self-management programs, patients become educated about their condition and active participants in their treatment, “engaging in active problem-solving, decision-making, developing good use of health resources, and taking actions to manage their pain” (National Insti - tute of Nursing Research, 2011, p. 1). To illustrate, back pain self-management efforts might include brief rests, resumption of normal activities, strengthening exercises, structured physical activity, application of heat and cold, use of over- the-counter medications and topical ointments and creams, sleep, yoga, and caution in lifting and carrying. The following examples illustrate the range of self-management options: • A Stanford University program, initially established for patients with arthritis, includes exercise, muscle relaxation techniques, distraction, sleep aids, education about pain and negative emotions, and cooperation

OCR for page 113
118 RELIEVING PAIN IN AMERICA with clinicians and employers (Lorig et al., 2008). This program showed modest but statistically significant improvements in self-reported pain but no differences in health care utilization. • A psychoeducational pain control program for cancer patients, using coaching by nurses, showed significant decreases in pain intensity (Miaskowski et al., 2004). • A self-management program of cognitive-behavioral therapy and diet interventions for women with irritable bowel syndrome, using advanced practice nurses, reduced abdominal pain symptoms (Heitkemper et al., 2004). • A model program run by pain clinicians from several disciplines encour- aged new pain center patients to participate in a 2-day, 8-hour group educational program before individual counseling with a pain special - ist (for which the two pain clinics involved had lengthy waiting lists). Patients received information about pain and its treatment and learned a variety of self-management skills. Half (52 percent) of the attendees decided to forego a clinical appointment and manage their pain on their own. Results indicated statistically significant increases in the use of various self-management strategies and improved satisfaction, as well as other overall positive effects (Davies et al., 2011). • Participants in a lay-person-led self-management group intervention for back pain patients in primary care, evaluated in a randomized trial, achieved significantly less worry about their pain, more confidence in self-care, and less self-reported disability (Von Korff et al., 1998). A substantial body of research supports the effectiveness of such programs. For example, a meta-analysis of 17 self-management education programs for arthritis found that they achieved small but statistically significant reductions in pain ratings and reports of disability (Warsi et al., 2003). The above examples illustrate that self-management need not take place by it- self but can be combined with treatment directed by a health professional. To illus - trate further, pain self-management combined with the use of antidepressants led to significantly less pain in patients with both musculoskeletal pain and depression (Kroenke et al., 2009b). A program for cancer patients called “Passport to Com- fort,” with four education sessions on assessing and managing fatigue and pain, was found to lead to improvements in physical and psychological well-being (Borneman et al., 2011). And a program of manual therapy, exercise, and educa- tion for chronic low back pain showed a significant treatment effect, maintained at 1-year follow-up (Moseley, 2002). Such combination programs use various settings and media; a review of rates of participation in arthritis self-management programs in the San Francisco Bay area showed that small group programs were most highly attended. Convenience in scheduling and location is also important; offering self-management programs “multiple times in diverse settings and con-

OCR for page 113
119 CARE OF PEOPLE WITH PAIN tinuously over many years” produced 40 percent participation rates among the target group (Bruce et al., 2007, p. 852). For some people with pain, education alone may be the most effective treat - ment by a health professional. But as Chapter 4 describes, patient education is no easy matter, especially given deficits in health literacy (see Chapter 2) and challenges in framing messages that are specific and appropriate to individual cir- cumstances. For example, the message delivered to an adult experiencing chronic pain caused by osteoarthritis of the spine should differ markedly from that for a person with multiple myeloma, for whom a new pain can be a truly catastrophic harbinger of permanent paralysis. Primary Care Primary care is where people obtain accessible, comprehensive, coordinated health care. The primary care fields of medicine are general internal medicine, general pediatrics, family medicine, and (in some views) obstetrics-gynecology. Whether functioning as individual practitioners, in integrated teams of health professionals, or in what are now termed medical homes or accountable care organizations with medical and financial responsibility for the health of a patient population, primary care clinicians provide a wide range of services and assist people in making decisions about specialty services and elective procedures (see Chapter 4). Primary care physicians also are responsible for the majority of pain medicine prescriptions. Indeed, in 2007, analgesics were the drug category most frequently mentioned in data on office visits to physicians. In 2008, analgesics constituted 10.1 percent of all drugs prescribed for adults (ranking a close second to antidepressants, at 10.8 percent) (Gu et al., 2010). It is no wonder, then, that primary care practitioners are an early step in the pain care journey, treating 52 percent of chronic pain patients in the United States based on a national mail survey of primary care physicians, physician pain specialists, chiropractors, and acupuncturists (Breuer et al., 2010). Typically, primary care is where people first report pain to the health care system; thus the primary care practitioner’s response may be crucial in providing timely relief and preventing acute pain from progressing to a persistent or chronic state (Dobkin and Boothroyd, 2008). Doubtless, many primary care practitioners become extra- ordinarily adept at providing pain care, but this is not the uniform experience. As discussed later in this chapter, patients experience a number of barriers to optimal pain care within the primary care system. Specialty Care Although most people with pain do not need a pain specialist’s care, the poten- tial demand for these services far outstrips the supply. Approximately 100 million American adults have common chronic pain conditions, but only 3,488 physi-

OCR for page 113
120 RELIEVING PAIN IN AMERICA cians were board certified in pain care between 2000 and 2009; thus there are more than 28,500 people with chronic pain for every specialist (this figure can be compared, for example, with the U.S. average of 264 patients treated by each radiation oncologist in 2003 [Lewis and Sunshine, 2007]). As a result, most pain care must (and should) be provided by primary care practitioners. In a national survey conducted in the late 1990s, fully four-fifths of people currently experienc- ing severe pain said they had never been referred to a specialized pain program or clinic (American Pain Society, 1999). Organization of the specialty. Pain medicine (the physician specialty of pain care) and pain care in general constitute a “highly active” field, distinguished by rising numbers of peer-reviewed publications and professional associations and interest groups (Dubois et al., 2009). The American Medical Association (AMA) recognizes pain medicine as a discrete specialty, represented in the AMA house of delegates by the American Academy of Pain Medicine. Most pain physicians come to the field from anesthesiology or, to a lesser ex- tent, physical and rehabilitation medicine, occupational medicine, and psychiatry and neurology. (The specialty breakdown of pain medicine is discussed in greater detail in Chapter 4.) Few pain specialists come from primary care disciplines. This is an unfortunate gap because greater interchange would be helpful given that, in light of the paucity of pain specialists, the bulk of clinical pain care must take place either through primary care or through routine medical care provided by the cardiologists, oncologists, and neurologists who manage most of the care for people with heart disease, cancer, and neurologic disorders, respectively. Several health professional associations that focus on pain are influential sources of information about pain and pain care. Individuals are free to join as many associations as they wish, provided they meet the qualifications for membership. Relatively large groups (among which memberships overlap), with about 4,000 to 6,000 members each, are the American Academy of Pain Management (consisting of anesthesiologists, chiropractors, physical therapists, psychologists, and others), the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (anesthesiologists), and the International Association for the Study of Pain (researchers and physicians, whose U.S. chapter is the American Pain Society). Somewhat smaller groups include the American Society of Inter- ventional Pain Physicians (anesthesiologists), the American Academy of Pain Medicine (physicians), and the American Back Society (physicians, chiroprac - tors, and physical therapists). Relatively small groups include the American Headache Society (physicians), the American Society for Pain Management Nursing, and the American Academy of Orofacial Pain (primarily dentists and physical therapists). Certification of pain specialists. Physicians already board certified in anesthesi- ology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, or psychiatry/neurology can become

OCR for page 113
121 CARE OF PEOPLE WITH PAIN board certified in pain medicine. During the 2000-2009 decade, pain medicine certificates were issued to 1,874 anesthesiologists, 1,337 physiatrists, and 277 psychiatrists and neurologists, based on a common curriculum and a jointly developed examination administered by the American Board of Anesthesiology (American Board of Medical Specialties, 2010). Practice patterns reflect training. A pain specialist trained as an anesthesi - ologist is likely to provide different perspectives and treatments from those of a psychiatrist, neurologist, or internist. For example, a study of medication care provided to fibromyalgia patients by primary care physicians, rheumatologists, neurologists, and psychiatrists found no statistically significant differences among disciplines in outcomes of care, satisfaction, or costs of care, but did find sig - nificant differences in the types of medications most often prescribed (McNett et al., 2011). The historical predominance of anesthesiology in the pain medicine field—for example, many early pain clinics were established by anesthesiologists using nerve block techniques (Manchikanti, 2000, p. 133)—may affect the scope of services available to patients. The confusing state of pain medicine has led some physicians and organiza- tions to support the development of a new, inclusive pain care specialty not under the aegis of any particular medical discipline (Dubois et al., 2009). Perceived ad - vantages of creating an independent pain specialty are a more coherent voice and the ability to advocate for a consistent training curriculum and promote greater continuity of care. For example, a unified specialty would be better positioned to persuade third-party payers to adopt reimbursement practices that are aligned with best pain care practices. Other than the logistical difficulties, possible dis - advantages of creating an independent pain specialty might include loss of the cross-fertilization enabled by the involvement of several specialty groups with a history of and experience with providing pain care. Interdisciplinary teams. Ideally, most patients with severe persistent pain would obtain pain care from an interdisciplinary team, as opposed to a specialist who might focus on a narrow range of treatments and have a restricted view of how pain is affecting the patient. The interdisciplinary model incorporates assessment and diagnosis, not just therapy. It is an integrated, coordinated, and multimodal approach to care targeting multiple dimensions of the chronic pain experience— including disease management, reduction in pain severity, improved functioning, and emotional well-being and health-related quality of life—that is developed through a comprehensive evaluation by multiple specialists (usually physicians, nurses, psychologists or other mental health professionals, rehabilitation special - ists, and/or complementary and alternative medicine [CAM] therapists). In the primary care setting, the team most often includes a primary care practitioner, nurse, and mental health clinician. In specialty and tertiary care settings, this team approach most often emphasizes psychological, pharmacological, and rehabilita - tion approaches.

OCR for page 113
122 RELIEVING PAIN IN AMERICA An interdisciplinary approach is hardly unique to pain care. It also is used, to beneficial effect, in palliative care, rehabilitation, critical care, mental health, and geriatrics (Paice, 2005). Interdisciplinary approaches for chronic pain have been supported by numerous studies from many different countries and study populations, including • systematic reviews of treatment and rehabilitation for low back pain (Guzmán et al., 2001; van Middelkoop et al., 2011); • a meta-analysis of five Scandinavian studies involving low back pain, using return to work as the outcome measure (Norlund et al., 2009); • a general examination of chronic pain in the elderly (Corran et al., 2001); • a study of costs of treating low back pain in Belgium and the etherlands N (Van Zundert and Van Kleef, 2005); • a Mexican study of patients with noncardiac chest pain, more than half of whom were found to have psychiatric disorders (Ortiz-Olvera et al., 2007); • developers of consensus guidelines on managing chronic pelvic pain in Canada (Jarrell et al., 2005); • a study of fibromyalgia treatment (Lemstra and Olszynski, 2005); • a prospective study of treatment for complicated chronic pain syndromes in adults (McAllister et al., 2005); • a study of family satisfaction with care for abdominal pain in children (Schurman and Friesen, 2010); and • an examination of a disease management program for people with pain and psychiatric disorders who previously were treated with opioids (Chelminski et al., 2005). Several examples illustrate the effectiveness of team approaches to pain care. An initiative within the Department of Veterans Affairs is testing the value of a collaborative support team involving a case manager and specialist consul- tant, who communicate with primary care providers by their preferred method— generally e-mail or telephone (Dobscha et al., 2007). Another example comes from England, where a randomized controlled trial found that implementing a cognitive-behavioral intervention consisting of up to six group therapy sessions was effective and cost-effective in managing subacute and chronic low back pain in primary care (Lamb et al., 2010). A Department of Veterans Affairs intervention called Assistance with Pain Treatment, led by a psychologist care manager and an internist, reduced pain among primary care patients through clinician and patient education, assessment, symptom monitoring, feedback to clinicians, and referrals to specialists (Dobscha et al., 2009). For pain associated with sickle-cell disease, useful models include day hospitals and other alternatives to emergency depart- ments (EDs) that focus on multipronged assessment and continuous, individual-

OCR for page 113
123 CARE OF PEOPLE WITH PAIN ized care (Benjamin, 2008). An example not involving a team per se would be a strong referral network giving primary care practitioners access to multimodal treatment resources for direct consultation and for referral of at-risk patients, including those at psychosocial risk. Specialists often differ significantly in the ways they practice. Even in multidisciplinary settings, pain specialists may collaborate actively, or they may seldom embrace collaboration or may even exclude patients whose pain cannot be managed through the specialist’s preferred modality or type of intervention. In any event, given the low numbers of pain specialists, they should serve not only as direct care practitioners but also as resources to help educate primary care practitioners about how to assist patients with relatively easy-to-manage pain. Pain Centers Primary care physicians and specialists who are uncomfortable treating pain or whose efforts are unsuccessful may refer patients to pain centers. In a truly interdisciplinary pain center, a coordinated team of health professionals performs a comprehensive assessment of the pain problem and its impact on the patient and family, and then implements a management plan that usually involves sev - eral therapeutic modalities. These modalities may include medications; physical therapy; psychological therapies, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy; and other treatments designed to intervene in the biological, psychological, and social aspects of the pain experience. The number of pain centers grew in the latter part of the 20th century, largely in academic medical centers and other hospital and nonhospital settings, focused on serving patients with complex pain problems. However, not all care that takes place in pain centers is interdisciplinary, and some “pain clinics” make no attempt to provide a broad range of modalities. Indeed, formal criteria do not exist for defining what a “pain clinic,” “pain center,” or “pain program” is, and thus these terms can be confusing or mean different things to different providers or constitu- encies. The Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities currently accredits only about 122 pain treatment facilities offering inter disciplinary ap- proaches. Only three of these thus far are veterans’ facilities, despite the Depart - ment of Veterans Affairs’ important role in pain care. The American Academy of Pain Management accredits some 46 individuals and centers (American Academy of Pain Management, 2011). A tightening of accreditation standards during the late 1990s and 2000s may have led to reductions in the number of accredited centers, although many centers function without accreditation and refer to them - selves as “pain clinics,” adding to the confusion. In addition, reluctance on the part of insurance carriers to reimburse multimodal pain center care can challenge the viability of some interdisciplinary pain centers. Outcome data on the effectiveness of care provided by pain centers are severely limited, whether effectiveness is measured in terms of lower pain severity

OCR for page 113
168 RELIEVING PAIN IN AMERICA Dworkin, R. H., A. B. O’Connor, J. Audette, R. Baron, G. K. Gourlay, M. L. Haanpää, J. L. Kent, E. J. Krane, A. A. Lebel, R. M. Levy, S. C. Mackey, J. Mayer, C. Miaskowski, S. N. Raja, A. S. Rice, K. E. Schmader, B. Stacey, S. Stanos, R. D. Treede, D. C. Turk, G. A. Walco, and C. D. Wells. 2010. Recommendations for the pharmacological management of neuropathic pain: An overview and literature update. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 85(Suppl. 3):S3-S14. Evans, S., J. C. Tsao, and L. K. Zeltzer. 2008. Complementary and alternative medicine for acute procedural pain in children. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 14(5):52-56. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 2010. Summary minutes of the joint meeting of the Anesthetic and Life Support Drugs Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advi- sory Committee, July 22-23, 2010, Gaithersburg, MD. FDA. 2011. FDA acts to reduce harm from opioid drugs. http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ ConsumerUpdates/ucm251830.htm (accessed April 24, 2011). Federation of State Medical Boards of the United States. 2004. Model policy for the use of con- trolled substances for the treatment of pain. http://www.fsmb.org/pdf/2004_grpol_Controlled_ Substances.pdf (accessed June 9, 2011). Ferrell, B. A. 1995. Pain evaluation and management in the nursing home. Annals of Internal Medi- cine 123(9):681-687. Figaro, M., P. Russo, and J. P. Allegrante. 2004. Preferences for arthritis care among urban African Americans: “I don’t want to be cut.” Health Psychology 23:324-329. Fishbain, D. A., B. Cole, J. Lewis, H. L. Rosomoff, and R. S. Rosomoff. 2008. What percentage of chronic nonmalignant pain patients exposed to chronic opioid analgesic therapy develop abuse/ addiction and/or aberrant drug-related behaviors? A structured evidence-based review. Pain Medicine 9(4):444-459. Fishbain, D. A., S. Johnson, L. Webster, L. Greene, and J. Faysal. 2010. Review of regulatory pro - grams and new opioid technologies in chronic pain management: Balancing the risk of medica - tion abuse with medical need. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy 16(4):276-287. Fisher, E. S., J.-E. Bell, I. M. Tomek, A. R. Esty, and D. C. Goodman. 2010. Trends and regional variation in hip, knee, and shoulder replacement. http://www.dartmouthatlas.org/downloads/ reports/Joint_Replacement_0410.pdf (accessed February 28, 2011). Flor, H., and C. Hermann. 2004. Biopsychosocial models of pain. In Psychosocial aspects of pain: A handbook for health care providers, edited by R. H. Dworkin and W. S. Breitbart. Seattle, WA: IASP Press. Flor, H., T. Fydrich, and D. C. Turk. 1992. Efficacy of multidisciplinary pain treatment centers: A meta-analytic review. Pain 49(2):221-230. Fransen, M., and S. McConnell. 2009. Land-based exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee: A meta - analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Rheumatology 36:1109-1117. Frantsve, L. M., and R. D. Kerns. 2007. Patient-provider interactions in the management of chronic pain: Current findings within the context of medical decision-making. Pain Medicine 8(1):25-35. Frasco, P. E., J. Sprung, and T. L. Trentman. 2005. The impact of the Joint Commission on Accredi- tation of Healthcare Organization’s pain initiative on perioperative opiate consumption and recovery room length of stay. Anesthesia & Analgesia 100(1):162-168. Furlan, A. D., J. A. Sandoval, A. Mailis-Gagnon, and E. Tunks. 2006. Opioids for chronic non-cancer pain: A meta-analysis of effectiveness and side effects. Canadian Medical Association Journal 174(11):1589-1594. Gagliese, L. 2009. Pain and aging: The emergence of a new subfield of pain research. Journey of Pain 10(4):343-353. Gatchel, R. J., Y. B. Peng, P. N. Fuchs, M. L. Peters, and D. C. Turk. 2007. The biopsychosocial approach to chronic pain: Scientific advances and future directions. Psychological Bulletin 133(4):581-624. Gawande, A. 2009. The cost conundrum: What McAllister, Texas, can teach us about health care. New Yorker, June 1.

OCR for page 113
169 CARE OF PEOPLE WITH PAIN Gawande, A. 2011. The hot-spotters: Can we lower medical costs by giving the neediest patients better care? New Yorker, January 24. Gentry, C. 2011. Fla. Board of Medicine passes pain clinic rules. Miami Herald, January 21. George, S. I. 2008. What is the effectiveness of a biopsychosocial approach to individual physio - therapy care for chronic low back pain? Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice 6. http://ijahsp.nova.edu/articles/vol6num1/pdf/george.pdf (accessed April 2, 2011). George, S. Z., G. C. Dover, M. R. Wallace, B. K. Sack, D. M. Herbstman, E. Aydog, and R. B. Fillingim. 2008. Biopsychosocial influence on exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness at the shoulder: Pain catastrophizing and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) diplotype pre - dict pain ratings. Clinical Journal of Pain 24(9):793-801. Ghate, S. R., S. Haroutiunian, R. Wnslow, and C. Mc-Adam-Marx. 2010. Cost and comorbidities associated with opioid abuse in managed care and Medicaid patients in the United States: A comparison of two recently published studies. Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmaco- therapy 24(3):251-258. Ginsburg, P. B., H. H. Pham, K. McKenzie, and A. Milstein. 2007. Distorted payment system under- mines business case for health quality and efficiency gains. Center for Studying Health System Change, Issue Brief, No. 112. http://hschange.org/CONTENT/937/ (accessed June 6, 2011). Goldenbaum, D. M., M. Christopher, R. M. Gallagher, S. Fishman, R. Payne, D. Joranson, D. Edmondson, J. McKee, and A. Thexton. 2008. Physicians charged with opioid analgesic- prescribing offenses. Pain Medicine 9(6):737-747. Gordon, D. B., J. L. Dahl, C. Miaskowski, B. McCarberg, K. H. Todd, J. A. Paice, A. G. Lipman, M. Bookbinder, S. H. Sanders, D. C. Turk, and D. B. Carr. 2005. American Pain Society rec - ommendations for improving the quality of acute and cancer pain management: American Pain Society Quality of Care Task Force. Archives of Internal Medicine 165(14):1574-1580. Gottlieb, J., A. Khawaja, K. Teitelbaum, and A. Channing. 2010. Reducing chest pain length of stay—and costs—at Mt. Sinai. http://www.hfma.org/Publications/Leadership-Publication/ Archives/E-Bulletins/2010/July/Reducing-Chest-Pain-Length-of-Stay%E2%80%94and- Costs%E2%80%94at-Mount-Sinai/ (accessed March 1, 2011). Green, C. R., T. Hart-Johnson, and D. R. Loeffler. In press. Cancer-related chronic pain: Examining quality of life in diverse cancer survivors. Cancer. Gu, Q., C. F. Dillon, and V. L. Burt. 2010. Prescription drug use continues to increase: U.S. prescrip- tion drug data for 2007-2008. National Center for Health Statistics, Data Brief, No. 42. http:// www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db42.pdf (accessed June 9, 2011). Gunnarsdottir, S., H. S. Donovan, R. C. Serlin, C. Voge, and S. Ward. 2002. Patient-related barriers to pain management: The Barriers Questionnaire II (BQ-II). Pain 99:385-396. Gupta, A., S. Daigle, J. Mojica, and R. W. Hurley. 2009. Patient perception of pain care in hospitals in the United States. Journal of Pain Research 2:157-164. Guzmán, J., R. Esmail, K. Karjalainen, A. Malmivaara, E. Irvin, and C. Bombardier. 2001. Multi- disciplinary rehabilitation for chronic low back pain: Systematic review. British Medical Journal 322(7301):1511-1516. Guzmán, J., R. Esmail, K. Karjalainen, A. Malmivaara, E. Irvin, and C. Bombardier. 2002. Multi - disciplinary bio-psycho-social rehabilitation for chronic low back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1):CD000963. Haake, M., H. H. Müller, C. Schade-Brittinger, H. D. Basler, H. Schäfer, C. Maier, H. G. Endres, H. J. Trampisch, and A. Molsberger. 2007. German Acupuncture Trials (GERAC) for chronic low back pain: Randomized, multicenter, blinded, parallel-group trial with 3 groups. Archives of Internal Medicine 167(17):1892-1898. Hariharan, J., G. C. Lamb, and J. M. Neuner. 2006. Long-term opioid contract use for chronic pain management in primary care practice: A five-year experience. Journal of General Internal Medicine 22(4):485-490.

OCR for page 113
170 RELIEVING PAIN IN AMERICA Heitkemper, M. M., M. E. Jarrett, R. L. Levy, K. C. Cain, R. L. Burr, A. Feld, P. Barney, and P. Weisman. 2004. Self-management for women with irritable bowel syndrome. Clinical Gastro- enterology and Hepatology 2(7):585-596. Henschke, N., R. W. Ostelo, M. W. van Tulder, J. W. Vlaeyen, S. Morley, W. J. Assendelft, and C. J. Main. 2010. Behavioural treatment for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7):CD002014. Hoffman, B. M., R. K. Papas, D. K. Chatkoff, and R. D. Kerns. 2007. Meta-analysis of psychological interventions for chronic low back pain. Health Psychology 26(1):1-9. Holahan, J. 2011. The 2007-09 recession and health insurance coverage. Health Affairs 30:145-152. Horswell, C. 2010. Officials want public’s help in “pill-mill” crackdown. Houston Chronicle, November 10. Hospital Care Quality Information from the Consumer Perspective. 2010. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. www.hcahpsonline.org (accessed January 24, 2011). Hsiao, C.-J., D. K. Cherry, P. C. Beatty, and E. A. Rechtsteiner. 2010. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2007 summary. National Health Statistics Reports 27. Hutt, E., G. A. Pepper, D. Vojir, R. Fink, and K. R. Jones. 2006. Assessing the appropriateness of pain management prescribing practices in nursing homes. Journal of American Geriatrics Society 54:231-239. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1996. Primary care: America’s health in a new era. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 1997. Approaching death: Improving care at the end of life. Washington, DC: National Acad- emy Press. IOM. 2005. Complementary and alternative medicine in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2007a. Future of emergency care: Hospital-based emergency care at the breaking point. Wash- ington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2007b. Advancing quality improvement research: Challenges and opportunities. Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. IOM. 2009. HHS in the 21st century: Charting a new course for a healthier America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Jackson, J. E. 2010. Pain: Pain and bodies (Ch. 21). In A companion to the anthropology of the body and embodiment, edited by F. E. Mascia-Lees. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Jacox, A., D. B. Carr, and R. Payne. 1994a. Management of cancer pain: Clinical practice guideline 9. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, No. 94-0592. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ articles/PMC2148770/pdf/anesthprog00239-0029.pdf (accessed June 9, 2011) Jacox, A., D. B. Carr, and R. Payne. 1994b. New clinical-practice guidelines for the management of pain in patients with cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 330(9):651-655. Jamison, R. N., L. Gintner, J. F. Rogers, and D. G. Fairchild. 2002. Disease management for pain: Barriers of program implementation with primary care physicians. Pain Medicine 3(2):92-101. Jarrell, J. F., G. A. Vilos, C. Allaire, S. Burgess, C. Fortin, R. Gerwin, L. Lapensée, R. H. Lea, N. A. Leyland, P. Martyn, H. Shenassa, P. Taenzer, and B. Abu-Rafea. 2005. Consensus guidelines for the management of chronic pelvic pain. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 27(9):869-910. Jindal, V., A. Ge, and P. J. Mansky. 2008. Safety and efficacy of acupuncture in children: A review of the evidence. Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 30(6):431-442. Johnson, K. 2009. Consider neuropathic pain in osteoarthritis: There might be a “mismatch” between current medications and underlying mechanisms of pain. Internal Medicine News, October 15, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4365/is_18_42/ai_n42069627/ (accessed April 2, 2011). Johnston, L. D., P. M. O’Malley, J. G. Bachman, and J. E. Schulenberg. 2011. Monitoring the future: National results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.

OCR for page 113
171 CARE OF PEOPLE WITH PAIN Kanodia, A. K., A. T. R. Legedza, R. B. Davis, D. M. Eisenberg, and R. S. Phillips. 2010. Perceived benefit of complementary and alternative medicine for back pain: A national survey. Journal of American Board of Family Medicine 23(3):354-362. Kaptchuk, T. J., J. M. Kelley, L. A. Conboy, R. B. Davis, C. E. Kerr, E. E. Jacobson, I. Kirsch, R. N. Schyner, B. H. Nam, L. T. Nguyen, M. Park, A. L. Rivers, C. McManus, E. Kokkotou, D. A. Drossman, P. Goldman, and A. J. Lembo. 2008. Components of placebo effect: Randomised controlled trial in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. British Medical Journal 336(7651):999-1003. Kaptchuk, T. J., E. Friedlander, J. M. Kelley, M. N. Sanchez, E. Kokkotou, J. P. Singer, M. Kowalczykowski, F. G. Miller, I. Kirsch, and A. J. Lembo. 2010. Placebos without deception: A randomized controlled trial in irritable bowel syndrome. PLoS One 5(12):e15591, http://www. plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0015591 (accessed March 6, 2011). Keefe, F. J., J. C. Lefebvre, J. R. Egert, G. Affleck, M. J. Sullivan, and D. S. Caldwell. 2000. The relationship of gender to pain, pain behavior, and disability in osteoarthritis patients: The role of catastrophizing. Pain 87(3):325-334. Keefe, F. J., A. P. Abernethy, and L. C. Campbell. 2005. Psychological approaches to understanding and treating disease-related pain. Annual Review of Psychology 56:601-630. Keefe, F. J., T. J. Somers, and L. M. Martire. 2008. Psychologic interventions and lifestyle modifica - tions for arthritis pain management. Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America 34(2):351-368. Kehlet, H., T. S. Jensen, and C. J. Woolf. 2006. Persistent postsurgical pain: Risk factors and preven- preven- tion. Lancet 367(9522):1618-1625. Kerns, R. D., M. Kassirer, and J. Otis. 2002. Pain in multiple sclerosis: A biopsychosocial perspective. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 39(2):225-232. Kerns, R. D., J. Sellinger, and B. R. Goodin. 2011. Psychological treatment of chronic pain. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 7:411-434. Kroenke, K., E. E. Krebs, and M. J. Bair. 2009a. Pharmacotherapy of chronic pain: A synthesis of recommendations from systematic reviews. General Hospital Psychiatry 31(3):206-219. Kroenke, K., M. J. Bair, T. M. Damush, J. Wu, S. Hoke, J. Sutherland, and W. Tu. 2009b. Optimized antidepressant therapy and pain self-management in primary care patients with depression and musculoskeletal pain: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Associa- tion 301(20):2099-2110. Kuupelomaki, M., and S. Lauri. 1998. Cancer patients’ reported experiences of suffering. Cancer Nursing 21(5):364-369. LaChappelle, K., S. Boris-Karpel, and R. D. Kerns. In press. Pain management in the Veterans Health Administration. In Veterans healthcare, Vol. IV, Future directions for Veterans healthcare. New York: Praeger Publishers. Lamb, S. E., Z. Hansen, R. Lall, E. Castelnuovo, E. J. Withers, V. Nichols, R. Potter, and M. R. Underwood. 2010. Group cognitive behavioural treatment for low-back pain in primary care: A randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis. Lancet 375(9718):916-923. Lemstra, M., and W. P. Olszynski. 2005. The effectiveness of multidisciplinary rehabilitation in the treatment of fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial. Clinical Journal of Pain 21(2):166-174. Levitan, D. 2010. Hospital project predicts pain: Statistical model may help treat inpatients. Clini- cal Anesthesiology 36. http://www.anesthesiologynews.com/ViewArticle.aspx?d=Clinical%2B Anesthesiology&d_id=1&i=December%2B2010&i_id=686&a_id=16320 (accessed March 1, 2011). Lewis, R. S., and J. H. Sunshine. 2007. Radiation oncologists in the United States. International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics 69(2):518-527. Linde, K., G. Allais, B. Brinkhaus, E. Manheimer, A. Vickers, and A. R. White. 2009. Acupuncture for tension-type headache. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1):CD007587.

OCR for page 113
172 RELIEVING PAIN IN AMERICA Loder, E., A. Witkower, P. McAlary, M. Huhta, and J. Matarrazzo. 2003. Rehabilitation hospital staff knowledge and attitudes regarding pain. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabili- tation 82(1):65-68. Lohman, D., R. Schleifer, and J. J. Amon. 2010. Access to pain treatment as a human right. BioMed Central Medicine 8:8. Lorig, K. R., P. L. Ritter, D. D. Laurent, and K. Plant. 2008. The Internet-based arthritis self- management program: A one-year randomized trial for patients with fibromyalgia. Arthritis & Rheumatism 59(7):1009-1017. Lucas, C. E., A. L. Vlahos, and A. M. Ledgerwood. 2007. Kindness kills: The negative impact of pain as the fifth vital sign. Journal of American College of Surgeons 205(1):101-107. Luijsterburg, P. A., A. P. Verhagen, R. W. Ostelo, T. A. van Os, W. C. Peul, and B. W. Koes. 2007. Effectiveness of conservative treatments for the lumbrosacral radicular syndrome: A systematic review. European Spine Journal 16(7):881-899. Manchikanti, L. 2000. Interventional pain physician: What’s in a name? Pain Physician 3(2):132-138. Manchikanti, L., F. J. E. Falco, M. V. Boswell, and J. A. Hirsch. 2010. Facts, fallacies, and politics of comparative effectiveness research: Part 2—Implications for interventional pain management. Pain Physician 13:E65-E89. Martell, B. A., P. G. O’Connor, R. D. Kerns, W. C. Becker, K. H. Morales, T. R. Kosten, and D. A. Fiellin. 2007. Systematic review: Opioid treatment for chronic back pain: Prevalence, efficacy, and association with addiction. Annals of Internal Medicine 146(2):116-127. Matthias, M. S., A. L. Parpart, K. A. Nyland, M. A. Huffman, D. L. Stubbs, C. Sargent, and M. J. Bair. 2010. The patient-provider relationship in chronic pain care: Providers’ perspectives. Pain Medicine 11(11):1688-1697. McAdam-Marx, C., C. L. Roland, J. Cleveland, and G. M. Oberda. 2010. Costs of opioid abuse and misuse determined from a Medicaid database. Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmaco- therapy 24(1):5-18. McAllister, M. J., K. E. McKenzie, D. M. Schultz, and M. G. Epshteyn. 2005. Effectiveness of a multidisciplinary chronic pain program for treatment of refractory patients with complicated chronic pain syndromes. Pain Physician 8(4):369-373. McGrath, P. J., G. A. Walco, D. C. Turk, R. H. Dworkin, M. T. Brown, K. Davidson, C. Eccleston, G. A. Finley, K. Goldschneider, L. Haverkos, S. H. Hertz, G. Ljungman, T. Palermo, B. A. Rappaport, T. Rhodes, N. Schechter, J. Scott, N. Sethna, O. K. Svensson, J. Stinson, C. L. von Baeyer, L. Walker, S. Weisman, R. E. White, A. Zajicek, and L. Zeltzer. 2008. Core outcome domains and measures for pediatric acute and chronic/recurrent pain clinical trials: PedIMMPACT recommendations. Journal of Pain 9(9):771-783. McNett, M., D. Goldenberg, C. Schaefer, M. Hufstader, R. Baik, A. Chandran, and G. Zlateva. 2011. Treatment patterns among physician specialties in the management of fibromyalgia: Results of a cross-sectional study in the United States. Current Medical Research & Opinion 27(3):673-683. Meghani, S. H., and A. D. Houldin. 2007. The meaning of and attitudes about cancer pain among African-Americans. Oncology Nursing Forum 34(6):1179-1186. Miaskowski, C., M. Dodd, C. West, K. Schumacher, S. M. Paul, D. Tripathy, and P. Koo. 2004. Randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of a self-care intervention to improve cancer pain management. Journal of Clinical Oncology 22(9):1713-1720. Miró, J., K. A. Raichle, G. T. Carter, S. A. O’Brien, R. T. Abresch, C. M. McDonald, and M. P. Jensen. 2009. Impact of biopsychosocial factors on chronic pain in persons with myotonic and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine 26(4):308-319. Morley, S., S. Williams, and S. Hussain. 2008. Estimating the clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy in the clinic: Evaluation of a CBT informed pain management programme. Pain 37(3):670-680.

OCR for page 113
173 CARE OF PEOPLE WITH PAIN Morris, D. B. 2002. Narrative, ethics, and pain: Thinking with stories. In Stories matter: The role of narrative in medical ethics, edited by R. Charon and M. Montello. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis. Pp. 196-218. Moseley, L. 2002. Combined physiotherapy and education is efficacious for chronic low back pain. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 48:292-302. Mularski, R. A., F. White-Chu, D. Overbay, L. Miller, S. M. Asch, and L. Ganzini. 2006. Measuring pain as the 5th vital sign does not improve quality of pain management. Journal of General Internal Medicine 21(6):607-612. Narayan, M. C. 2010. Culture’s effects on pain assessment and management. American Journal of Nursing 110(4):38-47. National Institute of Nursing Research. 2011. Pathways to understanding self-management inter- ventions for chronic pain. http://www.ninr.nih.gov/cms.ninr.nih.gov/Templates/Common/ CommonPage.aspx?NRMODE=Published&NRNODEGUID={1776CC48-ECE2-4B8E-91C8- 90E85A1BF1BD}&NRORIGINALURL=%2fNewsAndInformation%2fNINRPainSpotlight. htm&NRCACHEHINT=Guest#P3 (accessed January 24, 2011). NCQA (National Committee for Quality Assurance). 2011. HEDIS 2011 summary table of mea- sures, product lines and changes. http://www.ncqa.org/Portals/0/HEDISQM/HEDIS%202011/ HEDIS%202011%20Measures.pdf (accessed April 11, 2011). Nichols, K. J., K. E. Galluzzi, B. Bates, B. A. Husted, J. P. Leleszi, K. Simon, D. Lavery, and C. Cass. 2005. AOA’s position against use of placebos for pain management in end-of-life care. Journal of American Osteopathic Association 105(3 Suppl. 1):2-5. NIH and NCCAM (National Institutes of Health and National Center for Complementary and Alter- native Medicine). 2010. Chronic pain and CAM: At a glance. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/pain/ chronic.htm (accessed February 24 and March 6, 2011). NIH and NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse). 2011. Analysis of opioid prescription practices finds areas of concern. News release, April 5. http://www.nida.nih.gov/newsroom/11/NR4-05. html (accessed April 10, 2011). Niska, R., F. Bhuiya, and J. Xu. 2010. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2007 emergency department summary. National Health Statistics Reports 26. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. Noble, A., S. J. Tregear, J. R. Treadwell, and K. Schoelles. 2008. Long-term opioid therapy for chronic non-cancer pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy and safety. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 35(2):214-228. Norlund, A., A. Ropponen, and K. Alexanderson. 2009. Multidisciplinary interventions: Review of studies of return to work after rehabilitation for low back pain. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 41(3):115-121. Nuesch, E., A. W. S. Rutjes, E. Husni, V. Welch, and P. Juni. 2009. Oral or transdermal opioids for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4):CD003115. Oakes, L. L., D. L. Anghelescu, K. B. Windsor, and P. D. Barnhill. 2008. An institutional quality improvement initiative for pain management for pediatric cancer patients. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 35(6):656-669. Oesch, P., J. Kool, K. B. Hagen, and S. Bachmann. 2010. Effectiveness of exercise on work disability in patients with non-acute non-specific low back pain: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 42(3):193-205. Office of the Army Surgeon General. 2010. Pain management task force final report. http://www. armymedicine.army.mil/reports/Pain_Management_Task_Force.pdf (accessed June 12, 2011). Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2010. ONDCP’s efforts to reduce prescription drug abuse, July 6. http://www.keeprxsafe.com/news/?seq=290 (accessed June 12, 2011). Okie, S. 2010. A flood of opioids, a rising tide of deaths. New England Journal of Medicine 363(21):1981-1985.

OCR for page 113
174 RELIEVING PAIN IN AMERICA Ortiz-Olvera, N. X., M. González-Martínez, L. G. Ruiz-Flores, J. M. Blancas-Valencia, S. Morán- Villota, and M. Dehesa-Violante. 2007. Causes of non-cardiac chest pain: Multidisciplinary perspective. Revista de Gastroenterologia de Mexico 72(2):92-99. Paice, J. A. 2005. The interdisciplinary team. In Textbook of palliative nursing, 2nd ed., edited by B. R. Ferrell and N. Coyle. New York: Oxford University Press. Papaleontiou, M., C. R. Henderson, Jr., B. J. Turner, A. A. Moore, Y. Olkhovskaya, L. Amanfo, and M. C. Reid. 2010. Outcomes associated with opioid use in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain among older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of American Geriatrics Society 58(7):1353-1369. Payne, R., E. Anderson, R. Arnold, L. Duensing, A. Gilson, C. Green, C. Haywood, Jr., S. Passik, B. Rich, L. Robin, N. Shuler, and M. Christopher. 2010. A rose by any other name: Pain contracts/agreements. American Journal of Bioethics 10(11):5-12. Penney, J. N. 2010. The biopsychsocial model of pain and contemporary osteopathic practice. Inter- national Journal of Osteopathic Medicine 13(2):42-47. Phillips, D. M. 2000. JCAHO pain management standards are unveiled. Journal of the American Medical Association 284(4):428-429. President’s Commission on Care for America’s Returning Wounded Warriors. 2007. Reha - bilitation. In Serve, support, simplify: Subcommittee reports and survey findings . http:// www.veteransforamerica.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/12/presidents-commission-on-care-for- americas-returning-wounded-warriors-report-july-2007.pdf (accessed June 9, 2011). Puntillo, K., and S. J. Ley. 2004. Appropriately timed analgesics control pain due to chest tube removal. American Journal of Critical Care 13(4):292-302. Qiu, Y. H., X. Y. Wu, and D. Sackett. 2009. Neuroimaging study of placebo analgesia in humans. Neuroscience Bulletin 25(5):277-282. Reidenberg, M. M., and O. Willlis. 2007. Prosecution of physicians for prescribing opioids to patients. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 81(6):93-96. Reisman, M. 2007. The problem of pain management in nursing homes. Pharmacy and Therapeutics 32(9):494-495. Reynolds, K. S., L. C. Hanson, R. F. DeVellis, M. Henderson, and K. E. Steinhauser. 2008. Disparities in pain management between cognitively intact and cognitively impaired nursing home resi - dents. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 35:388-396. SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration). 2010. Results from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Volume I. Summary of national findings. Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-38A, HHS Publication No. SMA 10-4586 Findings. Rockville, MD: SAMHSA. Schanberg, L. E., K. K. Anthony, K. M. Gil, J. C. Lefebvre, D. W. Kredich, and L. M. Macharoni. 2001. Family pain history predicts child health status in children with chronic rheumatic disease. Pediatrics 108(3):E47. Schoen, C., S. R. Collins, J. L. Kriss, and M. M. Doty. 2008. How many are underinsured? Trends among U.S. adults 2003 and 2007. Health Affairs, Web Exclusive 102:w298-w309. Schonstein, E., D. T. Kenny, J. Keating, and B. W. Koes. 2003. Work conditioning, work hardening, and functional restoration for workers with back and neck pain. Cochrane Database of System- atic Reviews (1):CD001822. Schug, S. A., and E. M. Pogatzki-Zahn. 2011. Chronic pain after surgery or injury. Pain Clinical Updates 19. Seattle, WA: International Association for the Study of Pain. Schurman, J. V., and C. A. Friesen. 2010. Integrative treatment approaches: Family satisfaction with a multidisciplinary paediatric abdominal pain clinic. International Journal of Integrated Care 10. Sheldon, E. A., S. R. Bird, S. S. Smugar, and A. M. Tershakovee. 2008. Correlation of measures of pain, function, and overall response: Results pooled from two identical studies of etoricoxib in chronic low back pain. Spine 33(5):533-538.

OCR for page 113
175 CARE OF PEOPLE WITH PAIN Smith, M. Y., K. N. DuHamel, J. Egert, and G. Winkel. 2010. Impact of a brief intervention on patient communication and barriers to pain management: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Patient Education and Counseling 8(1):79-86. Staal, J. B., R. A. de Bie, H. C. de Vet, J. Hildebrandt, and P. Nelemans. 2008. Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low back pain: An updated Cochrane review. Spine 34(1):49-59. Starrels, J. L., W. C. Becker, D .P. Alford, A. Kapoor, A. R. Williams, and B. J. Turner. 2010. Sys - tematic review: Treatment agreements and urine drug testing to reduce opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain. Annals of Internal Medicine 152:712-720. Starrels, J. L., W. C. Becker, M. G. Weiner, X. Li, M. Heo, and B. J. Turner. 2011. Low use of opioid risk reduction strategies in primary care even for high risk patients with chronic pain. Journal of General Internal Medicine 26(9):958-964. Sullivan, M. G. 2004. DEA guidelines clarify issues of opioid use and misuse. Clinical Psychiatry News, September, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb4345/is_9_32/ai_n29126022/ (ac- cessed March 6, 2011). Sun, Y., T. J. Gan, J. W. Dubose, and A. S. Habib. 2008. Acupuncture and related techniques for postoperative pain: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. British Journal of Anaesthesia 101(2):151-160. Tan, G., M. H. Craine, M. J. Bair, M. K. Garcia, J. Giordano, M. P. Jensen, S. M. McDonald, D. Patterson, R. A. Sherman, W. Williams, and J. C. Tsao. 2007. Efficacy of selected complemen - tary and alternative medicine interventions for chronic pain. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 44(2):195-222. Teno, J. M., S. Weitzen, T. Wetle, and V. Mor. 2001. Persistent pain in nursing home residents. Journal of the American Medical Association 285:2081-2086. Teno, J. M., B. R. Clarridge, V. Casey, L. C. Welch, T. Wetle, R. Shield, and V. Mor. 2004. Family perspectives on end-of-life care at the last place of care. Journal of the American Medical Asso- ciation 291(1):88-93. Thernstrom, M. 2010. The pain chronicles: Cures, myths, mysteries, prayers, diaries, brain scans, healing, and the science of suffering. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. Tilburt, J. C., E. J. Emanuel, T. J. Kaptchuk, F. A. Curlin, and F. G. Miller. 2008. Prescribing “placebo treatments”: Results of National Survey of U.S. Internists and Rheumatologists. British Medical Journal 337:a1938, http://www.bmj.com/content/337/bmj.a1938.full (accessed March 6, 2011). Tracey, I. 2010. Getting the pain you expect: Mechanisms of placebo, nocebo and reappraisal effects in humans. Nature Medicine 16(11):1277-1283. Tsao, J. C., and L. K. Zeltzer. 2005. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches for pediat - ric pain: A review of the state-of-the-science. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2(2):149-159. Tsao, J. C., M. Meldrum, B. Bursch, M. C. Jacob, S. C. Kim, and L. K. Zeltzer. 2005. Treat- ment expectations for CAM interventions in pediatric chronic pain patients and their parents. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2(4):521-527. Turk, D. C., and H. D. Wilson. 2009. Pain, suffering, pain-related suffering—are these constructs inextricably linked? Editorial. Clinical Journal of Pain 25(5):353-355. Turk, D. C., J. Audette, R. M. Levy, S. C. Mackey, and S. Stanos. 2010. Assessment and treatment of psychosocial comorbidities in patients with neuropathic pain. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 85(3):S42-S50SS. Turk, D. C., H. D. Wilson, and A. Cahana. 2011. Treatment of chronic non-cancer pain. Lancet 377(9784): 2226-2235. Upshur, C. C., G. Bacigalupe, and R. Luckmann. 2010. “They don’t want anything to do with you”: Patient views of primary care management of chronic pain. Pain Medicine 11(12):1791-1798. van Middelkoop, M., S. M. Rubinstein, T. Kuijpers, A. P. Verhagen, R. Ostelo, B. W. Koes, and M. W. van Tulder. 2011. A systematic review on the effectiveness of physical and rehabilitation interventions for chronic non-specific low back pain. European Spine Journal 20(1):19-39.

OCR for page 113
176 RELIEVING PAIN IN AMERICA van Tulder, M., A. Malmivaara, J. Hayden, and B. Koes. 2007. Statistical significance versus clini - cal importance: Trials on exercise therapy for chronic low back pain. Spine 32(16):1785-1790. Van Zundert, J., and M. Van Kleef. 2005. Low back pain: From algorithm to cost-effectiveness? Pain Practice 5(3):179-189. VHA (Veterans Health Administration). 1998. VHA pain management strategy. http://www.va.gov/ PAINMANAGEMENT/VHA_Pain_Management_Strategy.asp (accessed June 9, 2011). VHA. 2009. Pain management. VHA Directive No. 2009-053. http://www.va.gov/PAINMANAGEMENT/ docs/VHA09PainDirective.pdf (accessed June 9, 2011). Vetter, T. R. 2007. A primer on health-related quality of life in chronic pain medicine. Anesthesia and Analgesia 104(3):703-718. Vila, H., R. A. Smith, M. J. Augustyniak, P. A. Nagi, R. G. Soto, T. W. Ross, A. B. Cantor, J. M. Strickland, and R. V. Miguel. 2005. The efficacy and safety of pain management before and after implementation of hospital-wide pain management standards: Is patient safety compromised by treatment based solely on numerical pain ratings? Anesthesia and Analgesia 101(2):474-480. von Baeyer, C.L. 2007. Understanding and managing children’s recurrent pain in primary care. Pae- diatrics and Child Health 12(2):121-125. Von Korff, M., J. E. Moore, K. Lorig, D. C. Cherkin, K. Saunders, V. M. González, D. Laurent, C. Rutter, and F. Comite. 1998. A randomized trial of a lay person-led self-management group intervention for back pain patients in primary care. Spine 23(23):2608-2615. Von Korff, M., K. Saunders, G. Thomas Ray, D. Boudreau, C. Campbell, J. Merrill, M. D. Sullivan, C. M. Rutter, M. J. Silverberg, C. Banta-Green, and C. Weisner. 2008. De facto long-term opioid therapy for noncancer pain. Clinical Journal of Pain 24:521-527. Von Roenn, J. H., C. S. Cleeland, R. Gonin, A. K. Hatfield, and K. J. Pandya. 1993. Physician atti- tudes and practice in cancer pain management. Annals of Internal Medicine 119(2):121-126. Vranceanu, A.-M., A. Barsky, and D. Ring. 2009. Psychosocial aspects of disabling musculoskeletal pain. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 91(8):2014-2018. Warsi, A., M. P. LaValley, P. S. Wang, J. Avorn, and D. H. Solomon. 2003. Arthritis self-management education programs: A meta-analysis of the effect on pain and disability. Arthritis & Rheuma- tism 48(8):2207-2213. Wells, R. E., R. S. Phillips, S. C. Schachter, and E. P. McCarthy. 2010. Complementary and alternative medicine use among U.S. adults with common neurological conditions. Journal of Neurology 257(11):1822-1831. Whelan, C. T., M. Ogilvie, L. Jin, and D. O. Meltzer. 2001. Recognizing pain in the JCAHO compliant environment: Are we there yet? http://www.hospitalmedicine.org/AM/Template. cfm?Section=Abstracts&Template=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=5743 (accessed January 27, 2011). The White House. 2011. Epidemic: Responding to America’s prescription drug abuse crisis. http:// www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/pdf/rx_abuse_plan.pdf (accessed April 22, 2011). WHO (World Health Organization). 2011. WHO’s pain ladder: WHO has developed a three-step “ladder” for cancer pain relief. http://www.who.int/cancer/palliative/painladder/en/ (accessed March 7, 2011). Witt, C. M., S. Jena, D. Selim, B. Brinkhaus, T. Reinhold, K. Wruck, B. Liecker, K. Linde, K. Wegscheider, and S. N. Willich. 2006. Pragmatic randomized trial evaluating the clinical and economic effectiveness of acupuncture for chronic low back pain. American Journal of Epide- miology 164(5):487-496. Wu, P. C., C. Lang, N. K. Hasson, S. H. Linder, and D. J. Clark. 2010. Opioid use in young veterans. Journal of Opioid Management 6(2):133-139. Younger, J. W., L. F. Chu, N. T. D’Arcy, K. E. Trott, L. E. Jastrzab, and S. C. Mackey. 2011. Prescrip- tion opioid analgesics rapidly change the human brain. Pain 152(8):1803-1810. Yuan, J., N. Purepong, D. P. Kerr, J. Park, I. Bradbury, and S. McDonough. 2008. Effectiveness of acupuncture for low back pain: A systematic review. Spine 33(23):E887-E900.

OCR for page 113
177 CARE OF PEOPLE WITH PAIN Zagaria, M. A. E. 2008. Consequences of persistent pain. US Pharmacist 33(5):28-30. Zeller, J. L., A. E. Burke, and R. M. Glass. 2008. Acute pain treatment. Journal of the American Medical Association 299(1):128. Zubkoff, L., K. A. Lorenz, A. B. Lanto, C. D. Sherbourne, J. R. Goebel, P. A. Glassman, L. R. Shugarman, L. S. Meredith, and S. M. Asch. 2010. Does screening for pain correspond to high quality care for Veterans? Journal of General Internal Medicine 25(9):889-890.

OCR for page 113