Several strategies were used to identify literature relevant to the committee’s charge. First, a search of bibliographic databases, including MEDLINE and PsycINFO, was conducted to obtain articles from peer-reviewed journals. In addition, WorldCat and the New York Academy of Medicine’s Grey Literature database was searched for books, reports, and other types of grey literature. The searches focused on pain epidemiology, assessment, treatment, education, and training. The keywords used included pain and diagnosis, treatment, management, analgesics, drug prescriptions, complementary therapies, practice patterns, public health, epidemiology, chronic disease, acute pain, communication barriers, physician-patient relations, caregivers, health services accessibility, health knowledge and attitudes, health care delivery, education (medical, continuing, graduate, internship and residency, nursing, pharmacy, psychology, public health professional, nonprofessional, non-medical, professional development, professional standards), curriculum, ethnic groups, population groups, aged, child, cognition disorders, women, sex factors, comorbidity, disparities, racial and ethnic differences, stereotyping, psychology, research (behavioral, biomedical, genetic, translational, interdisciplinary, qualitative, empirical), food and drug administration, department of veterans affairs, military medicine, department of defense, and public-private sector partnerships. Staff sorted through approximately 3,500 articles to identify those that were relevant to the committee’s charge and created an EndNote database. In addition, committee members, meeting participants, and the public submitted articles and reports on these topics. The committee’s database included more than 2,600 relevant articles and reports.


The committee hosted four public meetings to obtain additional information on specific aspects of the study charge. These meetings were held in conjunction with the committee’s November, January, February, and March meetings. The committee determined the topics and speakers for the public meetings. The committee also held open forums at each public meeting at which members of the public were encouraged to provide testimony on any topics related to the study charge.

The first meeting was intended to focus on a discussion of the committee’s task. Representatives from the study’s sponsors reviewed and discussed the charge to the committee. The second meeting focused on data collection on pain and opportunities for public–private partnerships. The third meeting featured speakers who discussed cultural and anthropological views on pain and financing of pain care. The final meeting addressed the basic science of pain and its translation to clinical practice, as well as the regulation of pain drugs. At each meeting, the committee heard testimony and comments from a broad range of stakeholders,

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