American Association of Orthopaedic Medicine, 209

American Back Society, 120

American Board of Anesthesiology, 121, 198

American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS), 198–199, 210

American Board of Pain Medicine (ABPM), 198

American Cancer Society (ACS), 57, 143, 188, 239

American Chronic Pain Association, 34, 189

American College of Emergency Physicians, 203

American Dental Association (ADA), 207

American Diabetes Association, 57

American Geriatrics Society, 143

Foundation for Health in Aging, 189

American Headache Society, 120

American Heart Association, 239

American Holistic Medical Association, 208–209

American Indians, disparities in prevalence and care for, 72–73

American Medical Association (AMA), 120 Pain and Palliative Medicine Specialty Section Council, 191

American Medical Directors Association, 143

American Neurological Association, 199

American Nurses Association (ANA), 203

American Nurses Credentialing Center, 203

American Pain Foundation (APF), 145, 189, 300

American Pain Society, 120, 143, 203

Clinical Centers of Excellence Awards Program, 161

American Physical Therapy Association, 207

American Productivity Audit telephone survey, 86

American Psychological Association (APA), 205–206

Committee on Accreditation, 210

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, 245

American Society for Pain Management Nursing, 120, 203

American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians, 120

American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 120

American Urological Association, 248

Analgesia, 31, 71, 76, 277

Analgesic Clinical Trials, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTION) initiative, 231–232, 246

Anesthetic interventions, for treating people with pain, regional, 131

Anger, 4, 42

Annex 5-1. See “Mechanisms, Models, Measurement, and Management in Pain Research Funding Opportunity Announcement” Antianxiety medication, 78

Anxiety, 4, 41

Arthritis, improvements in, 118

Asian Americans

disparities in prevalence and care for, 71–72, 310

language problems for, 65

Assessment

dimensions of pain, 236–237

ongoing, and monitoring of pain and pain-related states, 238

of pain, 8, 138, 164–165, 262–263

of psychological traits and states related to pain adjustment, 237–238

Assistance with Pain Treatment, 122

Association of American Medical Colleges, 194

Australia

national cost of pain in, 92–93

public education campaign on low back pain, 97, 185–186

Avoidance, about pain, 88

B

Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ), 185–186

Barriers to effective pain care, 8–9, 152–157

cultural attitudes of patients, 156–157

geographic barriers, 157

insurance coverage, 156

magnitude of the problem, 9, 153

provider attitudes and training, 153–156

regulatory barriers, 157

written public testimony on, 294

Barriers to improving pain care

clinician-level barriers, 45–46

overview of, 45–47



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