APPENDIX B

BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION

Speakers

NEAL LANE (Co-Chair) is the Malcolm Gillis University Professor at Rice University in Houston, Texas. He also holds appointments as senior fellow of the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, where he is engaged in matters of science and technology policy, and in the Department of Physics and Astronomy. Lane served in the federal government during the Clinton administration as assistant to the president for science and technology and director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) from August 1998 to January 2001, and as director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) and member (ex officio) of the National Science Board from October 1993 to August 1998. Before becoming the NSF director, Lane was provost and professor of physics at Rice University, a position he had held since 1986. He first came to Rice in 1966, when he joined the Department of Physics as an assistant professor. In 1972, he became professor of physics and space physics and astronomy. Lane has received numerous prizes and awards, including the AAAS Philip Hauge Abelson Award, AAAS William D. Carey Award, American Society of Mechanical Engineers President’s Award, American Chemical Society Public Service Award, American Astronomical Society/American Mathematical Society/American Physical Society Public Service Award, NASA Distinguished Service Award, Council of Science Societies Presidents Support of Science Award, Distinguished Alumni Award of the University of Oklahoma, the National Academy of Sciences Public Welfare Medal, the American Institute of Physics K.T. Compton Medal for Leadership in Physics and the Association of Rice Alumni Gold Medal for service to Rice University. Lane earned his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. (1964) degrees in physics from the University of Oklahoma.

BRONWYN HALL (Co-Chair) is Professor in the Graduate School at the University of California at Berkeley and Professor of Economics of



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APPENDIX B BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION Speakers NEAL LANE (Co-Chair) is the Malcolm Gillis University Professor at Rice University in Houston, Texas. He also holds appointments as senior fellow of the James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, where he is engaged in matters of science and technology policy, and in the Department of Physics and Astronomy. Lane served in the federal government during the Clinton administration as assistant to the president for science and technology and director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) from August 1998 to January 2001, and as director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) and member (ex officio) of the National Science Board from October 1993 to August 1998. Before becoming the NSF director, Lane was provost and professor of physics at Rice University, a position he had held since 1986. He first came to Rice in 1966, when he joined the Department of Physics as an assistant professor. In 1972, he became professor of physics and space physics and astronomy. Lane has received numerous prizes and awards, including the AAAS Philip Hauge Abelson Award, AAAS William D. Carey Award, American Society of Mechanical Engineers President’s Award, American Chemical Society Public Service Award, American Astronomical Society/American Mathematical Society/American Physical Society Public Service Award, NASA Distinguished Service Award, Council of Science Societies Presidents Support of Science Award, Distinguished Alumni Award of the University of Oklahoma, the National Academy of Sciences Public Welfare Medal, the American Institute of Physics K.T. Compton Medal for Leadership in Physics and the Association of Rice Alumni Gold Medal for service to Rice University. Lane earned his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. (1964) degrees in physics from the University of Oklahoma. BRONWYN HALL (Co-Chair) is Professor in the Graduate School at the University of California at Berkeley and Professor of Economics of 99

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100 MEASURING THE IMPACTS OF FEDERAL INVESTMENTS IN RESEARCH Technology and Innovation at the University of Maastricht, Netherlands. She is a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research and the Institute for Fiscal Studies, London. She is also the founder and partner of TSP International, an econometric software firm. She received a B.A. in physics from Wellesley College in 1966 and a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University in 1988. Professor Hall has published articles on the economics and econometrics of technical change, comparative analysis of the U.S. and European patent systems, the use of patent citation data for the valuation of intangible (knowledge) assets, comparative firm-level investment and innovation studies (the G- 7 economies), measuring the returns to R and D and innovation at the firm level, analysis of technology policies such as R and D subsidies and tax incentives, and of recent changes in patenting behavior in the semiconductor and computer industries. She has also made substantial contributions to applied economic research via the creation of software for econometric estimation and of firm-level datasets for the study of innovation, including the widely used NBER dataset for U.S. patents. She is a member of the U.S. Federal Economic Statistics Advisory Committee, and the Research Advisory Councils of the Deutsche Bundesbank, Innovation Research Centre (University of Cambridge and Imperial College) and Solvay Business School (Brussels). She is also a past member of the Expert Group on Knowledge for Growth at the European Commission, and the Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) Board of the National Research Council. STEFANO BERTUZZI is a Health Science Policy Analyst at the National Institutes of Health, Office of the Director. Bertuzzi is responsible for the NIH Return on Investment Program, in the Office of Science Policy, Office of the NIH Director, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In this position, Bertuzzi advises the NIH Director on a wide range of health science policy matters related to the impact of biomedical research on knowledge generation, health, wealth, and national competitiveness. Bertuzzi is the NIH lead for the STAR Metrics Project, which under the auspices of the White House Office of Science Technology and Policy aims at developing a novel infrastructure to capture the impact of federal R and D investments. Bertuzzi received his Ph.D. in Molecular Biotechnology at the Catholic University of Milan, Italy, and after postdoctoral training in the Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology at the Salk Institute in San Diego, CA., became a tenured Associate Professor at the Dulbecco Telethon Institute in Milan, Italy.

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101 APPENDIX B RICHARD BROGLIE is Director of Research Strategy at DuPont Agricultural Biotechnology. He has a long history of research management in DuPont/Pioneer including trait discovery programs in the areas of improved soybean and canola oils and disease resistance in corn, soybean, wheat and rice. Currently he is responsible for agricultural biotechnology research programs in India, China, and Brazil as well as for the establishment of strategic public-private sector partnerships in these regions. Broglie received his Ph.D. in Microbiology from Rutgers University and served as both Postdoctoral Fellow and Assistant Professor at The Rockefeller University before joining DuPont in 1985. ANTHONY CARNEVALE is the Director of the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce. Between 1996 and 2006, Carnevale served as Vice-President for Public Leadership at the Educational Testing Service (ETS). While at ETS, Carnevale was appointed by President George Bush to serve on the White House Commission on Technology and Adult Education. Before joining ETS, Carnevale was Director of Human Resource and Employment Studies at the Committee for Economic Development (CED). While at CED, Carnevale was appointed by President Clinton to Chair the National Commission on Employment Policy. Carnevale was the founder and President of the Institute for Workplace Learning (IWL) between 1983 and 1993. While at the IWL, Carnevale was appointed by President Reagan to chair the human resources subcommittee on the White House Commission on Productivity between 1982 and 1984. Earlier, he was a senior staff member in both houses of the U.S. Congress. In 1993, President Clinton appointed Carnevale as chairman of the National Commission for Employment Policy. Carnevale received his B.A. from Colby College and his Ph.D. in public finance economics from the Maxwell School at Syracuse University. PAUL CITRON is retired Vice President of Technology Policy and Academic Relations at Medtronic, Inc. Citron joined Medtronic in 1972 and worked in various positions until he retired in December 2003—Vice President of Science and Technology (1988-2002), Vice President, Ventures Technology (1985-1988), Vice President, Applied Concepts Research (1982-1985), Director, Applied Concepts Research (1979- 1982), Design and Staff Engineer, Project and Program Manager (1972- 1979). Citron was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2003, was elected Founding Fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE) in January 1993, has twice won the American College of Cardiology Governor's Award for Excellence

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102 MEASURING THE IMPACTS OF FEDERAL INVESTMENTS IN RESEARCH and, in 1980, was inducted as a Fellow of the Medtronic Bakken Society. He was voted IEEE Young Electrical Engineer of the Year in 1979. He has authored many publications and holds several medical device pacing- related patents. In 1980 he was presented with Medtronic's "Invention of Distinction" award for his role as the co-inventor of the tined pacing lead. Citron received a B.S. in electrical engineering from Drexel University in 1969 and an M.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Minnesota in 1972. CAROL CORRADO is senior advisor and research director in economics at The Conference Board. In addition, Corrado is a senior fellow of the Georgetown University Center for Business and Public Policy, and a member of the executive committee of the National Bureau of Economic Research’s (NBER) Conference on Research on Income and Wealth. Corrado has authored key papers on the macroeconomic analysis of intangible investment and capital, including one that won the International Association of Research on Income and Wealth’s 2010 Kendrick Prize (“Intangible Capital and U.S. Economic Growth”) and one that appears in Measuring Capital in the New Economy (University of Chicago Press, 2005), a volume she co-edited. Previously, she was chief of the industrial output section at the Federal Reserve Board. Corrado received the American Statistical Association’s prestigious Julius Shiskin Award for Economic Statistics in 2003 in recognition of her leadership in these areas and received a Special Achievement Award from the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in 1998. She holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Pennsylvania and a B.S. in management science from Carnegie-Mellon University. JAMES EVANS is Assistant Professor of Sociology and Fellow at the Computation Institute at the University of Chicago. Before coming to Chicago, he received his doctorate in sociology from Stanford University, served as a research associate in the Negotiation, Organizations, and Markets group at Harvard Business School, started a private high school in Utah focused on project-based arts education, and completed a B. A. in Anthropology from Brigham Young University. His current work explores how social and technical institutions shape knowledge—science, scholarship, law, news, religion—and how these understandings reshape the social and technical world. IRWIN FELLER is senior visiting scientist at the American Association for the Advancement of Science and professor emeritus of economics at the Pennsylvania State University, where he has been on

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103 APPENDIX B the faculty since 1963. Feller's long-time research interests include the economics of academic research, the university's role in technology- based economic development, and the evaluation of federal and state technology programs. He is the author of Universities and State Governments: A Study in Policy Analysis (Praeger Publishers, 1986) and many refereed journal articles. He has been a consultant to the President's Office of Science and Technology Policy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government, the Ford Foundation, National Science Foundation, National Institute of Standards and Technology, COSMOS Corporation, SRI International, U.S. General Accounting Office, and the U.S. Departments of Education and Energy, among others. IAN FOSTER is Arthur Holly Compton Distinguished Service Professor, Department of Computer Science, and Chan Soon-Shiong Scholor at University of Chicago. He is the Associate Division Director for Mathematics and Computer Science at Argonne National Laboratory and oversees the Distributed Systems Laboratory, which operates at both the University of Chicago and at Argonne National Laboratory. Foster’s honors include the Lovelace Medal of the British Computer Society, the Gordon Bell Prize for high-performance supercomputing and an honorary doctorate from the Mexican Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute. RICHARD FREEMAN holds the Herbert Ascherman Chair in Economics at Harvard University. He is currently serving as faculty co- director of the Labor and Worklife Program at the Harvard Law School. He directs the National Bureau of Economic Research / Sloan Science Engineering Workforce Projects, and is Senior Research Fellow in Labour Markets at the London School of Economics' Centre for Economic Performance. Freeman is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Science. Freeman received the Mincer Lifetime Achievement Prize from the Society of Labor Economics in 2006. In 2007 he was awarded the IZA Prize in Labor Economics. In 2011 he was appointed Frances Perkins Fellow of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. WILL FRIEDMAN joined Public Agenda in 1994, became associate director of research in 1996, and was the founding director of its public engagement department in 1997. In January 2011, he became president of Public Agenda. Friedman has overseen Public Agenda's expanding stream of work aimed at helping communities and states build capacity

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104 MEASURING THE IMPACTS OF FEDERAL INVESTMENTS IN RESEARCH to tackle tough issues in more deliberative and collaborative ways. In 2007, he established Public Agenda's Center for Advances in Public Engagement (CAPE), which conducts action research to assess impacts and improve practice. He is also the co-editor, with Public Agenda chairman and co-founder Daniel Yankelovich, of the book, Toward Wiser Public Judgment, published in February 2011 by Vanderbilt University Press. Previously, Friedman was senior vice president for policy studies at the Work in America Institute, where he directed research and special projects on workplace issues. He was also an adjunct lecturer in political science at Lehman College, a research fellow at the Samuels Center for State and Local Politics, and a practitioner in the field of counseling psychology. He holds a Ph.D. in political science with specializations in political psychology and American politics. DAVID GOLDSTON is Director of Government Affairs at the Natural Resources Defense Council in Washington, DC. Previously, Goldston served for six years as Chief of Staff of the House Committee on Science under Chairman Sherwood Boehlert of New York (2001-2006). Prior to becoming Chief of Staff, Goldston was Boehlert’s legislative director during the years when Boehlert led a coalition of moderate Republicans that was pivotal in blocking environmental rollbacks. In that role, Goldston played a part in debates on a wide range of environmental issues, including clean air, forestry and endangered species. Goldston retired from the Congressional staff at the end of 2006 and has taught at Princeton and Harvard. He was also a monthly columnist on science policy issues for the journal Nature. Goldston graduated magna cum laude with a B.A. in American history from Cornell University in 1978. He completed the course work for a Ph.D. in American history at the University of Pennsylvania in 1993. LAURA GUAY is Vice President of Research at the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation. She is also a research professor at the George Washington University (GWU) School of Public Health and Health Services. She received her M.D. from GWU in 1985, and went on to a pediatrics residency at Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital and Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. Guay was a visiting lecturer at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda from 1988 to 1991, and then returned to CWRU to complete her fellowship in pediatric infectious diseases. She then spent seven more years in Uganda, where she worked on the landmark HIVNET 012 trial, which determined the effectiveness of single-dose nevirapine in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Prior to joining GWU,

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105 APPENDIX B Guay was a member of the faculty at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Most recently, her research has focused on reducing the rate of HIV transmission in breast-feeding infants and on the testing of an HIV vaccine in infants. RUSH HOLT has represented central New Jersey in Congress since 1999. He earned his B.A. in Physics from Carleton College in Minnesota and completed his M.S. and Ph.D. at New York University. He has held positions as a teacher, Congressional Science Fellow, and arms control expert at the U.S. State Department where he monitored the nuclear programs of countries such as Iraq, Iran, North Korea, and the former Soviet Union. From 1989 until he ran for congress in 1998, Holt was Assistant Director of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the largest research facility of Princeton University and the largest center for research in alternative energy in New Jersey. He has conducted extensive research on alternative energy and has his own patent for a solar energy device. In Congress Holt serves on the Committee on Education and the Workforce and the Committee on Natural Resources, where he serves as the ranking member on the Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources. From 2007 to 2010, Holt was the Chairman of the Select Intelligence Oversight Panel. ADAM JAFFE, the Fred C. Hecht Professor in Economics, has served as dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Brandeis University since 2003. He has also held the position of chair of the economics department at Brandeis. Prior to joining the university in 1993, Jaffe was an assistant and associate professor at Harvard University and a senior staff economist at the President’s Council of Economic Advisers. Jaffe’s research focuses on the economics of innovation. His book Innovation and Its Discontents: How Our Broken Patent System is Endangering Innovation and Progress, and What to Do About It, co-authored with Josh Lerner was released in paperback in 2006. Jaffe earned a Ph.D. in economics at Harvard and an S.M. in technology and policy and an S.B. in chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. JULIA LANE is the Program Director of the Science of Science and Innovation Policy program at the National Science Foundation. Her previous jobs included Senior Vice President and Director, Economics Department at NORC/University of Chicago, Director of the Employment Dynamics Program at the Urban Institute, Senior Research Fellow at the U.S. Census Bureau and Assistant, Associate and Full Professor at American University. She became an American Statistical

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106 MEASURING THE IMPACTS OF FEDERAL INVESTMENTS IN RESEARCH Association Fellow in 2009. She is one of the founders of the LEHD program at the Census Bureau, which is the first large scale linked employer-employee dataset in the United States. A native of England who grew up in New Zealand, Julia has worked in Australia, Germany, Malaysia, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, Namibia, Sweden, and Tunisia. Her undergraduate degree was in Economics with a minor in Japanese from Massey University in New Zealand; her M.A. in Statistics and Ph.D. in Economics are from the University of Missouri in Columbia. KAI LEE joined the David and Lucile Packard Foundation in 2007 as program officer with the Conservation and Science Program, where he is responsible for the science subprogram. Before joining the Foundation, Kai taught at Williams College from 1991 through 2007, and he is now the Rosenburg Professor of Environmental Studies, emeritus. He directed the Center for Environmental Studies at Williams from 1991–1998 and 2001–2002. Lee also taught from 1973 to 1991 at the University of Washington in Seattle. He holds a Ph.D. in physics from Princeton University and an A.B., magna cum laude, in physics, from Columbia University. He is the author of Compass and Gyroscope (1993). He is a member of the National Academies Roundtable on Science and Technology for a Sustainability Transition, and served most recently as vice-chair of the National Academies panel that wrote Informing Decisions in a Changing Climate (2009). Earlier, Lee had been a White House Fellow and represented the state of Washington as a member of the Northwest Power Planning Council. He was appointed in 2009 to the Science Advisory Board of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. GARRY NEIL is the Corporate Vice President of Johnson and Johnson where he has held a number of senior positions within J and J, most recently Group President, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development . Under his leadership a number of important new medicines for the treatment of cancer, anemia, infections, central nervous system and psychiatric disorders, pain, and genitourinary and gastrointestinal diseases, gained initial or new and/or expanded indication approvals. Before joining J and JPRD, Neil held senior-level positions with Astra Merck Inc., Astra Pharmaceuticals, Astra Zeneca and Merck KGaA. He has also held a number of academic posts at a number of academic institutes including the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, the University of Toronto, the University of Iowa College of Medicine and the University of Pennsylvania (adjunct). He holds a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Saskatchewan and a

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107 APPENDIX B medical degree from the University of Saskatchewan College of Medicine and completed his postdoctoral clinical training in internal medicine and gastroenterology at the University of Toronto. PRABHU PINGALI is the Deputy Director of Agricultural Development at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Formerly, he served as Director of the Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Pingali was elected to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences as a Foreign Associate in May 2007, and he was elected Fellow of the American Agricultural Economics Association in 2006. Pingali was the President of the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE) from 2003-06. Pingali has over twenty five years of experience in assessing the extent and impact of technical change in agriculture in developing countries, including Asia, Africa and Latin America. From 1996-2002 he was Director of the Economics Program at Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, Mexico. Prior to joining CIMMYT, from 1987 to 1996, he worked as an Agricultural Economist at the International Rice Research Institute at Los Baños, Philippines. Prior to that, he worked from 1982-1987 as an economist at the World Bank’s Agriculture and Rural Development Department. He has received several international awards for his work, including two from the American Agricultural Economics Association: Quality of Research Discovery Award in 1988 and Outstanding Journal Article of the Year (Honorable Mention) in 1995. An Indian national, he earned a Ph.D. in Economics from North Carolina State University in 1982. MICHAEL ROACH is Assistant Professor of Strategy and Entrepreneurship, Kenan-Flagler Business School at the University of North Carolina. Roach examines the sources and mechanisms by which firms utilize extramural knowledge in their innovative actives. In particular, his current research investigates how firms use university research in R and D activities and the subsequent impact of these knowledge flows on innovative performance. He also investigates how firms manage and protect intellectual capital, particularly through the strategic use and enforcement of patents. He teaches courses in entrepreneurial strategy, technological innovation and the management of intellectual capital. Roach was an entrepreneur before he became a professor. While in high school he co-founded a software start-up that specialized in the development of interactive educational programs for corporate executives and health care professionals. He also developed applications for handheld devices, including a system to aid primary

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108 MEASURING THE IMPACTS OF FEDERAL INVESTMENTS IN RESEARCH health care workers in the diagnosis of communicable diseases. He received his Ph.D. in strategy from Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business and his B.B.A. in decision sciences from Georgia State University’s J. Mack Robinson College of Business. MICHAEL ROBERTS is Assistant Professor of Agricultural and Resource Economics at North Carolina State University. Before joining the faculty at NCSU, Roberts worked for USDA’s Economic Research Service. His research focuses on the intersection of agricultural and environmental economics. He has published papers on the effects of U.S. agricultural policies on production, land use, and the size of farms. Since leaving USDA, Roberts’ research has focused increasingly on the potential effects of climate change on production of staple food grains and how biofuel growth has contributed to rising world food prices and food price variability. Roberts is also doing research on the design of procurement auctions, with an eye toward finding simple and cost- effective ways to buy environmental services like carbon sequestration from farmers and landowners. BHAVEN SAMPAT is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at Columbia's Mailman School of Public Health. He also holds a courtesy affiliation with Columbia's School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA). An economist by training, Sampat is interested in issues at the intersection of health policy and innovation policy. His current projects examine the impacts of new global patent laws on innovation and access to medicines in developing countries, the political economy of the National Institutes of Health, the roles of the public and private sectors in pharmaceutical innovation, and institutional aspects of patent systems. Sampat has also written extensively on the effects of university patenting and entrepreneurship on academic medicine, and is actively involved in policy debates related to these issues. Sampat was previously an Assistant Professor at the School of Public Policy at Georgia Tech, where he won the “Faculty Member of the Year” teaching award in 2001-2002 and in 2002-2003. From 2003 to 2005 he was a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Scholar in Health Policy Research at the University of Michigan. He is recipient of a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation "Investigator Award" to study how the NIH allocates its funds across disease areas. MARCIO DE MIRANDA SANTOS is Executive Director of the Centre for Strategic Management and Studies in Science, Technology and Innovation and Chair of the Board of Trustees of the Center of

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109 APPENDIX B Reference on Environmental Information in Brazil. He received his M.Sc in Genetics and Plant Breeding and Ph.D. in Biochemical Genetics. He is also a former Visiting Scholar at Harvard University (1995-1997), where he studied the impacts of intellectual property rights regimes on the access and ownership of plant genetic resources utilized in food production and in other agriculture production systems. His major former professional appointments include: Director General, National Center for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (1991-1995); Head, Brazilian Corporation for Agricultural Research (Embrapa) Department for Research and Development (1997-1999); Member and Chair of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute Board of Trustees (1995- 2002); Acting Director of Embrapa (1994-1995); and Professor of Evolutionary Biology, Catholic University of Brasilia (2000 to 2003). Santos was recently appointed as a member of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research Independent Scientific and Partnership Council. DANIEL SAREWITZ is Professor of Science and Society at Arizona State University. Sarewitz’s work focuses on understanding the connections between scientific research and social benefit, and on developing methods and policies to strengthen such connections. His most recent book is Living with the Genie: Essays on Technology and the Quest for Human Mastery (co-edited with Alan Lightman and Christina Desser; Island Press, 2003). He is also the co-editor of Prediction: Science, Decision-Making, and the Future of Nature (Island Press, 2000) and the author of Frontiers of Illusion: Science, Technology, and the Politics of Progress (Temple University Press, 1996). Prior to taking up his current position as director of the Center for Science, Policy, and Outcomes, he was the director of the Geological Society of America's Institute for Environmental Education. From 1989-1993 he worked on Capitol Hill, first as a Congressional Science Fellow, and then as science consultant to the House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, where he was also principal speech writer for Committee Chairman George E. Brown, Jr. Before moving into the policy arena he was a research associate in the Department of Geological Sciences at Cornell University, with field areas in the Philippines, Argentina, and Tajikistan. He received his Ph.D. in geological sciences from Cornell University in 1986. HENRY SAUERMANN is Assistant Professor of Strategic Management at the Georgia Institute of Technology and holds a Ph.D. in Business Administration from Duke University. Dr. Sauermann’s work

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110 MEASURING THE IMPACTS OF FEDERAL INVESTMENTS IN RESEARCH examines the role of individuals’ motives and incentives in shaping innovative activities and performance in organizations. One stream of his research examines the nature of scientists’ pecuniary and nonpecuniary motives. This research also compares individuals’ motives across organizational contexts and relates them to outcomes such as innovative performance in firms or patenting in academia. Another line of his work focuses on the goals and career choices of junior scientists and on the functioning of scientific labor markets. BRIAN SLOAN is a senior policy analyst at the Research and Innovation Directorate General of the European Commission. A statistician by training, he started his career at the Commission in 1987 in Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union. Since 1992 he has worked in the Commission department dealing with research policy and funding, where he has specialized in ex-post and ex-ante evaluation, and in the analysis and development of science and technology indicators. ALFRED SPECTOR is Vice President for Research and Special Initiatives at Google, and is responsible for the research across Google and also a growing collection projects of strategic value to the company but somewhat outside the mainstream of current products. Previously, Spector was Vice President of Strategy and Technology IBM's Software Business, and prior to that, he was Vice President of Services and Software Research across IBM. He was also founder and CEO of Transarc Corporation, a pioneer in distributed transaction processing and wide area file systems, and was an Associate Professor of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University, specializing in highly reliable, highly scalable distributed computing. Spector received his Ph.D. in Computer Science from Stanford and his A.B. in Applied Mathematics from Harvard. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a Fellow of the IEEE and ACM, and the recipient of the 2001 IEEE Computer Society's Tsutomu Kanai Award for work in scalable architectures and distributed systems. JOHN STASKO joined the faculty at Georgia Tech in 1989, and is presently the Associate Chair of the School of Interactive Computing and Director of the Information Interfaces Research Group in the College of Computing. His primary research area is human-computer interaction, with a focus on information visualization and visual analytics. Stasko is also a faculty investigator in the Department of Homeland Security's VACCINE Center of Excellence focusing on developing visual analytics technologies and solutions for grand challenge problems in homeland

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111 APPENDIX B security, and in the NSF FODAVA Center exploring the foundations of data analysis and visual analytics. He received the B.S. degree in Mathematics at Bucknell University in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania (1983) and Sc.M. and Ph.D. degrees in Computer Science at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island (1985 and 1989). PAULA STEPHAN is a Professor of Economics, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, at Georgia State University and served as the founding associate dean of the school from 1996-2001. Her research interests focus on the careers of scientists and engineers and the process by which knowledge moves across institutional boundaries in the economy. Stephan‘s research has been supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Andrew Mellon Foundation, the Exxon Education Foundation, the National Science Foundation, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the U.S. Department of Labor. She has served on several National Research Council committees, is a regular participant in the National Bureau of Economics Research’s meetings in Higher Education, and is a participant in the Science and Engineering Workforce Project based at the National Bureau of Economic Research. She currently is serving a three-year term as a member of the Advisory Board for the Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences at the National Science Foundation. Dr. Stephan graduated from Grinnell College (Phi Beta Kappa) with a B.A. in Economics and earned both her M.A. and Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Michigan. Stephan coauthored with Sharon Levin Striking the Mother Lode in Science, published by Oxford University Press, 1992. Dr. Stephan has lectured extensively in Europe. She was a visiting scholar at the Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung, Germany, intermittently during the period 1992-1995. SUBRA SURESH is the 13th director of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Prior to his confirmation as NSF director, Suresh served as Dean of the Engineering School and Vannevar Bush Professor of Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He joined MIT's faculty ranks in 1993 as the R.P. Simmons Professor of Materials Science and Engineering. During his more than 30 years as a practicing engineer, he held joint faculty positions in four departments at MIT as well as appointments at the University of California at Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Brown University. Suresh has received many awards for his innovative research and commitment to improving engineering education around the world. Suresh is a co- inventor in more than 18 U.S. and international patent applications. He is

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112 MEASURING THE IMPACTS OF FEDERAL INVESTMENTS IN RESEARCH author or co-author of several books that are widely used in materials science and engineering, including Fatigue of Materials and Thin Film Materials. He has consulted with more than 20 international corporations and research laboratories and served as a member of several international advisory panels and non-profit groups. Suresh has been elected to the U.S. National Academy of Engineering, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Spanish Royal Academy of Sciences, German National Academy of Sciences, Academy of Sciences of the Developing World, Indian National Academy of Engineering and Indian Academy of Sciences. He earned his bachelor's degree from the Indian Institute of Technology in Madras in 1977, his master's from Iowa State University in 1979, and his doctorate from MIT in 1981. MICHAEL TURNER is Bruce V. and Diana M. Rauner Distinguished Service Professor and Chair of the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics at the University of Chicago. He also holds appointments in the Department of Physics and Enrico Fermi Institute at Chicago and is member of the scientific staff at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Turner received his B.S. in Physics from the California Institute of Technology (1971) and his Ph.D. in Physics from Stanford University (1978). His association with the University of Chicago began in 1978 as an Enrico Fermi Fellow and in 1980 he joined the faculty. Since 1979 Turner has been involved in the Aspen Center for Physics and served as its President from 1989 to 1993. From 2003 to 2005, Turner served as the Assistant Director of the National Science Foundation’s Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences. Turner is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. He serves a member of the National Academies’ Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. Turner’s research interests are in theoretical astrophysics, cosmology, and elementary particle physics. He has made important contributions to inflationary Universe theory and understanding of dark matter. RICHARD VAN ATTA is Senior Research Analyst at the Science and Technology Policy Institute (STPI). He came to STPI from the research staff of IDA’s Studies and Analyses Center. His recent work has focused on advanced manufacturing issues and policies for effectively developing emerging technologies. Before joining IDA, he taught courses in national security and policy analysis at the American University’s School of International Service, followed by several years of private consulting. From 1993 to 1998, Van Atta worked at the Department of Defense, first

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113 APPENDIX B as Special Assistant for Dual Use Technology Policy and then as Assistant Deputy Under Secretary for Dual Use and Commercial Programs. Van Atta holds a BA in political science from the University of California, Santa Barbara, and a Ph.D. in political science from Indiana University. IAN VINEY is Head of Strategic Evaluation at the Medical Research Council Head Office, United Kingdom. He gained a Ph.D. in genetics from Cambridge University in 1995. After a postdoctoral project at Imperial College he joined the MRC Head Office. Between 1998 and 2003, Viney worked as Research Programme Manager for genetics, and then Head of the Molecular and Cellular Medicine Board group. From 2003 to 2007 he was head of the MRC’s Administrative Centre in London, working closely with MRC funded researchers at institutions across London on finance, personnel and strategic matters. ERIC WARD is President of Two Blades Foundation, and was most recently CEO of Cropsolution, Inc., a crop protection chemical discovery company. Prior to that, he was Co-President of Novartis (now Syngenta) Agribusiness Biotechnology Research, where he was responsible for a staff of 270, including researchers and all administrative functions, including finance, patents, business development, public affairs, human resources, and facilities. Simultaneously, he was head of target discovery for Novartis Crop Protection AG, where he implemented a fully integrated agricultural chemical lead discovery program based on proprietary molecular targets. This program relied on extensive interactions with biotech firms and academic labs. Prior to that, he was a Research Director for the Novartis herbicide business unit, during which time his team invented Acuron™ herbicide tolerance technology, developed corn and sugar beet varieties engineered with the Acuron™ gene, and built the patent strategy to protect the technology. In 1994-5, he worked in Basel, Switzerland as a project leader for Ciba Crop Protection in the Weed Control business unit. He received his Ph.D. in plant biology from Washington University in St. Louis in 1988, where he was a graduate fellow of the National Science Foundation. He received his B.S in biology magna cum laude from Duke University in 1982. BRUCE WEINBERG received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1996 before joining the faculty at the Ohio State University, where he is now Professor of Economics and Public Administration. He has held visiting positions at the Hoover Institution at Stanford, the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), the Kennedy School of

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114 MEASURING THE IMPACTS OF FEDERAL INVESTMENTS IN RESEARCH Government at Harvard; and the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. He is a Research Associate at the NBER and a Research Fellow at the Institute for Labor (IZA), Bonn. He is an associate editor of the New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and Regional Science and Urban Economics and currently serves as Director of Undergraduate Studies in Economics at the Ohio State University. His research has been supported by the Federal Reserve, the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Templeton Foundation. CATHERINE WOTEKI is the Under Secretary for Agriculture for Research, Education and Economics at the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Woteki served as Global Director of Scientific Affairs for Mars, Incorporated, where she manages the company’s scientific policy and research on matters of health, nutrition, and food safety. From 2002-2005, she was Dean of Agriculture and Professor of Human Nutrition at Iowa State University. Woteki served as the first Under Secretary for Food Safety at USDA from 1997-2001, where she oversaw U.S. Government food safety policy development and USDA’s continuity of operations planning. Woteki also served as the Deputy Under Secretary for Research, Education and Economics at USDA in 1996. Prior to going to USDA, Dr. Woteki served in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy as Deputy Associate Director for Science from 1994-1996. Woteki has also held positions in the National Center for Health Statistics of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1983-1990), the Human Nutrition Information Service at USDA (1981-1983), and as Director of the Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences (1990-1993). In 1999, Woteki was elected to the Institute of Medicine, where she chaired the Food and Nutrition Board (2003-2005). She received her M.S. and Ph.D. in Human Nutrition from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (1974), and a B.S. in Chemistry from Mary Washington College (1969). LYNNE ZUCKER is a Professor of Sociology and Policy Studies, and Director of the Center for International Science, Technology and Cultural Policy in the School of Public Policy and Social Research at the University of California, Los Angeles. Concurrently, she holds appointments as Research Associate with the National Bureau of Economic Research, and was previously a consulting sociologist with the American Institute of Physics. Zucker is the author of four books and monographs as well as numerous journal and other articles on organizational theory, analysis, and evaluation, institutional structure and

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115 APPENDIX B process, trust production, civil service, government spending and services, unionization, science and its commercialization, and permanently failing organizations. Zucker received her A.B. with Distinction in Sociology and Psychology from Wells College in 1966. She received her M.A. in 1969 and Ph.D. in 1974 from the Sociology Department of Stanford University. Staff STEPHEN MERRILL (Project Director) has been executive director of the National Academies’ Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) since its formation in 1991. Dr. Merrill has directed many STEP projects and publications, including Investing for Productivity and Prosperity (1994); Improving America’s Schools (1995); Industrial Research and Innovation Indicators (1997); U.S. Industry in 2000: Studies in Competitive Performance and Securing America’s Industrial Strength (1999); Trends in Federal Support of Research and Graduate Education (2001), A Patent System for the 21st Century (2004), Innovation Inducement Prizes (2007), Innovation in Global Industries (2008), and Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest (2010). For his work on patent reform he was recognized as one of the 50 leading world intellectual property experts by Managing Intellectual Property magazine and awarded the National Academies’ 2005 Distinguished Service Award. Dr. Merrill’s association with the National Academies began in 1985, when he was principal consultant on the report, Balancing the National Interest: National Security Export Controls and Global Economic Competition. In 1987 he was appointed to direct the National Academies’ first government and congressional liaison office. Previously, Dr. Merrill was a Fellow in International Business at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), where he specialized in technology trade issues. For seven years until 1981, he served on various congressional staffs, the last four years on that of the Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee. Dr. Merrill holds degrees in political science from Columbia (B.A., summa cum laude), Oxford (M. Phil.), and Yale (M.A. and Ph.D.) Universities. In 1992 he attended the Senior Managers in Government Program of the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. From 1989 to 1996 he was an adjunct professor of international affairs at Georgetown University. KEVIN FINNERAN is director of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, a joint unit of the National Academy of

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116 MEASURING THE IMPACTS OF FEDERAL INVESTMENTS IN RESEARCH Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. He has been editor-in-chief of Issues in Science and Technology since 1991. Earlier he was Washington editor of High Technology magazine, a correspondent for the London Financial Times energy newsletters, and a consultant on science and technology policy. His clients included the National Science Foundation, the Office of Technology Assessment, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Before launching his career in science and technology policy, he taught literature and film studies at Rutgers University. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the author of The Federal Role in Research and Development (1985), and a contributing author to Future R and D Environments: A Report to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (2002). GURUPRASAD MADHAVAN is a program officer for the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy and the Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice at the National Academies. He has worked on such National Academies’ publications as Rising Above the Gathering Storm, Revisited: Now Approaching Category 5; The Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence (Third Edition); Managing University Intellectual Property in the Public Interest; and Direct-to- Consumer Genetic Testing. Madhavan received his B.E. (honors with distinction) in instrumentation and control engineering from the University of Madras, and his M.S. in biomedical engineering from State University of New York (SUNY) at Stony Brook. Following his medical device industry experience as a research scientist at AFx, Inc. and Guidant Corporation in California, Madhavan received an M.B.A., and a Ph.D. in biomedical engineering from SUNY Binghamton. Among other awards and honors, Madhavan was selected as one among 14 people as the “New Faces of Engineering” in the USA Today in 2009. He serves on the administrative council of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering. Madhavan is co-editor of Career Development in Bioengineering and Biotechnology (Springer), Pathological Altruism (Oxford University Press), and Practicing Sustainability (Springer). STEVE OLSON has been a consultant writer for the National Academies, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Institute for Genomic Research, and many other organizations. From

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117 APPENDIX B 1989 through 1992 he served as Special Assistant for Communications in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. Olson is the author of Mapping Human History: Genes, Race, and Our Common Origins (Houghton Mifflin), which was one of five finalists for the 2002 nonfiction National Book Award and received the Science-in-Society Award from the National Association of Science Writers. His book, Count Down: Six Kids Vie for Glory at the World’s Toughest Math Competition (Houghton Mifflin), was named a best science book of 2004 by Discover magazine. His most recent book, cowritten with Greg Graffin, is Anarchy Evolution (HarperCollins). He has written several other books, including Evolution in Hawaii and Biotechnology: An Industry Comes of Age. He earned a bachelor’s degree in physics from Yale University.

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