WHO World Health Organization
WIC Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children
WTP Willingness-to-pay


Added sugars

Sugars eaten separately or used as ingredients in processed or prepared foods, such as white sugar, brown sugar, raw sugar, corn syrup, corn syrup solids, high-fructose corn syrup, malt syrup, maple syrup, pancake syrup, fructose sweetener, liquid fructose, honey, molasses, anhydrous dextrose, and crystalline dextrose. May contain oligosaccharides. These do not include naturally occurring sugars such as lactose in milk or fructose in fruits. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines added sugars as sugars or other ingredients added during processing or packaging that functionally substitute for sugars, such as fruit juice concentrates, jams, and jellies, including ingredients that may functionally increase the sugars content of a food, such as enzymes (For regulatory language see 21 CFR 101.60[c][2]).


A formula or series of calculations in which a food product’s nutrient content is incorporated to produce a value by which the overall value of the product’s contribution to the diet can be determined.

Body Mass Index (BMI)

An indirect measure of body fat calculated as the ratio of a person’s body weight in kilograms to the square of a person’s height in meters. In children and youth, assessment of BMI is based on growth charts for age and gender and is referred to as the BMI for Age.

Daily Reference Value (DRV)

A set of dietary references that applies to fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrate, protein, fiber, sodium, and potassium. They are part of the FDA Daily Value label reference.

Daily Value (DV)

Dietary reference values established by FDA and used in nutrition labeling that are based on recommended daily intake levels of nutrients needed for good health. DV comprises Reference Daily Intakes (RDIs) and DRVs.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA)

A federal summary of the latest dietary guidance for the American public based on current scientific evidence and medical knowledge. The Guidelines are issued jointly by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and revised every 5 years.

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)

A set of four distinct nutrient-based reference values established by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies that replaced the former Recommended Dietary Allowances in the United States. They include Estimated Average Requirements (EARs), Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), Adequate Intakes (AIs), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL).

Disclosure level

The levels of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, or sodium that, when exceeded, triggers the need for a disclosure statement when a nutrient content claim is used on labels of FDA-regulated food products. The disclosure statement (i.e., “See nutrition information for ___ content” with the blank filled in with the name of the nutrient exceeding the specified level) must be placed adjacent to the claim and is intended to alert consumers to levels of nutrients that may increase the risk of disease or health-related condition. Levels are specified in 21 CFR 101.13(h).

Disqualifying level

The levels of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, or sodium in a food above which the food will be disqualified from making a health claim. Levels are specified in 21 CFR 101.14(a)(4).

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