Energy intake

Calories ingested as food and beverages.

Fast food

Foods and meals designed for ready availability, use, or consumption and sold at eating establishments for quick availability or take-out.

Front-of-package (FOP) nutrition rating systems and symbols

Systems that use nutrient rating criteria and symbols to indicate that a product has certain nutritional characteristics. Symbols are often placed on the principal display panel of the product, but may also be found on the side, top, or back panels or on shelf tags.

Guideline Daily Amounts (GDAs)

GDAs are nutrient intake levels that most people are guided to consume daily for a healthy diet. They provide a voluntary benchmark against which the contribution from specific nutrients per portion of a food product can be assessed. The food and beverage and retail industries derive their GDA values from international, European Union (EU), and government guidelines. GDAs were first seen in the United Kingdom and are increasingly being used in the EU. The Confederation of the Food and Drink Industries of the EU (CIAA) proposed a harmonized industry approach to nutrition labeling across the EU, including the use of standardized GDA values.

Health claims

Claims that describe a relationship between a food, food substance, or dietary supplement ingredient and a reduction in the risk of developing a disease or health-related condition.

Health promotion

The process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health through networks and initiatives that create healthy environments. To reach a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, an individual or group must be able to identify and to realize aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living, and is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resoureces, as well as physical capacities.

Healthful diet

For children and adolescents, a healthful diet provides recommended amounts of nutrients and other food components within estimated energy requirements (EERs) to promote normal growth and development, a healthy weight trajectory, and energy balance. A healthful diet also reduces the long-term risk for obesity and related chronic diseases associated with aging, including type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

Healthier choices

A term used in this report that refers to meeting guidelines of qualifying criteria for saturated and trans fats, sodium, and added sugars.


Offering interpretations, explanations, or guidance.

Labeled serving size

Serving size as determined by the product manufacturer; based on the Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed (RACC) and regulations for determing serving size.

Main dishes

Weigh at least 6 ounces (oz) per labeled serving; contain not less than 40 g of food, or combinations of foods, from at least two of the following four food groups: bread, cereal, rice, and pasta group; fruits and vegetables group; milk, yogurt, and cheese group; and meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts group; and are represented as, or is in a form commonly understood to be, a main dish (e.g., not a beverage or a dessert). See full requirements in 21 CFR 101.13(m).


An organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit an organization and its stakeholders. Marketing encompasses a wide range of activities, including market research, analyzing the competition, positioning a new product, pricing products and services, and promoting them through advertising, consumer promotion, trade promotions, public relations, and sales.

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