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Appendix C Interventions to Develop the Component Literacy Skills of Low-Literate Adults 407

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408 IMPROVING ADULT LITERACY INSTRUCTION A. Study Populations and Sample Characteristics Investigator: Greenberg Levy MacArthur Mellard Project Title Testing Impact of Health Literacy in Building a Research on Reading Adult Literacy and Knowledge Base Instruction for Low- Integrated Family for Teaching Adult Improving Literate Adults Approach Programs Decoding Adults Study Population Adult literacy ABE ABE ABE program with 3rd- ASE ASE to-5th-grade reading ability Adult English literacy Sample Characteristics Size Descriptive n = 425 Intervention Descriptive n = 486 Descriptive n = 1,907 Intervention n = 198 Intervention n = 349 Interventio Assessment n = 98 Age Intervention M = 37 Descriptive M = 35 Descriptive (range 16-78 yrs) (SD = 14) (SD = 15.2 Intervention M = 37 Interventio (SD = 14) (SD = 13.7 (range 16-76 years) Gender Intervention = Intervention = Descriptive = Descriptive 67% female 75% female 67% female Interventio Intervention = 66% female Reading Level Intervention screened By NRS reading NRS low- Descriptive to be 3rd-to-5th- levels intermediate level comprehen grade level M = 72.3 ( • BE beginner A Nelson Reading n = 63 Comprehension Interventio • BE intermediate A (standard score for comprehen n = 284 6th grade spring) Bridging M • BE advanced A M = 36.2 (SD = n = 15 n = 75 16.4), 4.6 GLE • SE n = 80 A Fluency M • LL beginner E n = 12 n = 494 Prediction • LL intermediate E n = 31 n = 431 • LL advanced E Summariza n = 141 18.7), n = Native English Intervention = 56% Descriptive = 69% Descriptive speakers Intervention = 65%

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409 APPENDIX C Mellard Sabatini Wood se Relative Effectiveness Young Adult Literacy dult Improving Literacy Instruction for of Reading Programs Problems: Prevalence and Adults for Adults Treatment ABE ABE with below 7th Descriptive 10th grade public grade reading ability high school with English as ASE and sufficient English first language language ability Intervention: Adults with developmental dyslexia = 486 Descriptive n = 319 Descriptive n = 579 Descriptive n = 188 = 349 Intervention n = 205 Intervention n = 148 Intervention n = 19 = 35 Descriptive M = 32 yrs Descriptive M = 36 Descriptive M =15 yrs (SD = 15.2); Mdn = 24 yrs (range 17-76 yrs) Intervention M = 44 yrs = 37 Intervention M = 28 years (SD = 13.7); Mdn = 22 yrs ears) Descriptive = 60% female Descriptive = Descriptive = 44% female 67% female Intervention = 63% female Intervention = 26% female Descriptive: WRMT-R Passage Screened for below Descriptive: = 50% “poor evel comprehension standard score 7th grade level readers”; 50% “typical M = 72.3 (SD 22.8) readers” g n Intervention: WRMT-R Passage Intervention Standard scores e for comprehension (standard scores) WRAT read words ng) Bridging M = 60.3 (SD = 22.3), M = 85.6 = n = 15 WAIS full IQ Fluency M = 89.0 (SD = 14.3), n = 12 M = 101.9 Prediction M = 79.4 (SD = 16.2), n = 31 Summarization M = 77.1 (SD = 18.7), n = 42 69% Descriptive = 82% 65%

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410 IMPROVING ADULT LITERACY INSTRUCTION B. Intervention Practices, Intensity, Duration, and Attrition Rates Intervention Descriptors Greenberg Levy MacArthur Mellard Practices 4 instructional Directed health Enriched decoding 4 learning interventions literacy curriculum and spelling interventio curriculum 1. Decoding and 1. Bridgin fluency 2. Fluency 2. Decoding, reading comprehension, 3. Predict and fluency (compr 3. Extensive reading 4. Summa 4. Decoding, (compr comprehension, extensive reading, and fluency Intensity and Planned: 2 hrs/day × 42 hrs of classroom Duration Whole-gro Duration 4 days/wk for up to instruction over approximately 8 mos instruction 100 hrs over 12-16 wks Hrs of reading • Bridgin Minimum for instruction M = 57 • Fluency analyses: 60 hrs, with • Predict at least 20 hrs after • Summa course midpoint Attrition 50% 38% • Bridgin • Fluency • Predict • Summa

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411 APPENDIX C Mellard Sabatini Wood ding 4 learning strategies 3 instructional interventions Structured multisensory interventions adapted for adults phonological instruction from Lindamood-Bell Learning 1. Bridging (word reading) 1. Corrective reading Corporation 2. Fluency (repeated 2. RAVE O readings) 3. Guided repeated 3. Prediction readings (comprehension) 4. Summarization (comprehension) Whole-group classroom Supplemental one-to-one Tutored 112 hrs over 8 wks 8 mos instruction tutoring • Bridging–19 hrs 1-hr session × 3 days per = 57 • Fluency–13 hrs wk for 15 wks • Prediction–30 hrs 45 contact hrs • Summarization–18 hrs Completers’ 12-15 hrs of instruction over 3-5 wks • Bridging–48% 50% 0% • Fluency–3% • Prediction–60% • Summarization–42%

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412 IMPROVING ADULT LITERACY INSTRUCTION C. Study Instruments by Measurement Construct by Study (Measures marked with * showed significant pre-post gain compared with a control group. Measures marked with ** showed differences from “business as usual control.”) Measurement Construct Greenberg Levy MacArthur Mellard Phonological CTOPP Elision — — CTOPP El Processing CTOPP blending CTOPP ble CTOPP rapid letter CTOPP ra naming CTOPP ra CTOPP ra Decoding and TOWRE phonemic TOWRE phonemic TOWRE phonemic TOWRE p Word Recognition decoding efficiency decoding efficiency decoding efficiency* decoding e TOWRE sight word TOWRE sight word WJ-R word attack TOWRE s efficiency efficiency efficiency WJ-R letter-word WJ-III letter-word Adams & Huggins identification WRMT-R identification irregular word WJ-R letter-sound WRMT-R reading task WJ-III word attack** survey identificati WRAT3 word reading Vocabulary Boston Naming Test* Boston Naming Test Nelson word WAIS-III v meaning PPVT PPVT Fluency WJ-III reading WJ-III fluency Researcher-designed TOSWRF fluency* oral passage reading Reading flu GORT-4 fluency TOWRE sight word from QRI efficiency GORT-4 fl Comprehension WJ-III passage TABE-R** Nelson reading CASAS rea comprehension comprehension BEST literacy** WRMT-R GORT-4 comprehen CELSA** comprehension GORT-4 c

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413 APPENDIX C res control ess as Mellard Sabatini Wood CTOPP Elision CTOPP Elision Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test CTOPP blending CTOPP blending Test of Auditory Analysis CTOPP rapid color naming CTOPP rapid letter naming Skill** CTOPP rapid letter naming CTOPP rapid digit naming CTOPP rapid digit naming CTOPP memory for digits CTOPP nonword repetition WJ-III spelling of sounds emic TOWRE phonemic TOWRE phonemic DST nonwords iency* decoding efficiency decoding efficiency* DST real words tack TOWRE sight word TOWRE sight word DST Phonemic Transfer efficiency efficiency* ord Index** WRMT-R word attack WJ-III letter-word WJ-R word attack** identification* und WRMT-R word WJ-R letter-word identification WJ-III word attack* identification NAAL BRS oral word Visual Symbol Imagery** reading, pseudo-word reading WAIS-III vocabulary Boston Naming Test Boston Naming Test PPVT WJ-III picture vocabulary signed TOSWRF WJ-III reading fluency* RAN digits, letters eading Reading fluency passages NAAL BRS oral passage word from QRI reading GORT-4 fluency g CASAS reading WJ-III passage WJ-R passage comprehension n comprehension* WRMT-R passage Gates-MacGinite reading comprehension WJ-III oral comprehension comprehension GORT-4 comprehension WRAT3 reading achievement GORT-3 continued

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414 IMPROVING ADULT LITERACY INSTRUCTION Measurement Construct Greenberg Levy MacArthur Mellard Other Cognitive PIAT-R spelling Orally administered, WRAT3 spelling test WAIS-III b Ability or Skills subtest research-designed/ Researcher-designed WAIS-III in validated evaluation TOLD I spelling test instrument—health CELF Word ordering literacy knowledge, Self-efficacy scales WJ-III stor subtest self-efficacy, and intention* WJ-III aud memory NOTES: ABE/ASE = Adult basic education and adult secondary education BEST Literacy = Basic English Skills Test (Center for Applied Linguistics, 1987 for Levy) BEST Plus = Basic English Skills Test (Center for Applied Linguistics) BNT = Boston Naming Test (Kaplan, Goodglass, and Weintraub, 1983, 2001) CASAS = Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS, 2001) CELF = Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (Semel, Wiig, and Secord, 1987) CELSA = Combined English Language Skills Assessment (Thompson, 1994) CTOPP = Comprehensive Test of Phonemic Processing (Wagner, Torgesen, and Rashotte, 1999) DST = Decoding Skills Test (Richardson and DiBenedetto, 1985) fMRI = Functional MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) GORT = Gray Oral Reading Tests-3 and 4 (Wiederholt and Bryant, 1994, 2001) K-SADS-E = Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizoprenia for School-age Children— Epidemiologic Version, 5th ed. (Orvaschel and Puig-Antich, 1994) LAC = Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization Test (Lindamood and Lindamood, 1971) LSS = Letter Sound Survey (Venezky, 2003) NAAL = National Assessment of Adult Literacy (Basic Reading Skills and Passage Reading) (Baer, Kutner, and Sabatini, 2009) Nelson Reading Test (Hanna, Schell, and Schreiner, 1977) NRS = National Reporting System for Adult Education PIAT-R = Peabody Individual Achievement Test-Revised, spelling subtest (Frederick and Markwardt, 1997)

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415 APPENDIX C Mellard Sabatini Wood ng test WAIS-III block design WJ-III story recall K-SADS-E (psychiatric disorders and suicidal signed WAIS-III information WJ-III understanding behaviors) directions CELF Dropout–first time left school ales BEST Plus WJ-III story recall for any reason WJ-III auditory working WASI** memory fMRI PPVT = Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–III (Dunn and Dunn, 1997, 1998) Levy) QRI = Qualitative Reading Inventory-3 (Leslie and Caldwell, 2000) RAN = Rapid Automatized Naming (Denckla and Rudel, 1976) RAVE O = Retrieval Rate, Automaticity, Vocabulary Elaboration, Engagement with Language, and Orthography (Wolf, Miller, and Donnelly, 2000) 987) TAAS = Test of Auditory Analysis Skill (Rosner and Simon, 1971; Rosner, 1979) TABE-R = Test of Adult Basic Education-Revised (CTB/McGraw-Hill, 1996) Rashotte, TOLD I:3 = Test of Language Development, Intermediate, 3rd Edition (Hammil and Newcomer, 1997) TOSWRF = Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency (Mather et al., 2004) TOWRE = Test of Word Reading Efficiency (Torgesen, Wagner, and Rashotte, 1999) VSI = Visual Symbol Imagery (Bell, 1997) hildren— WAIS-III = Wechsler Adult Intelligences Scale III (Wechsler, 1997) WASI = Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999) 1971) WJ-III = Woodcock-Johnson III, Tests of Achievement (Woodcock, McGrew, and Mather, 2001) Reading) WJ-R = Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-educational Battery, Tests of Achievement, Revised (Woodcock and Johnson, 1989, 1990) WRAT3 = Wide Range Achievement Test-Revision 3 (Wilkinson, 1993) WRMT-R = Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised (Woodcock, 1998) and

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416 IMPROVING ADULT LITERACY INSTRUCTION REFERENCES Alamprese, J., MacArthur, C., Price, C., and Knight, D. (2011). Effects of a structured decod- ing curriculum on adult literacy learners’ reading development. Journal of Research on Education Effectiveness, 4(2), 154-172. Eden, G.F., Jones, K.M., Cappell, K., Gareau, L., Wood, F.B., Zeffrio, T.A., Dietz, N.A.E., Agnew, J.A., and Flowers, D.L. (2004). Neural changes following remediation of adult developmental dyslexia. Neuron, 44, 411-422. Greenberg, D., Wise, J., Morris, R., Fredrick, L., Rodrigo, V., Nanda, A., and Pae, H. (2011). A randomized-control study of instructional approaches for struggling adult readers. Journal of Research on Education Effectiveness, 42(2), 101-117. Hock, M., and Mellard, D. (2011). Efficacy of learning strategies instruction in adult educa- tion. Journal of Research on Education Effectiveness, 4(2), 134-153. Levy, S., Rasher, S., Carter, S., Harris, L., Berbaum, M., Mandernach, J., Bercovitz, L., and Martin, L. (2008). Health literacy curriculum works for adult basic education students. Focus on Basics, 9(B), 33-39. Sabatini, J., Shore, J., Holtzman, and Scarborough, H. (2011). Relative effectiveness of reading intervention programs for adults with low literacy. Journal of Research on Education Effectiveness, 4(2), 118-133.