part of building research capacity may expand these opportunities. Although research integrity traditionally has been considered as a set of ethical guidelines of concern to developed countries, the globalization of science and the resulting concerns about dual use now transcend national borders.

In addition to growing interest in research integrity, the lessons from research on adult learning methods (more below) may be able to contribute both a lens and focus for developing strategies to address dual use issues. The potential audiences include a broad array of current and future scientists and the policymakers who develop laws and regulations around issues of dual use. As with research integrity, improving the quality of science teaching can be considered part of broader efforts to build the capacity to conduct research according to world-class standards.

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION ON DUAL USE:
ROLES OF THE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

The core international agreement devoted to ensuring peaceful applications of biological research is the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC).2 The BWC is both a legal instrument and the embodiment of the global norm against the use of infectious and toxic agents as a weapon. BWC member states increasingly have recognized the importance of education and engagement as part of a mix of policies designed to create a “web of prevention” (Rappert and McLeish 2007). Over the past decade, this has led to a growing relationship between the BWC and a number of national and international scientific organizations through annual meetings of experts that address topics directly relevant to the conduct of science and policy issues where scientific expertise is essential. In 2008, for example, the focus was “Oversight, education, awareness raising, and adoption and/or development of codes of conduct.”3 At that meeting the U.S. Government announced that the U.S. Department of State would sponsor a workshop, to be organized by the National Research Council (NRC) of the U.S. National Academies in cooperation with a group of international scientific organizations, to: (1) survey existing courses and resources; (2) identify gaps and needs; and (3) suggest potential remedies. The NRC appointed an international Committee to oversee the workshop and prepare a report on these issues.

The workshop Promoting Education about Dual Use Issues in the Life Sciences was hosted by the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, Poland in November 2009 (NRC 2010). The full list of findings and recommendations of this report may be found in Appendix A; one key finding, however, was the lack of faculty able to teach on

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2 The text of the treaty may be found at http://unhq-appspub-01.un.org/UNODA/TreatyStatus.nsf/44e6eeabc9436b78852568770078d9c0/ffa7842e7fd1d0078525688f0070b82d?OpenDocument.

3 For further information see http://www.unog.ch/80256EE600585943/(httpPages)/8C24E93C19BDC8C4C12574F60031809F?OpenDocument.



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