(meta-analysis) may or may not be used to analyze and summarize the results of the included studies.
Systems approach A paradigm or perspective involving a focus on the whole picture and not just a single element, awareness of the wider context, an appreciation for interactions among different components, and transdisciplinary thinking.
Systems thinking An iterative learning process in which one takes a broad, holistic, long-term perspective on the world and examines the linkages and interactions among its elements.
Tween A child in the middle of childhood and adolescence (between the ages of 9 and 13).
Unhealthy Although there is no consensus on the definition of “unhealthy” foods/beverages, the term as used in this report refers to foods and beverages that are calorie-dense and low in naturally occurring nutrients. Such foods and beverages contribute little fiber and few essential nutrients and phytochemicals, but contain added fats, sweeteners, sodium, and other ingredients. Unhealthy foods and beverages displace the consumption of foods recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and may lead to the development of obesity.
Vigorous-intensity physical activity On an absolute scale, vigorous-intensity physical activity is completed at 6.0 or more times the intensity of rest. On a scale relative to an individual’s personal capacity, vigorous-intensity physical activity is usually a 7 or 8 on a scale of 0 to 10.

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