APPLICATION OF LIGHTWEIGHTING TECHNOLOGY
TO MILITARY AIRCRAFT, VESSELS, AND VEHICLES

Committee on Benchmarking the Technology and Application of Lightweighting

National Materials and Manufacturing Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

                                OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

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Committee on Benchmarking the Technology and Application of Lightweighting National Materials and Manufacturing Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This is a report of work supported by Contract No. W911NF-08-D-0005, DO# 2, between the Department of Defense and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-22166-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-22166-8 Limited copies are available from Additional copies are available from Division on Engineering and Physical The National Academies Press Sciences 500 Fifth Street, NW National Research Council Keck 360 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 Washington, DC 20001 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 202-334-3111 http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2012 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, shar- ing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and rec - ognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad com - munity of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the gov - ernment, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON BENCHMARKING THE TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION OF LIGHTWEIGHTING L. CATHERINE BRINSON, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, Chair JOHN ALLISON, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor JULIE CHEN, University of Massachusetts, Lowell DAVID R. CLARKE, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts BRADFORD COWLES, Pratt & Whitney (retired), Tolland, Connecticut GEORGE T. (“RUSTY”) GRAY III, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico ERIC GREENE, Eric Greene Associates, Annapolis, Maryland WESLEY L. HARRIS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MANISH MEHTA, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, Michigan GREGORY B. OLSON, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois CHARLES SAFF, The Boeing Company, St. Louis, Missouri DARREL R. TENNEY, NASA Langley Research Center (retired), Hampton, Virginia FRANCIS W. ZOK, University of California, Santa Barbara Staff MADELINE WOODRUFF, Study Director DENNIS CHAMOT, Acting Director, National Materials and Manufacturing Board RICKY D. WASHINGTON, Administrative Coordinator LAURA TOTH, Senior Program Assistant HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate v

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NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD ROBERT H. LATIFF, R. Latiff Associates, Alexandria, Virginia, Chair DENISE F. SWINK, Independent Consultant, Germantown, Maryland, Vice Chair PETER R. BRIDENBAUGH, NAE, ALCOA (retired), Boca Raton, Florida VALERIE M. BROWNING, ValTech Solutions, LLC, Port Tobacco, Maryland YET-MING CHIANG, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge PAUL CITRON, NAE, Medtronic, Inc. (retired), Minnetonka, Minnesota GEORGE T. (RUSTY) GRAY II, Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico CAROL A. HANDWERKER, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana THOMAS S. HARTWICK, Independent Consultant, Snohomish, Washington SUNDARESAN JAYARAMAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta DAVID W. JOHNSON, JR., NAE, Stevens Institute of Technology, Bedminster, New Jersey THOMAS KING, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee MICHAEL F. McGRATH, Analytic Services, Inc., Arlington, Virginia NABIL NASR, Golisano Institute for Sustainability, Rochester, New York PAUL S. PEERCY, NAE, University of Wisconsin-Madison ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative, Herndon, Virginia VINCENT J. RUSSO, Aerospace Technologies Associates, LLC, Dayton, Ohio ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, GE Aviation, Cincinnati, Ohio KENNETH H. SANDHAGE, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta HAYDN WADLEY, University of Virginia, Charlottesville STEVEN WAX, Independent Consultant, Reston, Virginia Staff DENNIS CHAMOT, Acting Director ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer RICKY D. WASHINGTON, Executive Assistant HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate LAURA TOTH, Program Assistant vi

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Preface Lightweighting is a concept well known to structural designers and engineers in applications from laptops to bicycles to automobiles to buildings and airplanes. Reducing the weight of structures can provide many advantages, including increased energy efficiency, better design, improved usability, and better coupling with new, multifunc - tional features. At the same time, the methods needed to achieve implementation of lightweighting are not well understood. And although lightweighting is a challenge in commercial structures, the special demands of military vehicles significantly stress the already complex process. It is in this context that the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), through Reliance 21, 1 requested that the National Research Council (NRC) conduct a study, under the auspices of the National Materials and Manufacturing Board, to assess the current state of lightweighting implementation in air, sea, and land vehicles and recommend ways to improve the use of lightweight materials and lightweighting solutions. Appointed by the NRC, the Com - mittee on Benchmarking the Technology and Application of Lightweighting comprised members chosen for their expertise in materials (including ceramics, polymers, metals, and composites); use of materials in air, sea, and land transport vehicles; systems engineering; and technology assessment, economics, and transfer. Short biographies of the committee members are provided in Appendix A. The committee’s statement of task is given in Chapter 1, along with the committee’s interpretation of its task and a description of how it carried out its work. The committee’s work was aided greatly by a number of people, including the DoD’s Reliance 21 Materi - als and Processing Team and the experts who took the time to speak to the committee: Bruno Barthelemy, Gene Camponeschi, Julie Christodoulou, John Deloach, Lisa Prokurat Franks, John Gill, Roger Halle, Robert Hathaway, Charles Kuehmann, James Malas, Suveen Mathaudhu, Mark Middione, Jim Ogonowski, Robert Rapson, and Robert Sielski. Appendix B lists the presentations made to the committee. My personal thanks go to the entire complement of committee members for their outstanding expertise, lim - itless enthusiasm, and dedicated efforts in discussing the vast amount of information on lightweighting that we received and in writing the report. I am particularly grateful to Frank Zok and Brad Cowles for their exceptional dedication and vision at key points in the process. They served as unofficial committee co-chairs, providing leader- ship to see the report through to the final version. We are all grateful to Madeline Woodruff, a senior program officer in the NRC’s Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, who served tirelessly as study director and assisted 1 Reliance 21 is a management process developed by the Director of Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) that involves the science and technology (S&T) executives of all the military components under the aegis of the DDR&E. All the DoD and military service S&T organizations prepare biennial S&T strategic plans that are informed by and harmonized with an overarching DoD S&T strategic plan. vii

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viii PREFACE the committee in the preparation of its report under the direction of Dennis Chamot, acting director, National Mate - rials and Manufacturing Board. The study benefited greatly from the work and advice of Janice Mehler, associate executive director, Report Review Committee. Special appreciation is expressed to Daniel Talmage, who helped with the preparation of the report during the final stage of the project, and to Laura Toth and Ricky D. Washington for assistance with meeting arrangements and communications with the committee. L. Catherine Brinson, Chair Committee on Benchmarking the Technology and Application of Lightweighting

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. Thanks go to the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: William F. Baker (NAE), Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Jay Baron, Center for Automotive Research, Charles N. Calvano, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, W. Peter Cherry (NAE), Independent Consultant, Donald U. Gubser, Naval Research Laboratory, Elizabeth A. Holm, Sandia National Laboratories, Paul J. Kern (NAE), The Cohen Group, Richard R. Paul, Independent Consultant, Richard L. Rumpf, Rumpf Associates International, Inc., Mark Schaeffer, Mantech SRS, Robert E. Schafrik, GE Aircraft Engines, Haydn Wadley, University of Virginia, and Ben Wang, Florida State University. Although these reviewers provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the committee’s findings or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review was overseen by R. Steven Berry, University of Chicago. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and institution. ix

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION 7 1.1 Lightweighting: Background, 7 1.2 Study Charge and Scope, 9 1.3 Committee’s Approach and Report Outline, 10 1.4 Defining Lightweighting, 12 1.5 Key Topics in Lightweighting, 14 1.6 Challenges and Opportunities: Findings of Recent Studies, 19 1.7 Concluding Remarks, 28 2 LIGHTWEIGHTING AIRBORNE VEHICLES 29 2.1 Current State of Lightweighting Implementation and Metrics, 29 2.2 Barriers and Keys to Success, 33 2.3 Lightweighting Opportunities for Aircraft, 38 2.4 Long-Term Challenges in Lightweighting Aircraft, 46 2.5 Examples of Lightweighting in Airborne Vehicles, 49 2.6 Conclusions, 60 3 LIGHTWEIGHTING MARITIME VEHICLES 61 3.1 Current State of Lightweighting Implementation and Metrics, 61 3.2 Barriers and Keys to Success for Use of Selected Materials, 65 3.3 Lightweighting Opportunities for Maritime Vehicles, 69 3.4 Long-Term Concerns in Lightweighting Maritime Vehicles, 72 3.5 Examples of Lightweighting in Maritime Vehicles, 74 3.6 Conclusions, 83 xi

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xii CONTENTS 4 LIGHTWEIGHTING LAND-BASED VEHICLES 85 4.1 Current State of Lightweighting Implementation and Metrics, 85 4.2 Barriers and Keys to Success, 88 4.3 Lightweighting Opportunities for Land-Based Vehicles, 91 4.4 Long-Term Concerns in Lightweighting Land-Based Vehicles, 93 4.5 Examples of Lightweighting in Land-Based Vehicles, 94 4.6 Conclusions, 102 5 CROSS-CUTTING ISSUES AND CHALLENGES 103 5.1 Different Priorities, Similar Challenges, 103 5.2 Systems Engineering Design, 106 5.3 Insertion of Lightweighting Materials and Technologies, 109 5.4 Transition of Lightweighting Technologies into Fielded Systems, 120 5.5 Manufacturing and Maintenance Technologies That Facilitate Lightweighting, 122 5.6 Availability of Lightweighting Materials, 123 5.7 Conclusion, 127 6 FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 128 6.1 Defining Lightweighting, 128 6.2 Digital Design Tools for Systems Engineering, 129 6.3 Transition of Lightweighting Technology via Advanced Technology Demonstration Programs, 133 6.4 A DoD-Wide Initiative on Affordable Manufacturing Technology to Facilitate Lightweighting, 134 6.5 A Strategic Vision for Materials Critical to Lightweighting, 134 6.6 Conclusion, 136 APPENDIXES A Committee Biographies 139 B Presentations to the Committee 144 C Acronyms and Abbreviations 146