is, in many situations, a clear and useful concept, recounting remarkable historical cases of the effective use of international scientific cooperation in building positive governmental relationships and dealing with sensitive and urgent problems.

Discussions on science policy and science diplomacy over the two days of the workshop showed a considerable overlap:

Changing Research Environment

Many of the initial speakers at the workshop noted major changes in the way science and technology, including the large fraction of technology development and transfer done in the private sector, now proceed on a “global platform” rather than national platforms. An increasing number of technical advances, trained researchers and innovators, and research opportunities are found in other countries. U.S. research and education policies and practices, established many years ago, no longer reflect current realities and opportunities.

Preparing U.S. Researchers for International Science

There is an increasing role for science policy in dealing with science issues that are global by nature, such as climate change, biodiversity, food security, and energy. To respond to those challenges, many speakers and discussants noted, U.S. systems need to provide opportunities and incentives for U.S. researchers to be prepared to operate effectively in the international arena. This may include encouraging researchers to develop language and intercultural skills in preparation for and through international exchanges. It may also require sustained engagement to build personal and institutional relationships globally.

To encourage such engagement, some participants said that funding agencies should have flexible mechanisms that allow joint support for international projects, along with other innovations to reflect changing research opportunities. It is especially important to encourage sustained linkages between individual laboratories and with industry, both nationally and internationally.

Engaging Early Career Researchers

Workshop participants repeatedly recognized the importance of international research cooperation among early career scientists and engineers. Many noted that relationships built through such collaboration can last for decades to come and benefit scientific and technological progress.

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