Click for next page ( 174


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 173

OCR for page 173

OCR for page 173
Services, Storage, and Logistics 175 13 12 11 10 Number of loading bays 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 11 0 12 0 00 14 0 15 0 16 0 17 0 18 0 19 0 20 0 21 0 22 0 00 24 0 25 0 00 27 0 28 0 00 30 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 ,0 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 5, 6, 8, 9, 13 23 26 29 Enplaned passengers (millions) Source: LeighFisher. Figure 11-1. Loading dock requirements as a function of enplaned passengers. • A minimum of 4 feet of overhanging canopy to protect users and goods being unloaded from the elements. In cold climates, dock seals should be used at each loading bay. Alternatively, consideration could be given to enclosing the entire loading bay. • A dock manager’s room or booth in a location from which the entire dock area is in view and the entrance and exit from the building can be controlled. Security cameras may serve as a backup. • Loading docks located so that vehicles will not be driven into or parked under the building to protect the building from an explosion. If this is not possible, the service area should be hard- ened for blast. TSA security representatives should be consulted on the security requirements for concession deliveries and loading docks. • Docks separated by at least 50 feet in all directions from utility rooms, utility mains, and service entrances, including electrical, telephone/data, fire detection/alarm systems, fire suppression water mains, cooling and heating mains, fuel storage areas, and the like. • A means to reduce outside debris from filtering into the building. Maintaining a negative air pressure on the docks and positive air pressure in the terminal building will help reduce infil- tration of dust, dirt, and odors and enhance indoor environmental quality. • In colder climates, radiant heating systems in the loading dock area to maintain a reasonable temperature range in the work area while conserving energy. 11.1.3 Loading Area Storage In the loading area, short-term pre-security storage (in the event that screening becomes backed up) may be required, as well as short-term storage for screened goods. The availability of storage rooms is often driven by space availability. Less storage availability means more frequent deliveries to concessions, thereby increasing costs. 11.2 Security Screening of Goods Retail goods may be subject to x-ray screening before they are accepted for storage. The equip- ment used must be of a type approved by the TSA and must be installed in accordance with the applicable regulations, including the provision of adequate space. To this end, the truck bays may

OCR for page 173

OCR for page 173

OCR for page 173

OCR for page 173
Services, Storage, and Logistics 179 At large hub airports, particularly those with older terminals, a combination of the lack of con- cession storage space in the terminals and high volumes of food and retail goods being consumed means that individual deliveries to concessionaires become a logistical problem, particularly at the loading docks. Delays can mean that concessionaire staff are spending hours per day at the loading docks waiting for deliveries or managing frequent deliveries. On the whole, concessionaires often do not like centralized logistics providers because of increased direct costs. Savings in terms of concessionaire employee time, for example, may off- set these direct costs, but they are less tangible and more difficult to quantify. 11.5.3 Centralized Logistics Case Studies To provide an overview of some of the scale and effect of centralized logistics, three brief case studies are provided below: Minneapolis-St. Paul International, Reagan Washington National, and Washington Dulles International Airports. Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport The operator of Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport introduced centralized logistics at the time of a major concession expansion within an existing terminal complex. At that time, tenant vehicles and delivery trucks were competing for limited dock space, and concession deliv- eries were commingling with passengers in congested corridors. The airport operator was also interested in ensuring the security of deliveries. A logistics provider was retained to do the following: • Create a centralized command and control area by bringing all deliveries through a single entry point within a very scheduled and managed environment. • Relieve congestion within the terminals by consolidating deliveries, which in turn reduced the number of delivery carts and personnel. • Enhance security through supply chain management. One reported result of the use of a cen- tralized logistics provider was the cancellation of 150 supplier identification badges. • Reduce vehicle traffic, including traffic related to airside deliveries. Over 200 weekly delivery trucks were reportedly replaced with five logistics provider trucks. • Enable expansion of the concession program without expanding storage and delivery systems in the terminal. Reagan Washington National Airport At Reagan Washington National Airport, deliveries for retail concessions are undertaken on a cross-dock basis by a logistics provider contracted by the concession program leasing manager. The logistics provider occupies a 5,000 square foot warehouse/distribution facility located on the airport grounds. This facility is divided among the retail tenants, and space is allocated based on the total square footage of each store. The retail tenants’ goods are received from the vendors, sorted, placed on the provider’s vehi- cles, and delivered to the retail concessionaires. There are no retail storage spaces in the terminal. The logistics firm does not handle food service deliveries, which are brought directly to the loading docks at the terminal building. The food service deliveries are screened at the loading dock and then handled directly by the concessionaires. Washington Dulles International Airport At Washington Dulles International Airport, food service concession deliveries are han- dled by a logistics provider under contract to the concession leasing manager. The service pro- vided is a cross-dock service using a 7,500-square foot commissary on the airport grounds. Goods

OCR for page 173

OCR for page 173
Services, Storage, and Logistics 181 passenger-related waste streams (airlines, airport tenants, and the airport operator) are illustrated on Figure 11-2 and described in more detail below. 11.6.2 Airline Waste Airline waste includes waste from passenger aircraft, ticketing counters, and gate areas. This waste typically includes food and drink containers, uneaten food, newspapers, magazines, com- puter printouts, and other paper generated at ticketing counters. The characteristics and quanti- ties of waste generated on an aircraft vary by length of flight and by airline. Low-cost carriers, such as Southwest Airlines, do not use flight-catering services because they do not offer in-flight meals. Because these airlines do not generate in-flight waste associated with meal service, most of their waste comes from beverage containers and small snack wrappers served by the airline and waste related to items brought onboard by passengers, including food, newspapers, and magazines. His- torically, in-flight meals were provided by the larger legacy carriers. However, financial pressures on the airline industry have prompted cost-saving measures among many legacy carriers, includ- ing the elimination of free meal service on most domestic flights (at least in coach). Eliminating food service means that the waste generated on domestic legacy carrier flights resembles the waste generated on low-cost carrier flights. Legacy carriers operating international flights, on the other hand, have more extensive in-flight services and consequently greater volumes of waste. 11.6.3 Retail and Food and Beverage Waste Retail and food and beverage waste includes cardboard boxes, paper and plastic packaging, food scraps, and food wrappers disposed of in shops, restaurant kitchens, and airport dining areas. Waste material also includes aluminum, plastic, and glass containers. Source: Atkin, Hershkowitz, and Hoover 2006. Figure 11-2. Components of an airport waste management system.

OCR for page 173

OCR for page 173

OCR for page 173

OCR for page 173

OCR for page 173

OCR for page 173